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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 217040 matches for " Sandra L. Talbot "
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Going Coastal: Shared Evolutionary History between Coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska Wolves (Canis lupus)
Byron V. Weckworth,Natalie G. Dawson,Sandra L. Talbot,Melanie J. Flamme,Joseph A. Cook
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019582
Abstract: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest.
Population structure and plumage polymorphism: The intraspecific evolutionary relationships of a polymorphic raptor, Buteo jamaicensis harlani
Joshua M Hull, David P Mindell, Sandra L Talbot, Emily H Kay, Hopi E Hoekstra, Holly B Ernest
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-224
Abstract: To address the evolutionary relationships within this group, we used data from 17 nuclear microsatellite loci, 430 base pairs of the mitochondrial control region, and 829 base pairs of the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) to investigate molecular genetic differentiation among three B. jamaicensis subspecies (B. j. borealis, B. j. calurus, B. j. harlani). Bayesian clustering analyses of nuclear microsatellite loci showed no significant differences between B. j. harlani and B. j. borealis. Differences observed between B. j. harlani and B. j. borealis in mitochondrial and microsatellite data were equivalent to those found between morphologically similar subspecies, B. j. borealis and B. j. calurus, and estimates of migration rates among all three subspecies were high. No consistent differences were observed in Mc1r data between B. j. harlani and other B. jamaicensis subspecies or between light and dark color morphs within B. j. calurus, suggesting that Mc1r does not play a significant role in B. jamaicensis melanism.These data suggest recent interbreeding and gene flow between B. j. harlani and the other B. jamaicensis subspecies examined, providing no support for the historical designation of B. j. harlani as a distinct species.The criteria necessary to recognize and define distinct species have been frequently debated [1-3]. One of the primary difficulties in species designation is that the process of speciation requires an extended period of time during which various attributes of species-level distinction are attained [2]. Depending on the length of time since divergence, only some fraction of phenotypic and molecular characters may have become fixed between incipient species. Therefore, different characters and associated species concepts may provide conflicting inference in the determination of species status [e.g.,[4,5]]. For example, the relative influence of genetic drift versus natural selection, relative sizes of populations sampled, and age of barriers to rep
Evidence that pairing with genetically similar mates is maladaptive in a monogamous bird
Hervé Mulard, Etienne Danchin, Sandra L Talbot, Andrew M Ramey, Scott A Hatch, Jo?l F White, Fabrice Helfenstein, Richard H Wagner
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-147
Abstract: Here, we used microsatellite markers to assess individual global heterozygosity and genetic similarity of pairs in a socially and genetically monogamous seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. We found that pairs were more genetically dissimilar than expected by chance. We also identified fitness costs of breeding with genetically similar partners: (i) genetic similarity of pairs was negatively correlated with the number of chicks hatched, and (ii) offspring heterozygosity was positively correlated with growth rate and survival.These findings provide evidence that breeders in a genetically monogamous species may avoid the fitness costs of reproducing with a genetically similar mate. In such species that lack the opportunity to obtain extra-pair fertilizations, mate choice may therefore be under high selective pressure.Numerous traits influence mate choice that may produce non-random mating patterns in many species. Although most studies have focused on morphological and behavioral traits [1-4]), there is rapidly growing evidence of multiple genetic criteria of mate choice (reviewed in [5,6]). For example, females might choose the most heterozygous males [7], which may increase the resistance of offspring to parasites [8,9]. Alternatively, females might choose males carrying alleles that are compatible with their own genotypes. The main driving forces of mate choice would then be to maintain equilibrium between co-adapted genes [10] or alternatively, to enhance the genetic variability of offspring [11-16].In species with biparental care, both sexes should be choosy in selecting a mate [17,18]. Blomqvist et al. [14] reported that in socially monogamous shorebirds, both sexes obtained extra-pair fertilizations when mates were genetically similar. In blue tits (Parus caeruleus), females acquired extra-pair fertilizations that enhanced the heterozygosity and fitness of their offspring [19]. In superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus), the benefits of extra-
The clinical impact of [18F]-FDG Pet during the opening year of a Pet centre
Talbot, Jean-No?l;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132002000500009
Abstract: we have evaluated the clinical impact of fdg-pet on patient staging and management during the opening year of our pet centre in france. a questionnaire, translation in french of the questionnaire used recently in california, was sent to the referring physician of each of the 476 patients who had at least one routine fdg-pet examination during the year 2000. of 348 responses (response rate = 73%), the disease was upstaged in 26% of the cases and downstaged in 9%. inter-modality management changes (change from a scheduled therapeutic modality for a different one) were reported in 37% of the cases and intra-modality changes in 9%. those modification rates were respectively 38% and 7% in recurrence of colorectal cancer (153 patients), 47% and 7% in lung cancer (118 patients), 16% and 23% in lymphoma (43 patients), 25% and 6% in the staging of head and neck cancers (32 patients).when comparing with the similar studies performed in california, there were no significant differences between the rates of inter-modality management changes. in contrast, intra-modality management changes were less frequent in our survey, except for lymphoma. globally, the clinical impact of fdg pet was similar, with a higher response rate to our survey (73% versus 35%); it was above the mean 31% rate of therapeutic modification derived from a recent tabulated summary in over 3400 patients.
