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Entropy of Living versus Non-Living Systems  [PDF]
Isaac C. Sanchez
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.27077
Abstract: Using a careful thermodynamic analysis of unfertilized and fertilized eggs as a paradigm, it is argued that neither classical nor statistical thermodynamics is able to adequately describe living systems. To rescue thermodynamics from this dilemma, the definition of entropy for a living system must expand to acknowedge the latent genetic information encoded in DNA and RNA.As a working supposition, it is proposed that gradual unfolding (expression) of genetic information contributes a negative entropy flow into a living organism that alleviates apparent thermodynamic inconsistencies. It is estimated that each coding codon in DNA intrinsically carries about -3k in negative entropy. Even prior to the discovery of DNA and the genetic code, negative entropy flow in living systems was first proposed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1944.
The Structural Dimensions of the Political Institutions of the State; Theorizing through the Management and Institutional Theory: Proposed Boarding  [PDF]
Alejandro Sanchez Garcia
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44027
Abstract: Our research is to review two significant models for analyzing structures of institutions, which have made themselves, first Henry Mintzberg, with its model of key elements of the structures, and on the other hand, Meyer & Rowan with his model of rationalized institutional structures. The discourse of previous authors, resides to sustain what for them are the most important or essential dimensions of the structures in the institutions. With up to us, we try to review the arguments of both models and their contribution to institutional theory to develop on our part, discursive lines supported in said Institutional Theory, those that we believe which should be the structural dimensions of the institutions policies, and should be reviewed by anyone who makes part of itself, the study of the structures of the State political Institutions, which we consider, are institutional political dimensions, which will allow the political organization par excellence, its own stability, adaptation and arrangement, through the design of incentives or sanctions reflected in their own Political Institutions.
Assessing Ecotoxicity in Marine Environment Using Luminescent Microalgae: Where Are We At?  [PDF]
Sophie Sanchez-Ferandin
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.615252
Abstract: Nowadays, microalgae are particularly used to assess the environmental impact of contaminants in aquatic systems. Naturally present in some algal species, bioluminescence is highly used in application fields related to environmental monitoring. Bioluminescent dinoflagellates have played a pivotal role in this domain. When exposed to heavy metals or toxic organic compounds, bioluminescent dinoflagellates have the capacity to decrease light emission. In addition, new molecular tools allow the possibility to produce genetically modified microorganisms which are able to perform luminescence. Combined with the luciferase reporter gene, two main genetic constructions can be employed. Activation of a specific inducible promoter induces the luminescence gene transcription and this signal increases over time. Constitutive promoters result in a high basal expression level of the reporter gene. During exposure to a potential toxic pollutant, the basal expression level will decrease due to the toxic effect. Toxicity bioassays based on engineered luminescent Chlorophyta microalgae are among the most sensitive tests and are an invaluable complement to classical toxicity assays.
A Patient with Post Infectious Immune Mediated Neuropathy (Miller Fisher Syndrome)  [PDF]
Sharlene Sanchez, Azad Esack
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.83011
Abstract: The Miller Fisher variant is an uncommon but well known syndrome being described as a triad of areflexia, ataxia and complex ophthalmoplegia. It is characterized by antibodies against myelin that affects peripheral nerves, extraocular muscles and Schwann cells. Anti-ganglioside antibodies have been recognized in disease pathogenesis and decreasing antibody production is the mainstay of treatment. The course is usually benign with improvement after immunomodulation. This case report describes the approach to a patient suspected of having a demyelinating disorder. It delineates the subsets of immune mediated neuropathies in evaluating the diagnosis and emphasizes the need for early therapeutic intervention in achieving a good clinical outcome.
Origins of the Problematic Substances in Fines, for Their Acceptance at Inert Landfills  [PDF]
Soukaina Oujana, Denis Sanchez
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.65020
Abstract: Integrated solid waste management (ISWM) involves approaching solid waste in a comprehensive manner with careful selection of appropriate technology. The aim of good waste management is to push waste up the hierarchy with landfill as a last resort. However given the current sorting technology, heterogeneous residues called Fines are created, they are considered at the present time as non-sortable and non-recoverable sent to second class landfills. A previous conducted study has revealed that fines contain several problematic substances for an inert classification. This article summarizes the most important problematic substances in fines for their acceptance inert landfills. These substances were identified by analyzing several samples collected from a siting of non-hazardous solid waste in the region of Rhône-Alpes in France. Eluate Analysis and fines analysis were conducted in order to identify the presence of any component that could prevent the classification of fines in an inert landfill. The obtained results were compared with the limit values for waste acceptance in an inert landfill. The study concluded that the six top-ranking problematic substances are Copper, Mercury, Antimony, Chloride, Fluoride and Sulfates, this study gives additional information on the origins of these substances that deserves particular attention to better limit their presence in the input of fines stream.
