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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3619 matches for " Samson Chaima Robin Kajawo "
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Lessons from Confucius Ideas: Chinese Universities’ African Students Reflections  [PDF]
Samson Chaima Robin Kajawo
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105693
In most normal universities in China, Confucian lessons are included in the in-ternational students study programs. This is because Confucianism is the most prevalent deep rooted historical philosophy in China. It is based on the teach-ings of Confucius (551 - 479 B.C.), a virtuous man who never wanted to be as-sociated with insincerity, immorality and corruption. Though he failed to im-plement his ideas when he was alive, he lived forever and became “a king without a crown” when his principles were accepted and implemented by Chi-nese authorities many hundred years later, which has partly contributed to the current socio-economic landscape of China. In contrast, Africa continues to face a lot of challenges chiefly caused by moral degradation and poverty. Do Confucian lessons have an impact on the African students who study them? This paper qualitatively analyzed the views of ten former African students in China regarding Confucius and his philosophies and their reflections on how Africans can benefit from the ideas and philosophies of this Great Sage. The key finding was that the majority of respondents acknowledged that they in-deed took home a lot of lessons from their studies regarding Confucius and his philosophies. It was also noted that Confucius studies made the majority of these foreign students to understand the values of selflessness and virtuous life in leadership as well as the importance of expanding access of education for the benefit of all people. Africa can surely develop if leaders tap lessons from these kinds of philosophies.
Critical Analysis of the Challenges of Solid Waste Management Initiatives in Keko Machungwa Informal Settlement, Dar es Salaam  [PDF]
Samson Elisha Kasala
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512105
Abstract: Solid waste is inevitable because by nature every human activity generates a certain amount of solid waste. The rate of solid waste generated tends to increase with the increase in population. Despite existence of various efforts on solid waste collection, still the quantity of solid waste collected is small compared to the solid waste generated. The situation is even worse in unplanned settlements of developing countries, where, ineffective solid waste collection is contributed to by haphazard solid waste disposal and hence environmental pollution. Therefore, having an effective and efficient solid waste management system is a major challenge in cities of developing countries, and thus more consulted efforts are needed. This paper presents finding based on the study carried out in Keko Machungwa informal settlement in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study explored challenges facing solid waste management initiatives in Keko Machungwa and recommended measures for improvement. Data for this study was collected through documentary review, household interviews, focus group discussions, physical observations and official interviews. The analysis reveals that solid waste generated in Keko Machungwa is 16 tones per day, among those, only 4.56 (less than 50%) are collected. About 11.44 tones of uncollected waste are illegally dumped into a seasonal stream and in different vacant lots hence causing blockage of the seasonal stream. Different groups engaged in solid waste collection are deterred by many challenges. The challenges include: lack of cooperation among the existing solid waste collection organs, inaccessibility in some places, low public participation, financial constraints and unwillingness of local community to pay for solid waste collection fees. The paper recommends four options on how solid waste management, particularly collection in Keko Machungwa can be enhanced. 1) Alliance among the existing organ, 2) placing dust-bins in different points within the settlement, 3) linking the fees of solid waste collection to other public services and 4) education and awareness creation campaigns accompanied by community stakeholder consultations.
Assessment of Site Parameters and Heat Recovery Characteristics on Combined Cycle Performance in an Equatorial Environment  [PDF]
Sidum Adumene, Samson Nitonye
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.42032
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of site based parameters such as ambient temperature, humidity, altitude and heat transfer characteristic of a dual pressure heat recovery system on the performance of the combined cycle power plant within an equatorial environment. The bulk heat utilization and configuration of a dual pressure heat recovery system are investigated. It is observed that the heat system configuration play a vital role in optimizing the combined cycle overall performance, which has proportionality relationship with the operating ambient temperature and relative humidity of the gas turbine. The investigation is carried out within the ambient temperature range of 24 to 35, relative humidity of 60% to 80%, and a high level steam pressure of 60 bar to 110 bar. The results show that at 24 ambient temperature, the heat recovery system has the highest duty of 239.4 MW, the optimum combined cycle power output of 205.52 MW, and overall efficiency of 47.46%. It further indicates that as the ambient temperature increases at an average exhaust gas temperature of 530 and mass flow of 470 kg/s, the combined cycle power output and efficiency decrease by 15.5% and 13.7% respectively under the various considerations. This results from a drop in the air and exhaust mass flow as the values of the site parameters increase. The overall results indicate that decreasing the ambient temperature at optimum exhaust gas flow and temperature increases the heat recovery system heat duty performance, the steam generation, overall combined cycle power output and efficiency, which satisfies the research objective.
