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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 501860 matches for " Sandra M. K. Iso "
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Cognitive Training for Schizophrenia in Developing Countries: A Pilot Trial in Brazil
Livia M. M. Pontes,Camila B. Martins,Isabel C. Napolitano,Juliana R. Fonseca,Gra?a M. R. Oliveira,Sandra M. K. Iso,Anny K. P. M. Menezes,Adriana D. B. Vizzotto,Elaine S. di Sarno,Hélio Elkis
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/321725
Abstract: Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia can massively impact functionality and quality of life, furthering the importance of cognitive training. Despite the development of the field in Europe and in the United States, no programmes have been developed and tested in developing countries. Different cultural backgrounds, budget restrictions, and other difficulties may render treatment packages created in high income countries difficult for adoption by developing nations. We performed a pilot double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in order to investigate the efficacy and feasibility of an attention and memory training programme specially created in a developing nation. The intervention used simple, widely available materials, required minimal infrastructure, and was conducted in groups. The sample included seventeen stable Brazilians with schizophrenia. Sessions were conducted weekly during five months. The cognitive training group showed significant improvements in inhibitory control and set-shifting over time. Both groups showed improvements in symptoms, processing speed, selective attention, executive function, and long-term visual memory. Improvements were found in the control group in long-term verbal memory and concentration. Our findings reinforce the idea that cognitive training in schizophrenia can be constructed using simple resources and infrastructure, facilitating its adoption by developing countries, and it may improve cognition. 1. Introduction Impaired cognitive functioning in schizophrenia was early recognized [1, 2] and described as one of the core symptoms [3]. Deficits may be present since the first manifestations of the disease or may appear before the onset of symptoms [4]. Up to 80% of all people with schizophrenia may present significant deficits [5]. Main deficits involve attention, memory, and executive functions, but other domains can also be affected, such as visuospatial ability, language, learning, and motor coordination [3, 6, 7]. Cognitive deficits have been related to impairment in functional abilities [8–10], compromising the ability to lead an independent life, to benefit from psychosocial treatments, to create and maintain social relationships, to find and keep a job, and to maintain academic development [6, 11–13]. Improvements in cognitive functions can increase benefits from other psychosocial rehabilitation programmes [14]; therefore, treatment of schizophrenia could also include cognitive training. A large number of outpatient consultations and re-hospitalization rates [15], difficulty in maintaining a job [6], and
Hands-On Parent Empowerment (HOPE) Project: Comparing Implementation in Social Service Centres and Preschools  [PDF]
Cynthia Leung, Sandra K M Tsang, Suzanne Dean
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.23025
Abstract: This project examined the effectiveness and implementation of an early intervention program for children from new immigrant families in Hong Kong in two delivery settings, preschools and social services centres. Participants included 141 new immigrant mothers with preschool children, from 13 preschools and two social services centres. The preschool participants were randomized into an intervention group (30-session HOPE program) and a comparison group (six-session program) at the preschool level, while participants from the two social services centres attended the 30-session HOPE program. Results indicated that the HOPE participants in preschools and social services centres reported lower post-intervention child behavior problem scores than the comparison group. Preschool HOPE participants reported higher post-intervention social support than the social services HOPE participants and comparison group participants. Qualitative information from preschool principals and centre supervisors indicated different dynamics within the two settings. Implications and suggestions for service delivery were discussed.
Efficacy and patient tolerability of travoprost BAK-free solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension
Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M Johnson
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S6292
Abstract: acy and patient tolerability of travoprost BAK-free solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension Review (3313) Total Article Views Authors: Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M Johnson Published Date July 2010 Volume 2010:4 Pages 877 - 888 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S6292 Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M Johnson Department of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA Abstract: The medical treatment of glaucoma has evolved significantly over the past several decades. The main driving forces behind this evolution are the safety profiles and efficacy of these medications. Prostaglandin (PG) analogs are shown to be superior to older drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Though there are much fewer side effects that manifest after using PG analogs, the adherence and compliance to medication regimens are surprisingly lower than expected. A commonly sited reason is the ocular irritation and inflammation with these medications. Much of this inflammation can be attributed to the preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The chronic clinical and subclinical inflammation becomes increasingly detrimental when filtration surgery fails from bleb fibrosis secondary to this hypercellularity. A BAK-free formulation of a PG analog recently became available. BAK-free travoprost is reviewed here. It has demonstrated equal efficacy and less ocular surface toxicity than its preserved counterparts. It is expected to serve as an instrumental resource in managing ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients who demonstrate significant sensitivity to BAK. More randomized, controlled, double-blind studies are encouraged to evaluate its improved safety and tolerability.
