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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1801 matches for " Sandro Eridani "
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Types of Human Stem Cells and Their Therapeutic Applications  [PDF]
Sandro Eridani
Stem Cell Discovery (SCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/scd.2014.42003
Abstract:

The present review examines in the first place various kinds of naturally occurring stem cells, including germ cells and embryonic stem cells (ES cells), as well as haemopoietic stem cells, which are historically the first to be used for medical treatment. Attention is also given to cancer stem cells, as a source of perseverant malignant disease. The main interest is now represented by the variety of somatic cells, which can be re-programmed to different types of differentiated cells, the so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC’s). Focus is now directed not only to the factors which make such events possible like de-differentiation and reconversion but also to the stages involved in this process. It is actually postulated that the transition from differentiated cells to pluripotent cells follows a definite sequence with evidence of two waves of gene regulations. Main applications of stem cell therapy are reviewed, from the established use of haemopoietic stem cells for clinical transplantation in a variety of haematological disorders to the initial attempts to employ stem cells for the treatment of other disparate conditions. Problems related to stem cell treatment with both ES and IPS cells, like the necessity of a large in vitro expansion to provide sufficient amounts of cells and the related risk of genomic abnormalities are illustrated. The necessity of safe procedures for the development of this venture is also outlined.

Sickle cell protection from malaria: a review
Sandro Eridani
Hematology Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/hr.2011.e24
Abstract: A linkage between presence of Sickle Haemoglobin (HbS) and protection from malaria infection and clinical manifestations in certain areas was suspected from early observations and progressively elucidated by more recent studies. Research has confirmed the abovementioned connection, but also clarified how such protection may be abolished by coexistence of sickle cell trait (HbS trait) and alpha thalassemia, which may explain the relatively low incidence of HbS trait in the Mediterranean. The mechanisms of such protective effect are now being investigated: factors of genetic, molecular and immunological nature are prominent. As for genetic factors attention is given to the role of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane complement regulatory proteins as polymorphisms of these components seem to be associated with resistance to severe malaria; genetic ligands like the Duffy group blood antigen, necessary for erythrocytic invasion, and human protein CD36, a major receptor for P. falciparum-infected RBC‘s, are also under scrutiny: attention is focused also on plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigens, which bind to RBC surface components. Genome-wide linkage and association studies are now carried out too, in order to identify genes associated with malaria resistance. Only a minor role is attributed to intravascular sickling, phagocytosis and haemolysis, while specific molecular mechanisms are the object of intensive research: among these a decisive role is played by a biochemical sequence, involving activation of haeme oxygenase (HMO-1), whose effect appears mediated by carbon monoxide (CO). A central role in protection from malaria is also played by immunological factors, which may stimulate antibody production to plasmodium antigens in the early years of life; the role of agents like pathogenic CD8 T-cells has been suggested while the effects of molecular actions on the immunity mechanism are presently investigated. It thus appears that protection from malaria can be explained by interaction of different factors: the elucidation of such mechanisms may prove valuable for the prevention and treatment strategy of a disease which still affects large parts of the world.
Fetal hemoglobin reactivation and cell engineering in the treatment of sickle cell anemia
Sandro Eridani, Andrea Mosca
Journal of Blood Medicine , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S14942
Abstract: al hemoglobin reactivation and cell engineering in the treatment of sickle cell anemia Review (4016) Total Article Views Authors: Sandro Eridani, Andrea Mosca Published Date February 2011 Volume 2011:2 Pages 23 - 30 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JBM.S14942 Sandro Eridani, Andrea Mosca Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, University of Milano, Italy Abstract: The natural history of severe hemoglobinopathies like sickle cell disease (SCD) is rather variable, depending on the circumstances, but the main influence on such variability is the level of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in the patient's red cells. It is well known that a significant HbF level is associated with a milder course of disease and fewer complications. Therefore, attempts have been made to reactivate using various means the HbF production, which is normally switched off perinatally. A pharmacological approach has been attempted since the 1980s, ranging from drugs like 5-azacytidine and its derivative, decitabine, to a series of compounds like hydroxyurea and a number of histone deacetylase inhibitors like butyrate, which seem to act as epigenetic modifiers. Many other disparate agents have been tried with mixed results, but hydroxyurea remains the most effective compound so far available. Combinations of different compounds have also been tried with some success. Established treatments like bone marrow or cord blood transplantation are so far the only real cure for a limited number of patients with severe hemoglobinopathies. Improved chemotherapy regimens of milder toxicity than those employed in the past have made it possible recently to obtain a stable, mixed donor-recipient chimerism, with reversal of the SCD phenotype. However, great effort is directed to cell engineering, searching for an effective gene vector by which a desired gene can be transferred into new classes of vectors for autologous hemopoietic stem cells. Recent studies are also aiming at targeted insertion of the therapeutic gene into hemopoietic cells, which can also be “induced” human stem cells, obtained from somatic dedifferentiated cells. Attention in this area must be paid to the possibility of undesired effects, like the emergence of potentially oncogenic cell populations. Finally, an update is presented on improved HbF determination methods, because common international standards are becoming mandatory.
On the boundedness of a generalized fractional integral on generalized Morrey spaces
Eridani
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2002, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.33.2002.335-340
Abstract: In this paper we extend Nakai's result on the boundedness of a generalized fractional integral operator from a generalized Morrey space to another generalized Morrey or Campanato space.
