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La Ur ūza de Ibn Abī l-Ri āl y su comentario por Ibn Qunfu : astrología e historia en el Magrib en los siglos XI y XIV (II)
Samsó, Julio
Al-Qantara : Revista de Estudios Arabes , 2009,
Abstract: Not available No disponible
Epalza, M. de, amb la col-boració de Josep Forcadell i Joan M. Perujo, L'Alcorà. Tradúcelo de l'àrab al eatalà, introdiieció a la lectura i cinc estudis alcorànics per... Barcelona: Proa. 2001, 1.277 pp
Samsó, Julio
Al-Qantara : Revista de Estudios Arabes , 2002,
Abstract:
La Ur ūza de Ibn Abī l-Ri āl y su comentario por Ibn Qunfu : astrología e historia en el Magrib en los siglos XI y XIV (I)
Samsó, Julio
Al-Qantara : Revista de Estudios Arabes , 2009,
Abstract: A quick revision of the available information on the life and works of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl (fl. Tunis ca. 996-1048) and an analysis of the contents of his Urjūza fī a kām al-nu ūm which are compared to those of his better known Kitāb al- Barī‘ fī a kām al-nujūm. The conclusion is that both works are independent and that the Urjūza is not a summary of the Barī‘. The paper continues with biobibliographical data of the historian, mathematician and astrologer Ibn Qunfudh al-Qusan īnī (1339-1407), who is the author of a commentary of Ibn Abī l-Rijāl’s Urjūza dedicated to Abū Bakr b. Abī Mujāhid Gazī Ibn al-Kās, vizier of the Merinid sultans Abū Fāris (1366-1372) and Abū Zayyān (1372-1374). The work was probably written during the latter’s brief reign and before 1375, the date in which the dedicatee was exiled to Majorca. The work continues with an analysis of the contents of the commentary, the sources quoted, the astrological techniques used both by Ibn Qunfudh and by Ibn Abī l-Rijāl, and the use by the commentator of a set of astronomical tables derived from the zīj of Ibn Is āq. We find, finally, a detailed commentary of the horoscopes contained in Ibn Qunfudh’s work which includes one corresponding to the vernal equinox of the year 571 AD, in which there was a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter which announced the arrival of Islam. There are eleven more horoscopes (two of them published previously) which constitute an astrological history of Merinid Morocco between 1348 and 1366. Concerning the nine horoscopes analysed here, in six of them it has been possible to identify the subject or the event motivating the prediction, while three remain unidentified. Tras una rápida revisión de los escasos datos conocidos sobre la vida y la obra de Ibn Abī l-Ri āl (fl. Túnez c. 996-1048), se analiza el contenido de su Ur ūza fī a kām al-nu ūm comparándola con su célebre al-Kitāb al- Barī‘ fī a kām al-nu ūm concluyéndose que se trata de dos obras independientes y que la Ur ūza no es un resumen del Barī‘. El trabajo continúa con datos biobibliográficos del historiador, matemático y astrólogo Ibn Qunfu al-Qusan īnī (1339-1407), autor de un comentario a la Ur ūza de Ibn Abī l-Ri āl dedicado a Abū Bakr b. Abī Mu āhid Gazī Ibn al-Kās, visir de los sultanes meriníes Abū Fāris (1366-1372) y Abū Zayyān (1372-1374). La obra parece haber sido redactada durante el breve reinado de este último y antes de la deportación del dedicatario a Mallorca en 1375. Se analiza el contenido del comentario, las fuentes citadas en el mismo, las técnicas astrológicas utilizadas tanto por Ibn Qunfuu
Juan Vernet Ginés (31-7-1923 23-7-2011)
Samsó, Julio
Asclepio : Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia , 2011,
Abstract:
Patterns of Population Differentiation and Natural Selection on the Celiac Disease Background Risk Network
Aaron Sams, John Hawks
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070564
Abstract: Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene) selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution.
Danmarks Radio og de unge lyttere
Stefan Sams?e-Petersen
MedieKultur : Journal of Media and Communication Research , 1991,
Abstract: Gennem de seneste r har DR mistet mange unge lyttere. Ikke fordi inter- essen blandt unge for at lytte til radio er blevet mindre - de lytter blot til noget andet end DR. Og de seneste lytterunders gelser har vist, at DR's radiopublikum i dag har en h jere gennemsnitsalder end befolkningen som helhed. Artikel redeg r for historien bag ungomsprogrammerne og pr ver at frem- l gge, hvad der i dette perspektiv har v ret DR′s styrke over for konkur- renterne i forhold til de unge lyttere. Og med unge menes her unge under 20 r. Artiklen bygger b de p de erfaringer, som programpolitisk er indh stet og p de analyser som medieforskere i og uden for DR har foretaget af ung- domsprogrammerne. P basis heraf diskuteres, hvad DR kan g re i for- hold til ungdomslytterne.