Efficacy and patient tolerability of travoprost BAK-free solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension
Sophia K Mirza,Sandra M Johnson
Clinical Ophthalmology , 2010,
Abstract: Sophia K Mirza, Sandra M JohnsonDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USAAbstract: The medical treatment of glaucoma has evolved significantly over the past several decades. The main driving forces behind this evolution are the safety profiles and efficacy of these medications. Prostaglandin (PG) analogs are shown to be superior to older drugs in both efficacy and tolerability. Though there are much fewer side effects that manifest after using PG analogs, the adherence and compliance to medication regimens are surprisingly lower than expected. A commonly sited reason is the ocular irritation and inflammation with these medications. Much of this inflammation can be attributed to the preservative, benzalkonium chloride (BAK). The chronic clinical and subclinical inflammation becomes increasingly detrimental when filtration surgery fails from bleb fibrosis secondary to this hypercellularity. A BAK-free formulation of a PG analog recently became available. BAK-free travoprost is reviewed here. It has demonstrated equal efficacy and less ocular surface toxicity than its preserved counterparts. It is expected to serve as an instrumental resource in managing ocular hypertension and glaucoma in patients who demonstrate significant sensitivity to BAK. More randomized, controlled, double-blind studies are encouraged to evaluate its improved safety and tolerability.Keywords: glaucoma, benzalkonium chloride, Travatan Z, sofZia
Influenza-Related Hospitalizations and Associated Comorbidities in Nebraska: 2007-2011  [PDF]
Guang-Ming Han, Sandra Gonzalez, Chrispin Chisanga, Cole Vanicek, K. M. Islam
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2014.42015
Abstract:

Objective: Influenza afflicts approximately 5% - 20% of the US population annually. Although prevalence statistics are useful, they are insufficient to understand completely influenza on a health care system. This study estimated Nebraska’s annual hospitalization and comorbidity rates due to influenza from 2007 to 2011. Methods: Influenza was defined according to ICD-9-CM primary codes beginning with 487 or 488 in hospital discharge records. The comorbidities of patients with influenza were defined according to ICD-9-CM secondary diagnosis codes. Results: The highest yearly age-adjusted hospitalization rates were 30.6 and 31.1 per 100,000 populations for 2008 and 2009, respectively. In 2008, the highest hospitalization rate was among those aged 65 yrs and older; in 2009, the highest rate was among those younger than 5 yrs. Asthma was the most frequent comorbidity overall and among those younger than 50 yrs. Conversely, hypertension and heart failure were the most frequent comorbidities among those aged 50 yrs and older. Conclusion: These findings provide a better understanding of the influenza burden and may contribute to developing more effective influenza prevention strategies.

On the Cancellation Mechanism of Radiation from the Unruh detector
S. Iso,K. Yamamoto,S. Zhang
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: A uniformly accelerated detector (Unruh detector) in the Minkowski vacuum is excited as if it is exposed to the thermal bath with temperature proportional to its acceleration. In the inertial frame, since both of an excitation and a deexcitation of the detector are accompanied by emission of radiation into the Minkowski vacuum, one may suspect that the Unruh detector emits radiation like the Larmor radiation from an accelerated charged particle. However, it is known that the radiation is miraculously cancelled by a quantum interference effect. In this paper, we investigate under what condition the radiation cancels out. We first show that the cancellation occurs if the Green function satisfies a relation similar to the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) condition. We then study two examples, Unruh detectors in the 3+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime and in the de Sitter spacetime. In both cases, the relation holds only in a restricted region of the spacetime, but the radiation is cancelled in the whole spacetime. Hence the KMS-like relation is necessary but not sufficient for the cancellation to occur.
