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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6196 matches for " Samuel Kariuki "
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Detection and Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Toilet and Classroom Door Handles in Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County  [PDF]
Caroline Mbogori, Anne Muigai, Samuel Kariuki
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.34037
Abstract: Background: Staphylococcus aureus is found on all surfaces especially in public areas like hospitals and schools and on frequently touched areas like toilet and classroom door handles. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus which is resistant to methicillin. There are two types of MRSA: Community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and hospital acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA). MRSA in the community presents a significant reservoir that could enter into healthcare facilities and spread among patients and also a risk for immune compromised persons in the community. Methodology: The study aimed at determining the prevalence of MRSA isolated from toilet and classroom door handles as a potential source of infection to the students and the workers in selected schools in Nairobi, Kenya. The study also compared the prevalence of MRSA between boarding and non-boarding girls, boys and mixed (both girls and boys in the same school) secondary schools. Twelve secondary schools in Nairobi County were randomly selected and 306 samples from both the toilet and classroom door handles were collected using sterile swabs and transported to the laboratory. Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus was done by the use of selective media Mannitol salt agar, antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was done by disk diffusion method, and molecular detection of mecA and PVL genes were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The prevalence of S. aureus was 20% and 15% were MRSA positive by both Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test and PCR detection. 20% showed the presence of PVL genes, 8% showed the presence of both genes and 56% of isolates with mecA gene had PVL genes. Conclusion: The presence of MRSA in this study emphasizes the need to formulate hygiene measures to prevent possible spread of MRSA and other transmissible pathogens to students and workers in the schools.
Prevalence of Panton Valentine Leukocidin in Carriage and Infective Strains of Staphylococcus aureus at a Referral Hospital in Kenya  [PDF]
Geoffrey Omuse, Patricia Shivachi, Samuel Kariuki, Gunturu Revathi
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2013.31002
Abstract: Panton valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore forming exotoxin that is expressed by some Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and is thought to add to its virulence. The prevalence of PVL in carriage and disease causing strains varies considerably from region to region. This study compared the prevalence of the PVL gene in S. aureus isolates obtained from healthcare workers and from patients seen at the Aga Khan University Hospital Nairobi (AKUHN). S. aureus isolates obtained from healthcare workers and patients attended to at AKUHN between July 2010 and March 2011 were used for this study. Forty five S. aureus isolates from healthcare workers and 63 from clinical specimens obtained from 59 patients were analysed for the PVL gene. The prevalence of PVL in isolates from healthcare workers was 24.4% compared to 39.7% in the isolates causing infection (P = 0.098). PVL prevalence was 58.8% in S. aureus isolates obtained from skin and soft tissue infections (SSIs) compared to 25.0% in carriage isolates (P = 0.002, OR 4.29). Prevalence in isolates from invasive infections was 11.1%. Patients with PVL positive S. aureus were younger than those with PVL negative isolates (P
Serotypes and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Nasopharyngeal Pneumococci Isolated from HIV-Infected Children in Selected Pediatric Clinics in Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Catherine N. Mwangi, Gunturu Revathi, Anne W. Muigai, Samuel Kariuki
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2016.61007
Abstract: Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is one of the most frequent causes of bacterial infection in children and is a leading cause of otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia, and meningitis worldwide. Nasopharyngeal colonization is a risk factor for pneumococcal disease, a leading cause of complications and death in infants. HIV-infected persons are at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease. Method: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 296 HIV infected children below five years recruited from Gertrude’s Children hospital and Nazareth Hospital Nairobi, Kenya. The nasopharyngeal swabs were processed to isolate S. pneumoniae, which were serotyped and tested for drug susceptibility. Results: The carriage prevalence of S. pneumoniae in the study was 30.4% while the isolated serotypes were (in order of decreasing frequency): 35B, 19F, 3, 13, 15A, 11A, 16F, 7C and 23A. Most of the serotypes were resistant to the commonly used antibiotics but all were susceptible to vancomycin and chloramphenicol. Conclusion: Carriage prevalence of nasopharyngeal S. pneumonia in HIV infected children was lower than that of similar prevalence studies in children. Most of the S. pneumoniae isolates were however non pneumococcal vaccine isolates.
