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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20852 matches for " Sanath Kumar "
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Second Malignant Neoplasms Following Radiotherapy
Sanath Kumar
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9124744
Abstract: More than half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy as a part of their treatment. With the increasing number of long-term cancer survivors, there is a growing concern about the risk of radiation induced second malignant neoplasm [SMN]. This risk appears to be highest for survivors of childhood cancers. The exact mechanism and dose-response relationship for radiation induced malignancy is not well understood, however, there have been growing efforts to develop strategies for the prevention and mitigation of radiation induced cancers. This review article focuses on the incidence, etiology, and risk factors for SMN in various organs after radiotherapy.
Biochemistry of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps
Sanath Kumar,Manuel F. Varela
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13044484
Abstract: Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps.
Neovascularization in Glioblastoma: Current Pitfall in Anti-angiogenic therapy
Sanath Kumar,Ali S Arbab
Journal of Tumor , 2013, DOI: doi:10.6051/j.issn.1819-6187.2013.01.4
Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. However, the survival of patients with GBM has been dismal after multi-disciplinary treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In the efforts to improve clinical outcome, anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab (Avastin) was introduced to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mediated tumor neovascularization. Unfortunately, the results from clinical trials have not lived up to the initial expectations. Patients either fail to respond to anti-angiogenic therapy or develop resistance following an initial response. The failure of anti-angiogenic therapy has led to a frustration among physicians and research community. Recent evidence indicates that the dogma of tumor neovascularization solely dependent on VEGF pathways to be overly simplistic. A realistic model of tumor neovascularization should include alternative pathways that are independent of VEGF signaling. A better understanding of the underlying processes in tumor neovascularization would help in designing successful anti-angiogenic treatment strategies.
Extremely large size VSD with pulmonary stenosis
J. Rajendra Kumar,T. Sanath Kumar
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2320-6012.ijrms20130211
Abstract: Defect in the ventricular septum with obstruction to right ventricular outflow tract encompass a wide anatomic, physiological & clinical spectrum. Large ventricular septal defects occur with pulmonary stenosis that varies from mild to severe to complete (pulmonary atresia). Very large VSD (size 6.4cm, in our case) with severe PS is a rare CHD & without surgical correction only 10% patients can survive beyond 20 year of age. With the help of noninvasive investigation (echocardiography) we can diagnose CHD very easily. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(1.000): 41-42]
Functional Complementation of a Model Target to Study Vpu Sensitivity
Sanath Kumar Janaka, Jared Faurot, Marc C. Johnson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068507
Abstract: HIV-1 forms infectious particles with Murine Leukemia virus (MLV) Env, but not with the closely related Gibbon ape Leukemia Virus (GaLV) Env. We have determined that the incompatibility between HIV-1 and GaLV Env is primarily caused by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which prevents GaLV Env from being incorporated into particles. We have characterized the ‘Vpu sensitivity sequence’ in the cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD) of GaLV Env using a chimeric MLV Env with the GaLV Env CTD (MLV/GaLV Env). Vpu sensitivity is dependent on an alpha helix with a positively charged face containing at least one Lysine. In the present study, we utilized functional complementation to address whether all the three helices in the CTD of an Env trimer have to contain the Vpu sensitivity motif for the trimer to be modulated by Vpu. Taking advantage of the functional complementation of the binding defective (D84K) and fusion defective (L493V) MLV and MLV/GaLV Env mutants, we were able to assay the activity of mixed trimers containing both MLV and GaLV CTDs. Mixed trimers containing both MLV and GaLV CTDs were functionally active and remained sensitive to Vpu. However, trimers containing an Env with the GaLV CTD and an Env with no CTD remained functional but were resistant to Vpu. Together these data suggest that the presence of at least one GaLV CTD is sufficient to make an Env trimer sensitive to Vpu, but only if it is part of a trimeric CTD complex.