The clinical impact of [18F]-FDG Pet during the opening year of a Pet centre
Talbot Jean-No?l
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2002,
Abstract: We have evaluated the clinical impact of FDG-PET on patient staging and management during the opening year of our PET centre in France. A questionnaire, translation in French of the questionnaire used recently in California, was sent to the referring physician of each of the 476 patients who had at least one routine FDG-PET examination during the year 2000. Of 348 responses (response rate = 73%), the disease was upstaged in 26% of the cases and downstaged in 9%. Inter-modality management changes (change from a scheduled therapeutic modality for a different one) were reported in 37% of the cases and intra-modality changes in 9%. Those modification rates were respectively 38% and 7% in recurrence of colorectal cancer (153 patients), 47% and 7% in lung cancer (118 patients), 16% and 23% in lymphoma (43 patients), 25% and 6% in the staging of head and neck cancers (32 patients).When comparing with the similar studies performed in California, there were no significant differences between the rates of inter-modality management changes. In contrast, intra-modality management changes were less frequent in our survey, except for lymphoma. Globally, the clinical impact of FDG PET was similar, with a higher response rate to our survey (73% versus 35%); it was above the mean 31% rate of therapeutic modification derived from a recent tabulated summary in over 3400 patients.
The Use of Genetics for the Management of a Recovering Population: Temporal Assessment of Migratory Peregrine Falcons in North America
Jeff A. Johnson,Sandra L. Talbot,George K. Sage,Kurt K. Burnham,Joseph W. Brown,Tom L. Maechtle,William S. Seegar,Michael A. Yates,Bud Anderson,David P. Mindell
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014042
Abstract: Our ability to monitor populations or species that were once threatened or endangered and in the process of recovery is enhanced by using genetic methods to assess overall population stability and size over time. This can be accomplished most directly by obtaining genetic measures from temporally-spaced samples that reflect the overall stability of the population as given by changes in genetic diversity levels (allelic richness and heterozygosity), degree of population differentiation (FST and DEST), and effective population size (Ne). The primary goal of any recovery effort is to produce a long-term self-sustaining population, and these genetic measures provide a metric by which we can gauge our progress and help make important management decisions.
Trends in U.S. Voting Attitudes with a Consideration of Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Sandra L. Hanson
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.64038
Abstract: Low turnout rates and discussions of disaffected voters are receiving considerable attention as we approach the 2016 U.S. presidential elections. Do trends in American’s attitudes about voting and correlates of these attitudes (political involvement, efficacy, and social connectedness) confirm the pessimistic assessments and do voters across gender and race/ethnic groups think similarly? Data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) provide some reason for optimism. Trends over the past few presidential election periods show a majority of Americans intend to vote and this majority is increasing. Trends show increases or stability on numerous correlates of voting attitudes including political involvement and social connectedness. Trends in voting attitudes by gender and race/ethnicity show considerable variation. Women and race/ethnic minorities (especially African Americans) are an important element of the positive trends shown here. Findings on external efficacy are an exception to the generally optimistic trends with data showing a majority of respondents don’t believe public officials care what people like the respondent think. However, trends do not show an increase in negative attitudes about public officials. Implications of the findings are considered.
Early Children’s Literature and Aging  [PDF]
Sandra L. McGuire
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.717245
Abstract: Increased longevity is a worldwide phenomenon placing emphasis on the need for preparation for life’s later years and for maximizing the potentials of these years. Today’s children will be the older adults of tomorrow. A resource that can help to educate them about aging and prepare them for the long life ahead is early children’s literature (Preschool-Primary). This literature can provide children with a holistic view of aging, teach them about aging and the aging process, promote positive attitudes about aging, and promote positive aging. Selecting early children’s literature for aging content, resources for finding early children’s literature to promote positive aging, and examples of early children’s literature to promote positive aging are presented.
Aging Education: A Worldwide Imperative  [PDF]
Sandra L. McGuire
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.812128
Abstract: Life expectancy is increasing worldwide. Unfortunately, people are generally not prepared for this long life ahead and have ageist attitudes that inhibit maximizing the “longevity dividend” they have been given. Aging education can prepare people for life’s later years and combat ageism. It can reimage aging as a time of continued growth, development?and?fulfillment. Unfortunately, aging education is not a common occurrence. This education needs to begin with children and continue throughout life. This article discusses why we need to teach about aging?and?aging education content, suggests a conceptual framework for aging education, and presents aging education resources. The concept of ageism is discussed and suggestions for combating ageism are proposed.
Generalized model of blockage in particulate flow limited by channel carrying capacity
C. Barré,J. Talbot,P. Viot L. Angelani,A. Gabrielli
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.032141
Abstract: We investigate stochastic models of particles entering a channel with a random time distribution. When the number of particles present in the channel exceeds a critical value $N$, a blockage occurs and the particle flux is definitively interrupted. By introducing an integral representation of the $n$ particle survival probabilities, we obtain exact expressions for the survival probability, the distribution of the number of particles that pass before failure, the instantaneous flux of exiting particle and their time correlation. We generalize previous results for $N=2$ to an arbitrary distribution of entry times and obtain new, exact solutions for $N=3$ for a Poisson distribution and partial results for $N\ge 4$.
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