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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 340802 matches for " Samuel C. Wang "
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Project Hope and the Hope School System in China
Samuel C. Wang
Education Policy Analysis Archives , 1999,
Abstract: I investigate the creation, development, contributions and limits of Project Hope, a huge government-endorsed education project seeking non-governmental contributions to overcome educational inadequacy in poverty-stricken rural communities in transitional China. By reexamining the composition of sponsored students, the locations of Hope Primary Schools and non-educational orientations for building and expanding schools, I argue that Project Hope and its Hope School system have not contributed to educational access, equality, equity, efficiency and quality as it should have. Poverty-reduction-oriented curriculum requirements in Hope Primary Schools are theoretically misleading and realistically problematic.
Accumulation of Mineral Nutrients and Phytochemicals in Lettuce and Tomato Grown in High Tunnel and Open Field  [PDF]
Amanda Woolley, Samuel Sumpter, Myungjin Lee, Jingwen Xu, Shannon Barry, Weiqun Wang, C. B. Rajashekar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2019.101011
Abstract: High tunnel production of horticultural food crops is becoming increasingly popular and has a significant impact on their growth, productivity and nutritional quality. The present study examines the effect of high tunnel production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. “Two Star” and “New Red Fire”) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. “Celebrity” and “Mountain Fresh”) on their nutritional quality relating to major nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals. High tunnel environment increased the concentration of N (protein) in both lettuce and tomato relative to the open field cultivation. The accumulation pattern of mineral nutrients in high tunnel was similar in green-leaf and red-leaf lettuce varieties. Lettuce varieties grown in high tunnel had higher accumulation of C, S and Zn relative to those grown in open field. However, high tunnel environment suppressed the accumulation of many micronutrients such as Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn in both lettuce varieties but not in tomato. For example, accumulation of Fe was reduced by more than 80% in “Two Star and by more than 55% in “New Red Fire” under high tunnel. It also suppressed the levels of many health-promoting phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, rutin and kaempferol in green-leaf lettuce and gallic acid in red-leaf lettuce. High tunnel environment improved the soil nutrient status but reduced the radiation levels (PAR, UV-A and UV-B) received by the crops. The results show that the high tunnel production has a significant impact on the nutritional quality relating to protein and mineral nutrients in both crops and health-promoting phytochemicals in lettuce.
Familial Linkage between Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Intellectual Interests
Benjamin C. Campbell, Samuel S.-H. Wang
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030405
Abstract: From personality to neuropsychiatric disorders, individual differences in brain function are known to have a strong heritable component. Here we report that between close relatives, a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders covary strongly with intellectual interests. We surveyed an entire class of high-functioning young adults at an elite university for prospective major, familial incidence of neuropsychiatric disorders, and demographic and attitudinal questions. Students aspiring to technical majors (science/mathematics/engineering) were more likely than other students to report a sibling with an autism spectrum disorder (p = 0.037). Conversely, students interested in the humanities were more likely to report a family member with major depressive disorder (p = 8.8×10?4), bipolar disorder (p = 0.027), or substance abuse problems (p = 1.9×10?6). A combined PREdisposition for Subject MattEr (PRESUME) score based on these disorders was strongly predictive of subject matter interests (p = 9.6×10?8). Our results suggest that shared genetic (and perhaps environmental) factors may both predispose for heritable neuropsychiatric disorders and influence the development of intellectual interests.