Modulation of Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps of the Major Facilitator Superfamily
Sanath Kumar,Mun Mun Mukherjee,Manuel F. Varela
International Journal of Bacteriology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/204141
Abstract: Bacterial infections pose a serious public health concern, especially when an infectious disease has a multidrug resistant causative agent. Such multidrug resistant bacteria can compromise the clinical utility of major chemotherapeutic antimicrobial agents. Drug and multidrug resistant bacteria harbor several distinct molecular mechanisms for resistance. Bacterial antimicrobial agent efflux pumps represent a major mechanism of clinical resistance. The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) is one of the largest groups of solute transporters to date and includes a significant number of bacterial drug and multidrug efflux pumps. We review recent work on the modulation of multidrug efflux pumps, paying special attention to those transporters belonging primarily to the MFS. 1. Introduction Drug and multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens that are causative agents of infectious disease constitute a serious public health concern. Bacterial multidrug efflux pump systems of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily represent common mechanisms for bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents. As such these bacterial transporters make suitable targets for modulation in order to restore the clinical efficacy of relevant chemotherapeutic antibacterial agents. Here, we briefly review the drug transporter systems of the MFS (and to a lesser extent the RND superfamily) and discuss their modulation via regulation of expression and efflux pump transport inhibition. 2. Bacteria and Pathogenesis Bacteria are unicellular, microscopic living organisms that are rod shaped, ball shaped, or spiral shaped when observed under the microscope. Most bacteria are not harmful; rather, they aid in food preparation and digestion, compete with pathogens, provide vitamins to the body, are useful for basic and applied research purposes, and are important in biotechnology. However, less than one percent of the bacteria of different types are responsible for causing bacterial infections. Bacterial cells are capable of quickly reproducing and releasing chemicals and toxins; pathogenic bacteria can cause damage to cells and tissues in the body and cause clinical disease. Some of the common diseases and infections caused by pathogenic strains of bacteria include food poisoning caused by Escherichia coli and Salmonella [1–6], gastritis and ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori [7], the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae [8], meningitis caused by N. meningitides [9], skin infections like boils, cellulitis,
A Comparative Study of Technological Impact on Mushroom Industry in Sri Lanka: A Review  [PDF]
Sanath Gamage, Shoji Ohga
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.88045
Abstract: The present status of technological implementation for mushroom industry in Sri Lanka is expressed along this paper. It has been comparatively discussed with entire Japanese mushroom industry. Sri Lanka is a developing country located in south Asia. Almost all the mushroom cultivators in the country are growing Pleurotus ostreatus, Calocybe indica and Volvariella volvacea. These species are most preferred because they are not difficult to cultivate using the low cost cultivation method being practiced in the country. Mushroom cultivators are selling their product at prices ranging from LKR 240 (1.47) to LKR 430 (USD 2.63) per kg in 2017. Mushroom cultivation is not that popular in Sri Lanka. This may be, partly, attributed to lack of know-how, technological barrier and awareness on the economic, nutritive and medicinal benefits of cultivated mushrooms. Some of the major supermarkets do sell locally cultivated P. ostreatus and, Agaricus bisporus and Lentinula edodes mushrooms which are imported from the Republic of China and Thailand. At present, there are few private and government institutions which produce spawn and offer knowledge to the farmers. Their programs have been mainly focused on mushroom cultivation as a woman’s household business; but the industry should be developed towards large scale commercial mushroom cultivation as well. This study is focused on main steps of mushroom production with some discussion and suggestion for increase production efficiency through technological advancement.
Incidence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci in Fresh Seafood  [PDF]
Lekshmi R. G. Kumar, Anas K. Kasim, Manjusha Lekshmi, Binaya Bhusan Nayak, Sanath Kumar
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2016.66039
Abstract: The occurrence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci was investigated in fresh seafood, seafood products and related samples. Staphylococci were isolated from 13 (68.42%) fresh seafood samples, while 3 (15.78%) samples harbored coagulase-positive S. aureus. Resistance to methicillin was observed in 16 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., 15 of which were coagulase-negative S. aureus (MR-CoNS) and one was a coagulase-positive S. aureus (MRSA). The mecA gene is detected by PCR in 10 MR-CoNS and one MRSA strain. The lmrS gene, which codes for a multidrug efflux pump LmrS, is detected only in coagulase-positive isolates.
Loratadine in urticaria
Aithal Sanath
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 1999,
Abstract:
Algebraic K-theory is stable and admits a multiplicative structure for module objects
Sanath Devalapurkar
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: After recognizing higher homotopy coherences, algebraic K-theory can be regarded as a functor from stable $\infty$-categories to $\infty$-categories. We establish the stability theoremm which states that the algebraic K-theory of a stable $\infty$-category is actually a stable $\infty$-category itself. This is a generalization of the statement that algebraic K-theory is a functor from spectra to spectra. We then prove a result which provides a simpler interpretation of the algebraic K-theory of ring spectra. In order to do this, we compute the algebraic K-theory of an $\infty$-category of modules, and establish that it is an $\infty$-category of modules itself. This result, known as the multiplicativity theorem, vastly generalizes results obtained by Elmendorf and Mandell. Since the algebraic K-theory of a ring spectrum $R$ is the algebraic K-theory of the $\infty$-category of perfect modules over $R$, this provides a simpler interpretation of the algebraic K-theory of ring spectra. Using this result, we prove an $\infty$-categorical counterpart of the derived Morita context for flat rings, which shows that algebraic K-theory is a homotopy coherent version of Morita theory.
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