GR-FET application for high-frequency detection device
Akram M Mahjoub, Alec Nicol, Takuto Abe, Takahiro Ouchi, Yuhei Iso, Michio Kida, Noboyuki Aoki, Katsuhiko Miyamoto, Takashige Omatsu, Jonathan P Bird, David K Ferry, Koji Ishibashi and Yuichi Ochiai
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-8-22
Abstract: A small forbidden gap matched to low-energy photons (meV) and a quasi-Dirac electron system are both definitive characteristics of bilayer graphene (GR) that has gained it considerable interest in realizing a broadly tunable sensor for application in the microwave region around gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regimes. In this work, a systematic study is presented which explores the GHz/THz detection limit of both bilayer and single-layer graphene field-effect transistor (GR-FET) devices. Several major improvements to the wiring setup, insulation architecture, graphite source, and bolometric heating of the GR-FET sensor were made in order to extend microwave photoresponse past previous reports of 40 GHz and to further improve THz detection.
Noncommutative Gauge Theory on Fuzzy Sphere from Matrix Model
S. Iso,Y. Kimura,K. Tanaka,K. Wakatsuki
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(01)00173-0
Abstract: We derive a noncommutative U(1) and U(n) gauge theory on the fuzzy sphere from a three dimensional matrix model by expanding the model around a classical solution of the fuzzy sphere. Chern-Simons term is added in the matrix model to make the fuzzy sphere as a classical solution of the model. Majorana mass term is also added to make it supersymmetric. We consider two large $N$ limits, one corresponding to a gauge theory on a commutative sphere and the other to that on a noncommutative plane. We also investigate stability of the fuzzy sphere by calculating one-loop effective action around classical solutions. In the final part of this paper, we consider another matrix model which gives a supersymmetric gauge theory on the fuzzy sphere. In this matrix model, only Chern-Simons term is added and supersymmetry transformation is modified.
Expert system for determination of fumonisins in corn samples
Abramovi? Biljana F.,Abramovi? Borislav K.,Jak?i? Sandra M.
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0508109a
Abstract: An expert system (ES) to solve the problem of choosing an optimal procedure for the determination of fumonisins in corn samples was developed, having in mind that these toxins most frequently contaminate this particular cereal. In constructing the ES use was made of the deterministic approach starting from the assumption that the experts in the field have a profound knowledge about the problem in question. The ES knowledge base contains the solutions that have been published in the pertinent literature, as well as some solutions and recommendations, which we have developed and introduced. On the basis of this information, as well as on the basis of the demanded method detection limit, available equipment, chemicals, as well as the time the experimenter has at his disposal for the determination, the ES proposes a procedure for solving the given analytical problem, starting from sampling, preparation of all the necessary solutions, the appropriate apparatus, probe preparation, the mode of determining results, calculation of the results, and provides a survey of all the relevant literature references. The base of ES is a shell, which can work under a variety of Microsoft Windows operating systems. In the development of ES and its adaptation for users who are not familiar with computer techniques, different tools, which operate with Microsoft Windows operating systems, as well as the tools within Microsoft Office are used.
Ribofuranose as a carrier of tetraoxane and 4-aminoquinoline antimalarial pharmacophores
IGOR M. OPSENICA,KIRSTEN K. SMITH,LUCIA GERENA,SANDRA GAICA
Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society , 2008,
Abstract: Several tetraoxane and 4-aminoquinoline molecules were prepared in order to examine the influence of ribofuranose as a carrier molecule on the antimalarial activity of test compounds. The synthesized compounds showed pronounced antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine susceptible D6, chloroquine resistant W2 and multidrug-resistant TM91C235 (Thailand) strains. The aminoquinoline derivative 4 was more active against W2 and TM91C235 strains than the control compounds (CQ and MFQ).
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