Risk Factors in the Transmission of Tuberculosis in Nairobi: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study  [PDF]
Perpetual Wangui Ndungu, Gunturu Revathi, Samuel Kariuki, Zipporah Ng’ang’a
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.32025
Abstract:

Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease with an estimated 1.45 million deaths every year. Many patients get infected as a result of ignorance of the risk factors that contribute to disease transmission. Methodology: A descriptive epidemiological study was conducted on 258 patients presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients’ sputa were collected for laboratory analysis and patients were required to respond to a structured questionnaire on risk factors for transmission. Data among stratified groups were compared using bivariate analysis. Statistical significance was considered at p < 0.05. Results: There were significantly more males than females associated with pulmonary tuberculosis infection (χ2 = 0.963; df = 1; p < 0.05). Monthly income was significant in disease transmission with 222 (86.0%) of the patients earning less than 100$ and 90 (34.9%) earning less than 50$ per month (p < 0.05, 95% CI). One hundred and seventy three patients (67.1%) were unemployed or running small businesses. Only 85 (32.9%) were in formal employment. Results showed 166 (64.3%) patients were living in single rooms with 110 (42.6%) living with more than two people with a maximum of 10 people in a single room. Only 73 (28.3%) were living alone in a single room and only 7 families (2.7%) were living in houses with five or more rooms. Alcohol consumers and smokers were 102 (39.5%) and 93 (36%) respectively. Half of the patients (137 (53.3%)) had not completed secondary education with only 16 (6.2%) having completed tertiary education. Recurrent cases were 54 (21%) while those exposed to the disease either at home or working place were 75 (29.2%). Out of 171 patients who agreed to test for HIV, 46 (26.9%) were positive. Marital status had no effect on incidence of disease. Conclusion: Emphasis should be given to creating awareness of the risk factors associated with transmission of

Characteristics of Archived Coagulase Negative Staphylococci Isolates at a University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya  [PDF]
Shivachi Patricia Ingato, Andrew Nyerere Kimang’a, Geoffrey Omuse, Samuel Kariuki, Revathi Gunturu, Victor Dinda
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44026
Abstract: Background: Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CoNS) are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucous membranes and thus have been dismissed for a long time as culture contaminants even if they have been isolated from sterile specimens. The risk factors for CoNS infections include patients who are immunocompromised, implanted with foreign bodies or with indwelling devices. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and presence of mecA gene in methicillin resistant CoNS isolated in a teaching and referral hospital in Kenya. Methodology: This was a cross sectional retrospective study. Archived isolates were sub-cultured on 5% sheep blood agar. Speciation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were performed by Vitek2 technique. The presence of mecA gene was determined by (PCR). Results: A total of seven species were identified with Staphylococcus epidermidis having the highest percentage at 45.4% and Staphylococcus warneri with the lowest at 2.6%. High resistance to antibiotics that were tested was observed regardless of the source of the isolate. MecA gene was found in 90% of the isolates. Conclusion: Coagulase negative Staphylococci exhibited high levels of resistance generally. Most of the isolates carried the mecA gene. Despite some of the isolates being resistant to Cefoxitin, the mecA gene was not found. There is a possibility that methicillin resistance in these isolates is mediated using a different mechanism.
Analysis of Trends in Resistance to Fluoroquinolones and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactams among Salmonella Typhi Isolates Obtained from Patients at Four Outpatient Clinics in Nairobi County, Kenya  [PDF]
Susan Mutile Kavai, Mourine Kangogo, Anne W. T. Muigai, Samuel Kariuki
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2018.87038
Abstract: Typhoid fever caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes an estimated 25 million illnesses and approximately 200,000 deaths annually mostly in developing countries. Although the management of typhoid fever has been effectively through antibiotic treatment, S. Typhi is increasingly becoming resistant to the currently recommended drugs. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design focusing on archived samples to describe antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of S. Typhi and determine the genetic basis of resistance to the two most commonly used classes of antimicrobials. A total sample size of 287 isolates of S. Typhi isolates stored in -80°C freezer at the Centre for Microbiology Research was utilized. Isolates were subjected to anti-microbial susceptibility testing to commonly available antimicrobials using disk diffusion method, then analyzed for trends in resistance to fluoroquinolones and extended spectrum beta lactams. Among the 287 isolates 158 (55.5%) were found to be Multi Drug Resistant (MDR). This implied that these isolates were resistant to all first line classes of treatment such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole-trimethroprim. In addition to this, these isolates were also resistant to at least one of the currently recommended drugs of choice, either a β-lactam or a fluoroquinolone. This study observed resistances at 18.2% and 15.4% to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins respectively. PCR results revealed presence of blaTEM, blaINT and blaCTX-M genes coding for resistance to β-lactams in 80% of the isolates that had combined resistance to β-lactams and fluoroquinolones. It is likely that recent heavy use of these classes of antimicrobials is driving resistances to these antimicrobials.