XMM-Newton/RGS Detection of the Missing Interstellar OVII Kalpha Absorption Line in the Spectrum of Cyg X-2
Samuel H. C. Cabot,Q. Daniel Wang,Yangsen Yao
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt178
Abstract: The hot interstellar medium is an important part of the Galactic ecosystem and can be effectively characterized through X-ray absorption line spectroscopy. However, in a study of the hot medium using the accreting neutron star X-ray binary, Cyg X-2, as a background light source, a mystery came about when the putatively strong OVII Kalpha line was not detected in Chandra grating observations, while other normally weaker lines such as OVII Kbeta as well as OVI and OVIII Kalpha are clearly present (Yao et al. 2009). We have investigated the grating spectra of Cyg X-2 from 10 XMM-Newton observations, in search of the missing line. We detect it consistently in nine of these observations, but the line is absent in the remaining one observation or is inconsistent with the detection in others at a 4sigma confidence level. This absence of the line resembles that seen in the Chandra observations. Similarly, the OVI Kalpha line is found to disappear occasionally, but not in concert with the variation of the OVII Kalpha line. All these variations are most likely due to the presence of changing OVII and OVI Kalpha emission lines of Cyg X-2, which are blurred together with the absorption ones in the X-ray spectra. A re-examination of the Chandra grating data indeed shows evidence for a narrow emission line slightly off the OVI Kalpha absorption line. We further show that narrow NV emission lines with varying centroids and fluxes are present in far-UV spectra from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. These results provide new constraints on the accretion around the neutron star and on the X-ray-heating of the stellar companion. The understanding of these physical processes is also important to the fidelity of using such local X-ray binaries for interstellar absorption line spectroscopy.
Spectral Characterization and Unmixing of Intrinsic Contrast in Intact Normal and Diseased Gastric Tissues Using Hyperspectral Two-Photon Microscopy
Lauren E. Grosberg,Andrew J. Radosevich,Samuel Asfaha,Timothy C. Wang,Elizabeth M. C. Hillman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019925
Abstract: Living tissues contain a range of intrinsic fluorophores and sources of second harmonic generation which provide contrast that can be exploited for fresh tissue imaging. Microscopic imaging of fresh tissue samples can circumvent the cost and time associated with conventional histology. Further, intrinsic contrast can provide rich information about a tissue's composition, structure and function, and opens the potential for in-vivo imaging without the need for contrast agents.
MMP7 Shedding of Syndecan-1 Facilitates Re-Epithelialization by Affecting α2β1 Integrin Activation
Peter Chen, Laura E. Abacherli, Samuel T. Nadler, Ying Wang, Qinglang Li, William C. Parks
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006565
Abstract: Background Lung injury promotes the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7, matrilysin), which is required for neutrophil recruitment and re-epithelialization. MMP7 governs the lung inflammatory response through the shedding of syndecan-1. Because inflammation and repair are related events, we evaluated the role of syndecan-1 shedding in lung re-epithelialization. Methodology/Principal Finding Epithelial injury induced syndecan-1 shedding from wild-type epithelium but not from Mmp7?/? mice in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, cell migration and wound closure was enhanced by MMP7 shedding of syndecan-1. Additionally, we found that syndecan-1 augmented cell adhesion to collagen by controlling the affinity state of the α2β1 integrin. Conclusion/Significance MMP7 shedding of syndecan-1 facilitates wound closure by causing the α2β1 integrin to assume a less active conformation thereby removing restrictions to migration. MMP7 acts in the lungs to regulate inflammation and repair, and our data now show that both these functions are controlled through the shedding of syndecan-1.
Higher Desolvation Energy Reduces Molecular Recognition in Multi-Drug Resistant HIV-1 Protease
Yong Wang,Tamaria G. Dewdney,Zhigang Liu,Samuel J. Reiter,Joseph S. Brunzelle,Iulia A. Kovari,Ladislau C. Kovari
Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/biology1010081
Abstract: Designing HIV-1 protease inhibitors that overcome drug-resistance is still a challenging task. In this study, four clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases that exhibit resistance to all the US FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors and also reduce the substrate recognition ability were examined. A multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease isolate, MDR 769, was co-crystallized with the p2/NC substrate and the mutated CA/p2 substrate, CA/p2 P1’F. Both substrates display different levels of molecular recognition by the wild-type and multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease. From the crystal structures, only limited differences can be identified between the wild-type and multi-drug resistant protease. Therefore, a wild-type HIV-1 protease and four multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases in complex with the two peptides were modeled based on the crystal structures and examined during a 10 ns-molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that the multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases require higher desolvation energy to form complexes with the peptides. This result suggests that the desolvation of the HIV-1 protease active site is an important step of protease-ligand complex formation as well as drug resistance. Therefore, desolvation energy could be considered as a parameter in the evaluation of future HIV-1 protease inhibitor candidates.