Analysis of Marine Pollution of Ports and Jetties in Rivers State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Samson Nitonye, Ofanson Uyi
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2018.81006
Ports and jetties complex operations come with various forms of pollutions. The analysis of marine pollution from ports becomes very necessary and complicated due to the various types of pollution, sources, effects and different characteristics. The sources of environmental pollution other than ships and from industrial activities in port and jetties were critically looked at and analyzed. A complete review of the environmental pollution in ports and the tools to assess and minimize such negative environmental impact are analyzed. The instrument of questionnaires was employed and distributed among two seaports and one jetty; Onne, Okrika and Port Harcourt to collect respondents’ opinions on effects, sources and causes of marine pollution. The chi-square test for independence was used with 180 respondents from Onne port, Port Harcourt port and Okrika jetty. Water sample was collected from Onne seaport and pollution contents such as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity, pH and salinity were tested in the laboratory. The result shows that Onne water had a salinity level of 20,790 (mg/l) which under the salinity range of water is considered saline, a turbidity level of 4.00 (NTU) which was considered average comparing with a 5.00 (NTU) bench mark, BOD5 level of 0.48 (mg/l) which was considered pristine because most pristine seawater will have BOD below 1 (mg/l), pH level of 7.77 which falls under the range of sea water being alkaline (7.2 - 8.4), TPH level of 2.98 (mg/l) since all conditions of sampling and sample preservations were observed and the value is less than the DPR limit (10 mg/l). It was concluded that the activities in Onne port are within the acceptable limits. It was also observed from the questionnaire that a larger population of respondents in Onne, Okrika and Port Harcourt ports where conscious of the sources and effects of environmental pollution from their respective ports.
Operationalising Quality Assurance Processes in Tanzanian Higher Education: Academics’ Perceptions from Selected Private Universities  [PDF]
Samson John Mgaiwa
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.96066
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to examine the extent of operationalization of quality assurance processes in Tanzanian Private Universities (PRUs). A descriptive survey design informed by a mixed research approach was employed to guide this research. Purposive and stratified random sampling procedures were employed to select a sample of one hundred and ninety-five (N = 195) participants in the study who comprised of 191 academics, and 4 quality assurance officials from four private universities. Questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were used for data collection. The findings indicated that QA processes such as institutional self-assessment and external examinations were to a large extent conducted by PRUs. Unlike these findings, internal quality audits and tracer studies were not adequately carried out. Conclusively, the non-regular practice of these processes remains the main challenge in most of the surveyed Tanzanian PRUs because they are stipulated in the institutional policy documents without a will to adequately implement them.
Pre-Service Teachers’ Approaches to the Effectiveness of Micro-Teaching in Teaching Practice Programs  [PDF]
Samson Kifletsion Elias
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.65016
This study focuses and critically analyzes the contribution of micro-teaching on teacher attitude according to pre-service teachers’ opinions based on their teaching practice program. The program was implemented at the College of Education in Eritrea Institute of Technology to prepare pre-service teachers. This research investigates that if there are any differences about pre-service teachers’ views after engagement of micro-teaching practices. The participants of the study are undergraduate diploma students who are in the department of teacher education1 in a diploma program in the 2015-2016 academic years. Students made a presentation practicing micro-teaching methods at the middle school curriculum of the Eritrean context. At the end of the training, semi-structured interview was used to assess their views about General Methods of Teaching (GMT) in the classroom. The result of the interview shows that pre-service teachers believed that the micro-teaching method gives a chance to evaluate their strength and weakness in the aspects of teaching. Apparently, the interview result exhibited that pre-service teachers were able to establish skills of: planning, questioning, assessment, management of student’s misbehavior, applications of teaching materials, and positive attitude towards the profession during the teaching process. The report calls on teacher educators in a different context to work together on similar initiatives that help pre-service teachers grow professionally through designing, developing and promoting their experiential learning projects to enhance human development and improve conditions.
Application of Probabilistic Model for Marine Steam System Failure Analysis under Uncertainty  [PDF]
Sidum Adumene, Samson Nitonye
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2018.82003
Abstract: In ship and offshore operations, machinery systems have associated operational hazard because of the prevailing harsh environment. Therefore, the need for an overall evaluation of the associated risk and failures of these systems, such as the marine steam boiler, is crucial to the industry. The concept of probability risk model is used to model the failure mode considering the overall risk associated with the system as a whole. The rate of occurrence of the failure that described the basic events as represented by the fault tree was developed to model the marine steam system. This specific event was implemented and evaluated to estimate the failure frequencies of the overall systems, based on the available failure rate in core literatures. A risk model which is hazard severity weight with its failure frequencies, and the time of operation was applied in the analysis. The probability of failure of the boiler system was estimated at 0.323225 at 35,040 operating hours with hazard severity weight of catastrophic if it occurs. The associated failure frequency calculated for the period is 1.114 × 10-5. The over failure frequency of the marine steam system for the period of consideration is conditioned on the pre-defined minimum cut sets of the top event. This therefore agreed with the fact that the basic events with their failure frequencies will lead to the catastrophic failure of the entire system within the period if the maintenance plan is not proactive.