Morrey Spaces and Fractional Integral Operators
Eridani,Vakhtang Kokilashvili,Alexander Meskhi
Mathematics , 2008,
Abstract: The present paper is devoted to the boundedness of fractional integral operators in Morrey spaces defined on quasimetric measure spaces. In particular, Sobolev, trace and weighted inequalities with power weights for potential operators are established. In the case when measure satisfies the doubling condition the derived conditions are simultaneously necessary and sufficient for appropriate inequalities.
Nano-Bio-Technology and Sensing Chips: New Systems for Detection in Personalized Therapies and Cell Biology
Sandro Carrara
Sensors , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/s100100526
Abstract: Further advances in molecular medicine and cell biology also require new electrochemical systems to detect disease biomarkers and therapeutic compounds. Microelectronic technology offers powerful circuits and systems to develop innovative and miniaturized biochips for sensing at the molecular level. However, microelectronic biochips proposed in the literature often do not show the right specificity, sensitivity, and reliability required by biomedical applications. Nanotechnology offers new materials and solutions to improve the surface properties of sensing probes. The aim of the present paper is to review the most recent progress in Nano-Bio-Technology in the area of the development of new electrochemical systems for molecular detection in personalized therapy and cell culture monitoring.
Analisando a reconfigura??o da cadeia de produ??o de pneus no Brasil pela economia dos custos de transa??o
Cabral, Sandro;
Gest?o & Produ??o , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-530X2004000300010
Abstract: this paper discusses the reconfiguration of brazil's tire production chain resulting from the pioneer outsourcing and vertical disintegration of the tire cord treatment units, also known as dipping units. a case study of the contractual relationship between two large multinational corporations is used as a methodological strategy. analyses are made of the process of contractual adaptation and of the factors that may have contributed to delay the decision to restructure the tire production chain in brazil. the transaction cost economics approach was chosen as the theoretical framework, mainly due to its analytical capacity regarding the limits of action of firms or organizational networks. the empirical findings indicate the importance of specialized local suppliers as a critical factor in the restructuring of the supply chain through outsourcing strategies. the institutional environment, both formal and informal, is as relevant to the contractual process as it is to the decision-making involved in the definition of new organizational boundaries.
A tatuagem como gênero: uma vis?o discursiva
Braga, Sandro;
Linguagem em (Dis)curso , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1518-76322009000100007
Abstract: this article presents a reading perspective of the semiotic material which is constitutive of tattoos as a discursive genre. in order to do so, based on the bakhtinian theoretical framework on speech genres, an interface is established with the french discourse analysis trend
Energetic and spatial constraints of arterial networks
Rossitti, Sandro;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 1995, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X1995000200028
Abstract: the principle of minimum work (pmw) is a parametric optimization model for the growth and adaptation of arterial trees. a balance between energy dissipation due to frictional resistance of laminar flow (shear stress) and the minimum volume of the blood and vessel wall tissue is achieved when the vessel radii are adjusted to the cube root of the volumetric flow. the pmw is known to apply over several magnitudes of vessel calibers, and in many different organs, including the brain, in humans and in animals. animal studies suggest that blood flow in arteries is approximately proportional to the cube of the vessel radius, and that arteries alter their caliber in response to sustained changes of blood flow according to pmw. remodelling of the retinal arteriolar network to long-term changes in blood flow was observed in humans. remodelling of whole arterial networks occurs in the form of increase or diminishing of vessel calibers. shear stress induced endothelial mediation seems to be the regulating mechanism for the maintenance of this optimum blood flow/vessel diameter relation. arterial trees are also expected to be nearly space filing. the vascular system is constructed in such a way that, while blood vessels occupy only a small percentage of the body volume leaving the bulk to tissue, they also crisscross organs so tightly that every point in the tissue lies on the boundary between an artery and a vein. this review describes how the energetic optimum principle for least energy cost for blood flow is also compatible with the spatial constraints of arterial networks according to concepts derived from fractal geometry.
A via lateral modificada para a cirurgia da hérnia de disco torácica: nota técnica
Rossitti, Sandro;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 1994, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X1994000200013
Abstract: the thoracic spine may be approached by different ways: posterior, posterolateral, anterolateral and anteriorly, with associated removal of diverse osseous structures as facet joints, costal processes, pedicles and ribs, subsequently imposing the use of diverse fusion procedures in some cases. the extreme lateral approach to the thoracic disc space produces minimum disruption of the normal spinal musculoskeletal anatomy, avoids retraction of the spinal cord and preserves the intercostal neurovascular bundle and the segmental radicular arteries. the operation is carried out with the patient in the prone position, and the patient is rotated away from the surgeon as necessary when the deeper levels are accessed. radioscopy is used to identify the correct level after positioning of the patient a straight transversal paravertebral incision is recommended in single-level operations. alternatively an elliptical incision, concave medially and centered at the marked rib, is done and the skin flap is refleted medially. the muscles are partially divided at rigth angles over the rib to be excised and refleted cranial and caudally, exposing the rib and transverse process. the target disc is approached by removal of about 5 cm of the rib which has its insertion at the disc level, if necessary associated with partial removal of the transverse process, followed by partial pediculotomy (exclusively at the base of the pedicle) and a little lateral rachotomy (vertebral body ressection), which permits opening of the spinal canal exclusively ventral to the intervertebral foramen. in this way any kind of hemilaminectomy or facectomy is avoided. the discectomy is then carried out. this is a minimally invasive approach in comparison to the current ones. as the facet joint is preserved and the pedicle just partially removed, a fusion procedure is not necessary. this technique has potentially important consequences for long term spinal stability after multilevel operations. the initial resul
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