Characterisation of community acquired non-typhoidal Salmonella from bacteraemia and diarrhoeal infections in children admitted to hospital in Nairobi, Kenya
Samuel Kariuki, Gunturu Revathi, Nyambura Kariuki, John Kiiru, Joyce Mwituria, Charles A Hart
BMC Microbiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-6-101
Abstract: Overall 170 (51.2%) of children presented with bacteraemia alone, 28 (8.4%) with gastroenteritis and bacteraemia and 134 (40.4%) with gastroenteritis alone. NTS serotypes obtained from all the cases included S. Typhimurium (196; 59%), S. Enteritidis (94; 28.3%) and other serotypes in smaller numbers (42; 12.7%); distribution of these serotypes among cases with bacteremia or gastroenteritis was not significantly different. A significantly higher proportion of younger children (< 3 years of age) and those from the slums presented with invasive NTS compared to older children and those from upper socio-economic groups (p < 0.001). One hundred and forty-seven (44.3%) NTS were resistant to 3 or more antibiotics, and out of these 59% were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between the two serotypes, S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin were the only antibiotics tested to which all the NTS were fully susceptible. Using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) there were 3 main patterns of S. Typhimurium and 2 main patterns of S. Enteritidis among cases of bacteraemia and gastroenteritis.Serotype distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and PFGE patterns of NTS causing bacteraemia and gastroenteritis did not differ significantly. The high prevalence of NTS strains resistant to most of the commonly used antimicrobials is of major public health concern.In many sub-Saharan African countries community-acquired bacteraemia is a major cause of high morbidity and death among children especially from resource poor settings. Non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) account for a steadily increasing proportion of these infections and represent from 20–50% of cases [1-3]. In Kenya invasive NTS infections in children under 5 years of age are an important cause of morbidity and high mortality; they are ranked second only to pneumococcal pneumonia in importance as the leading bacterial ca
Typhoid is over-reported in Embu and Nairobi, Kenya
Samuel Kariuki, Joyce Mwituria, Gunturu Revathi, Joyce Onsongo
African Journal of Health Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: The paper looks at the usefulness of the Widal agglutination test in the context of variable normal antibody titres in two different populations in Kenya, and in comparison to the blood culture method of diagnosis. It presents a prospective case-control study. We examined 846 blood cultures and an equal number of serum samples, and 782 stools from adults who presented at two study sites; Kenyatta National Hospital and one hospital and 3 clinics in Embu District, with symptoms similar to typhoid. Examined also were 360 serum samples and stools from adults who were apparently healthy (controls) who sought routine medical examination at the study sites. From blood cultures, isolation rates for typhoid for Embu (3%) and Nairobi (2.2%) were not significantly different (p>0.01). In addition the control population from the two study sites did not show any significant background O antibody titre levels characteristic of typhoid endemic areas. All the 7 commonly available Widal test kits including Murex, Europath, Biotech, Humatex, Biosystems, Microsystems and Typhex, that were evaluated for efficacy were equally specific in diagnosis of typhoid by Widal agglutination methods. However, there were minor differences in the sensitivities of the kits. The Widal test method gave a lower sensitivity (81.3%) than specificity (93%) when compared to the culture of blood for diagnosis of typhoid. Going by the reports of typhoid outbreaks in Embu and Nairobi (ca. 20-25% reported prevalence) we conclude that there has been over-reporting probably due to poor methodologies of performing the Widal test. We recommend adequate clinical examination in suspected cases of typhoid in addition to proper Widal in order to improve typhoid diagnosis. Newer improved methods that are more specific and sensitive than the Widal test need to be evaluated in improving laboratory diagnosis of typhoid. African Journal of Health Sciences Vol. 11(3-4) 2004: 103-110
Carriage rate and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae amongst children in Thika Hospital, Kenya
Susan Githii,Gunturu Revathi,Anne Muigai,Samuel Kariuki