Primary care patients reporting concerns about their gambling frequently have other co-occurring lifestyle and mental health issues
Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Bruce Arroll, Ngaire Kerse, Sean Sullivan, Nicole Coupe, Samson Tse, Robin Shepherd, Fiona Rossen, Lana Perese
BMC Family Practice , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-7-25
Abstract: This is a cross sectional study comparing patients identified as worrying about their gambling behavior with the total screened patient population for co morbidity. The setting was 51 urban and rural New Zealand practices. Participants were consecutive adult patients per practice (N = 2,536) who completed a brief multi-item tool screening primary care patients for lifestyle risk factors and mental health problems (smoking, alcohol and drug misuse, problem gambling, depression, anxiety, abuse, anger). Data analysis used descriptive statistics and non-parametric binomial tests with adjusting for clustering by practitioner using STATA survey analysis.Approximately 3/100 (3%) answered yes to the gambling question. Those worried about gambling more likely to be male OR 1.85 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.1). Increasing age reduced likelihood of gambling concerns – logistic regression for complex survey data OR = 0.99 (CI 95% 0.97 to 0.99) p = 0.04 for each year older. Patients concerned about gambling were significantly more likely (all p < 0.0001) to have concerns about their smoking, use of recreational drugs, and alcohol. Similarly there were more likely to indicate problems with depression, anxiety and anger control. No significant relationship with gambling worries was found for abuse, physical inactivity or weight concerns. Patients expressing concerns about gambling were significantly more likely to want help with smoking, other drug use, depression and anxiety.Our questionnaire identifies patients who express a need for help with gambling and other lifestyle and mental health issues. Screening for gambling in primary care has the potential to identify individuals with multiple co-occurring disorders.As available opportunities for gambling increase, it appears that problem gambling is increasing in prevalence [1]. Gambling disorders have been shown to have high comorbidity with the use of tobacco [1], problem drinking [2,3], other substance misuse [4], and mood disorder [5]. As
Aging and the decline in health  [PDF]
Robin Holliday
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26092
Abstract: The biological reasons for aging are now understood. Aging is the result of multiple stochastic events in molecules, cells, tissues and organs. These together produce the aged phenotype, senescence and ultimately death. Many of these changes can be directly linked to specific age-associated disease. However, there are also age-related changes that are not pathological. It can be said that aging has multiple causes, or is instead due to a general loss of molecular fidelity, that is, an increase in disorder. The complexity of organism means that they develop as ordered structures by obtaining energy from the environment. These ordered structures must be maintained by a wide variety of mechanisms which also depend on energy resources. Eventually these mechanisms fail, and senescence sets in. It is known that the efficiency of maintenance is correlated directly with the lifespan of different mammalian species. Also, these lifespans are inversely correlated with fecundity or reproductive potential. There is a trade off between investment of resources in maintenance of the body, or soma, and investment in reproduction.
Perspectives of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for Kenyan Midwives  [PDF]
Lucy Gitonga, Njogu Samson Muriuki
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics (OJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojcd.2014.42015
Abstract: Continuing Professional Development (CPD) provides an important strategy for reduction of maternal morbidity and mortality with the aim of attaining Millennium Development goals (MDG) four and five. However, there is lack of information about how Kenyan midwives understand and perceive CPD and how this is situated in the practice and social context. This research aimed to explore Kenyan midwives’ experience and perceptions of CPD. A descriptive explorative approach gathered focus group discussion and questionnaire data on beliefs, opinions, and perceptions, demotivating and motivating factors to CPD of a total of 25 midwives in a level five hospital in Kenya. Questionnaires were piloted and self-administered after cleaning and focus groups taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using inductive approach with the aid of SPSS computer program. Results: Four key themes emerged from the data: Midwives’ views of CPD, their motivators for undertaking CPD, the choices they made around CPD, their demotivators for undertaking CPD. Congruence with the issues evident in the literature were: the difficulties with role diversity, the importance of CPD in personal and professional growth, the importance of flexible modes of study and the importance of a supportive culture for ongoing learning. The study findings helped in identifying gaps in the literature about Kenyan midwives’ perspectives on CPD.
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