Comparison of VILIP-1 and VILIP-3 Binding to Phospholipid Monolayers
Samuel Rebaud, Anne Simon, Conan K. Wang, Lyndel Mason, Lo?c Blum, Andreas Hofmann, Agnès Girard-Egrot
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0093948
Abstract: The neuronal calcium sensor proteins Visinin-like Proteins 1 (VILIP-1) and 3 (VILIP-3) are effectors of guanylyl cyclase and acetyl choline receptors, and transduce calcium signals in the brain. The “calcium-myristoyl” switch, which involves a post-translationally added myristoyl moiety and calcium binding, is thought to regulate their membrane binding capacity and therefore, play a critical role in their mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effect of membrane composition and solvent conditions on the membrane binding mechanisms of both VILIPs using lipid monolayers at the air/buffer interface. Results based on comparison of the adsorption kinetics of the myristoylated and non-myristoylated proteins confirm the pivotal role of calcium and the exposed myristol moiety for sustaining the membrane-bound state of both VILIPs. However, we also observed binding of both VILIP proteins in the absence of calcium and/or myristoyl conjugation. We propose a two-stage membrane binding mechanism for VILIP-1 and VILIP-3 whereby the proteins are initially attracted to the membrane surface by electrostatic interactions and possibly by specific interactions with highly negatively charged lipids head groups. The extrusion of the conjugated myristoyl group, and the subsequent anchoring in the membrane constitutes the second stage of the binding mechanism, and ensures the sustained membrane-bound form of these proteins.
Grid Power Optimization Based on Adapting Load Forecasting and Weather Forecasting for System Which Involves Wind Power Systems  [PDF]
Fadhil T. Aula, Samuel C. Lee
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.32016
Abstract: This paper describes the performance, generated power flow distribution and redistribution for each power plant on the grid based on adapting load and weather forecasting data. Both load forecasting and weather forecasting are used for collecting predicting data which are required for optimizing the performance of the grid. The stability of each power systems on the grid highly affected by load varying, and with the presence of the wind power systems on the grid, the grid will be more exposed to lowering its performance and increase the instability to other power systems on the gird. This is because of the intermittence behavior of the generated power from wind turbines as they depend on the wind speed which is varying all the time. However, with a good prediction of the wind speed, a close to the actual power of the wind can be determined. Furthermore, with knowing the load characteristics in advance, the new load curve can be determined after being subtracted from the wind power. Thus, with having the knowledge of the new load curve, and data that collected from SACADA system of the status of all power plants, the power optimization, load distribution and redistribution of the power flows between power plants can be successfully achieved. That is, the improvement of performance, more reliable, and more stable power grid.
Nanobiotechnology in the Management of Glaucoma  [PDF]
Pho Nguyen, Alex Huang, Samuel C. Yiu
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2013.34027
Abstract: As the prevalence of glaucoma continues to rise, clinicians and researchers are confronted with an age-old problem: how to reduce risk factors and preserve vision in glaucoma. Current management options revolve around a validated paradigm—intraocular pressure reduction. Active investigations to improve drug delivery efficacy and surgical outcomes are flourishing. This article aims to provide the interested readers with a review of recent discoveries in nanobiotechnology for the management of glaucoma. Targeted drug-delivery systems using mesoscale vectors demonstrate promising delivery profiles. The utility of nanoparticulate therapies to support retinal ganglion cell survival is being investigated. Studies to modulate tissue regeneration and remodeling and improve post-trabeculectomy outcomes are underway. Though these modalities promise new avenues to manage glaucoma, immediate market availability is not anticipated soon.
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