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.4102/ajlm.v2i1.45
Abstract: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Rates of carriage are highest in infants and the elderly. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. pneumoniae, and to describe the antibiotic resistant patterns and the serotypes of the carried isolates. A cross-sectional study design was used. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 315 children in the months of Octoberand November 2010 and processed to isolate S. pneumoniae. The isolates were serotyped by the Quellung reaction and their antibiotic susceptibilities assessed by the disc diffusion method. The overall nasopharyngeal carriage rate for S. pneumoniae was 17%. Seventeen serotypes were detected amongst 55 strains analysed: 6A, 23F, 19F, 13, 6B, 14A, 20, 7C, 1,15B, 35B, 19A, 11A, 34, 5, 3 and 23A. Susceptibility testing revealed that nearly all (98%) were resistant to cotrimoxazole, 9% were resistant to penicillin and 7% to cefotaxime. Resistance to chloramphenicol and erythromycin was 2% and 4%, respectively. All isolates were fully sensitive to tetracycline. High levels of cotrimoxazole resistance and some resistance to other antimicrobial agents commonly used in Thika District Hospital shows that there is need to revise antimicrobial policy in this region in the treatment of invasive pneumococcal infections. The frequent serotypes found in this study have previously been associated with pneumococcal infectionsin children. Several of these serotypes are included in the ten-valent vaccine and therefore useof this vaccine will help reduce pneumococcal infections in Thika.
Analysis of β-lactamase phenotypes and carriage of selected β-lactamase genes among Escherichia coli strains obtained from Kenyan patients during an 18-year period
Kiiru John,Kariuki Samuel,Goddeeris Bruno M,Butaye Patrick
BMC Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-12-155
Abstract: Background Although β-lactam antibiotics are heavily used in many developing countries, the diversity of β-lactamase genes (bla) is poorly understood. We screened for major β-lactamase phenotypes and diversity of bla genes among 912 E. coli strains isolated from clinical samples obtained between 1992 and 2010 from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients. Results None of the isolates was resistant to carbapenems but 30% of all isolates were susceptible to cefepime, cephamycins and piperacillin-tazobactam. Narrow spectrum β-lactamase (NSBL) phenotype was observed in 278 (30%) isolates that contained blaTEM-1 (54%) or blaSHV-1 (35%) or both (11%). Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype was detected in 247 (27%) isolates which carried blaCTX-M-14 (29%), blaCTX-M-15 (24%), blaCTX-M-9 (2%), blaCTX-M-8 (4%), blaCTX-M-3 (11%), blaCTX-M-1 (6%), blaSHV-5 (3%), blaSHV-12 (5%), and blaTEM-52 (16%). Complex Mutant TEM-like (CMT) phenotype was detected in 220 (24%) isolates which carried blaTEM-125 (29%), while blaTEM-50, blaTEM-78, blaTEM-109, blaTEM 152 and blaTEM-158 were detected in lower frequencies of between 7% and 11%. Majority of isolates producing a combination of CTX-M-15 + OXA-1 + TEM-1 exhibited resistance phenotypes barely indistinguishable from those of CMT-producers. Although 73 (8%) isolates exhibited Inhibitor Resistant TEM-like (IRT) phenotype, blaTEM-103 was the only true IRT-encoding gene identified in 18 (25%) of strains with this phenotype while the rest produced a combination of TEM-1 + OXA-1. The pAmpCs-like phenotype was observed in 94 (10%) isolates of which 77 (82%) carried blaCMY-2 while 18% contained blaCMY-1. Isolates from urine accounted for 53%, 53%, 74% and 72% of strains exhibiting complex phenotypes such as IRT, ESBL, CMT or pAmpC respectively. On the contrary, 55% isolates from stool exhibited the relatively more susceptible NSBL-like phenotype. All the phenotypes, and majority of the bla genes, were detected both in isolates from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients but complex phenotypes were particularly common among strains obtained between 2000 and 2010 from urine of hospitalized patients. Conclusions The phenotypes and diversity of bla genes in E. coli strains implicated in clinical infections in non-hospitalized and hospitalized patients in Kenya is worryingly high. In order to preserve the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics, culture and susceptibility data should guide therapy and surveillance studies for β-lactamase-producers in developing countries should be launched.
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