In Silico Analysis of Cross Reactivity between Lipocalin of Domestic Animals*  [PDF]
Múnera Marlon, Sanchez Andres, Sanchez Jorge, Emiliani Yuliana
Open Journal of Immunology (OJI) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oji.2018.84006
Abstract: Lipocalins are one of the groups of allergens derived from domestic animals with clinical importance for the development of allergic responses. They have been characterized in different animals. With allergenic capacity characterized, little is known about the epitopes involved in allergic responses. Here, potential antigenic regions involved in cross-reactivity among lipocalins were explored through bioinformatics tools. The amino acid sequences of several lipocalins from different domestic animals (mouse, dog, cat, bull, hamster, horse and pig) were used to determine the degree of kinship by phylogenetic studies. Groups with highest phylogenetic relation were obtained by using MEGA software. 3D models of lipocalins not reported in the protein data bank were modeled by homology to identify potential antigenic regions compromised in the cross-reactivity of this group of allergens. The alignment of the entire database of allergenic lipocalins and the inferred maximum likelihood tree segregate lipocalins into five monophyletic clades (referenced here as A, B, C, D and E). According to the multiple pairing analyzes, group C (Fel d 4, Rat n 1 and Equ c 1) showed the highest degree of identity among their amino acid sequences (58%). The analysis of conserved and exposed residues showed that group C shares three antigenic regions that could potentially contribute to its cross-reactivity. Potential antigenic sites were identified for the generation of cross-reactivity between the different lipocalins analyzed in this study. These studies support the need to carry out directed mutagenesis tests to confirm their relevance in the allergenic capacity of lipocalins.
Preliminary evidence of discourse improvement with dopaminergic medication  [PDF]
Janelle Sanchez, Kristie A. Spencer
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2013.22007
Abstract: Dopaminergic therapy can improve motor functioning in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but its effect on spoken discourse is poorly understood. This study addressed whether discourse produced during a one-minute monologue would be affected by medication withdrawal. We performed a detailed analysis of semistructured speech samples in 38 patients with PD, including measures of efficiency, syntactic complexity, cohesion (i.e., lexical and grammatical ties between sentences), and coherence (i.e., semantic relationship between the utterances and the topic, or between utterances). We found that patients produced more efficient and coherent monlogues when on versus off medication. As discourse relies heavily on cognitive processes such as working memory, these findings are consistent with research showing improved working memory and executive processes with dopaminegic medication.
Rothe’s Fixed Point Theorem and the Controllability of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony Equation with Impulses and Delay  [PDF]
Hugo Leiva, Jose L. Sanchez
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.715147
Abstract: For many control systems in real life, impulses and delays are intrinsic phenomena that do not modify their controllability. So we conjecture that under certain conditions the abrupt changes and delays as perturbations of a system do not destroy its controllability. There are many practical examples of impulsive control systems with delays, such as a chemical reactor system, a financial system with two state variables, the amount of money in a market and the savings rate of a central bank, and the growth of a population diffusing throughout its habitat modeled by a reaction-diffusion equation. In this paper we apply the Rothe’s Fixed Point Theorem to prove the interior approximate controllability of the following Benjamin Bona-Mohany(BBM) type equation with impulses and delay
where \"\" and \"\" are constants, Ω is a domain in \"\" , ω is an open non-empty subset of Ω , \"\" denotes the characteristic function of the set ω , the distributed control \"\" ,\"\" are continuous functions and the nonlinear functions \"\" are smooth enough functions satisfying some additional conditions.
Philosophy for Open Government  [PDF]
Miguel Angel Sanchez-Ramos
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.84027
Abstract: Open government is a term that has been built socially for a long time; however it is from the promotion that the Obama administration from the United States realizes that it has achieved a high penetration in the political and public agenda of the various countries. The main concern of open government is to articulate efforts of government capacities and modernization of public administration, following the principles of transparency with high openness, participation and collaboration. The aim of this article is to analyze from philosophy the principles that should guide the model of governance and public administration to meet the ultimate goal of the state cosmos.
Master’s Degree, a New Requirement to Become an RDN by 2024: A Comparison of Nutrition Graduate Programs Offered in the USA  [PDF]
Monica Sanchez, Deanna L. Pucciarelli
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2019.101001
Abstract: Background: The registered dietetic four-year degree educational structure has been intact since 1926. Master level nutrition programs exist in the U.S., but are not standardized or accredited unlike four-year degrees. Academic requirements for nutrition graduate programs vary regionally across the nation. Objective: To 1) quantify and describe the availability of Master level nutrition programs regionally; and 2) examine the current M.A. and M.S. program requirements for a nutrition graduate degree in the U.S. Methods: Nutrition graduate programs (n = 201) were analyzed and compared by geographical region. Data were collected between August 2017 and May 2018. Inclusion criteria were defined as: nutrition graduate programs listed in the American Society of Nutrition (ASN) database that had a nutrition graduate program website. Descriptive statistical analysis measured evaluated variables. Results: A total of 201 nutrition graduate programs in the U.S. were identified. The title of the programs was categorized into 29 main themes. The most common nutrition graduate program title was a M.S. in Nutrition, 55 institutions (27.4%). A total of 181 institutions offered a M.S. with a required thesis, whereas 95 offered a M.S. with a non-thesis option, and only eight offered a M.A. Region 3-South offered the highest number of nutrition graduate programs (66), followed by region 2-Midwest with 49 programs, region 1-Northeast offered a total of 46 programs, and 37 programs were offered in region 4-West. Conclusion: In 2024, as part of the RD eligibility criteria, it will be required that students possess a master’s degree. To date, only one master’s program in the U.S. is accredited, which assures the student a measure of confidence of program rigor and accountability. Dietitians’ three major professional concerns: respect, recognition and rewards are predicated on rigorous educational programs that meet ACEND standards. It is unlikely that all U.S. master level programs will be accredited by 2024.
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