Visual task enhances spatial selectivity in the human auditory cortex
Nelli H. Salminen,Mikko Sams
Frontiers in Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00044
Abstract: The auditory cortex represents spatial locations differently from other sensory modalities. While visual and tactile cortices utilize topographical space maps, for audition no such cortical map has been found. Instead, auditory cortical neurons have wide spatial receptive fields and together they form a population rate code of sound source location. Recent studies have shown that this code is modulated by task conditions so that during auditory tasks it provides better selectivity to sound source location than during idle listening. The goal of this study was to establish whether the neural representation of auditory space can also be influenced by task conditions involving other sensory modalities than hearing. Therefore, we conducted magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings in which auditory spatial selectivity of the human cortex was probed with an adaptation paradigm while subjects performed a visual task. Engaging in the task led to an increase in neural selectivity to sound source location compared to when no task was performed. This suggests that an enhancement in the population rate code of auditory space took place during task performance. This enhancement in auditory spatial selectivity was independent of the direction of visual orientation. Together with previous studies, these findings suggest that performing any demanding task, even one in which sounds and their source locations are irrelevant, can lead to enhancements in the neural representation of auditory space. Such mechanisms may have great survival value as sounds are capable of producing location information on potentially relevant events in all directions and over long distances.
Emotion and Consciousness: Ends of a Continuum
Yuri I. Alexandrov,Mikko E. Sams
Psychology in Russia : State of Art , 2009,
Abstract: We suggest a united concept of consciousness and emotion, based on the systemic cognitive neuroscience perspective regarding organisms as active and goaldirected. We criticize the idea that consciousness and emotion are psychological phenomena having quite different neurophysiological mechanisms. We argue that both characterize a unified systemic organization of behavior, but at different levels. All systems act to achieve intended behavioral results in interaction with their environment. Differentiation of this interaction increases during individual development. Any behavioral act is a simultaneous realization of systems ranking from the least to the most differentiated. We argue that consciousness and emotion are dynamic systemic characteristics that are prominent at the most and least differentiated systemic levels, correspondingly. These levels are created during development. Our theory is based on both theoretical and empirical research and provides a solid framework for experimental work.
A Case Report: PCR-Assisted Diagnosis of Varicella in an Adult  [PDF]
Satish K. Mehta, Don Gilden, Brian E. Crucian, Clarence F. Sams, Randall J. Cohrs, Duane L. Pierson
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23019
Abstract: A 41-year-old woman developed skin lesions on her upper back and arm. Initially, a definitive diagnosis could not be made. Subsequently, PCR detected VZV DNA in skin lesions and saliva. Immediate antiviral treatment led to a quick recovery without complicating prolonged fatigue and weakness typically seen in adults with varicella.
The Effect of Ethanol on the Neuronal Subserving of Behavior in the Hippocampus  [PDF]
Yuri I. Alexandrov, Yuri V. Grinchenko, Diana G. Shevchenko, Robert G. Averkin, Valentina N. Matz, Seppo Laukka, Mikko Sams
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.31011
Abstract:
We have previously shown that both acute and chronic ethanol treatment depresses neural activity, specifically in the cingulate cortex. Minor influences were found in the motor cortex. The acute effect of ethanol in the hippocampus was intermediate to those in the cingulate and motor cortices. In the present study, we concentrate on the chronic effects of ethanol on the hippocampus. We demonstrate how the neuronal activity underlying food-acquisition behavior is modified after chronic ethanol treatment, and how the hippocampus subserves formation of newly-formed alcohol-acquisition behavior. Neuronal activity in CA1 was more sensitive to chronic ethanol than the Dg area. Acute administration of ethanol had a normalizing effect on the chronically-treated animals: their performance and the hippocampal neural activity approached a normal range. The sets of neurons involved in food-acquisition behavior formed before chronic ethanol treatment, and those involved in alcohol-acquisition behavior formed after treatment significantly overlapped supporting the view that the neuronal mechanisms of pre-existing behavior provide the basis for the formation of new behavior. Additionally, we also discovered alcohol-acquisition selective neurons. Assuming that the formation of new neuronal specializations underlies learning, we believe that alcohol-selective neurons are specialized during the formation of alcohol-acquisition behavior. Our data demonstrate several new findings on the effect of acute and chronic ethanol on hippocampus activity, and how the neuronal activity relates to behavior before and after ethanol treatment.
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