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A comparative evaluation of dimensional stability of three types of interocclusal recording materials-an in-vitro multi-centre study
Sampath Tejo, Anil G Kumar, Vivekanand S Kattimani, Priti D Desai, Sandeep Nalla, Krishna Chaitanya K
Head & Face Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-160x-8-27
Abstract: The aim of this multicenter research is to evaluate the time dependent linear dimensional stability of three types of interocclusal recording materials; which gives very clear idea to clinicians in regard to its usage in routine practice and recommendations for usage of the different materials. Also to find out ideal time for articulation of three types of interocclusal recording materials with accuracy.Commercially available and ADA approved Polyether bite registration paste (Ramitec), Poly vinyl siloxane bite registration paste (Jetbite) and Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) bite registration paste (Super bite) were used in the study.A stainless steel die was made according to modified American dental Associations (ADA) specification no. 19. Each one of the tested materials were manipulated according to manufacturers’ instructions. The materials separated from die, 3-mins after their respective setting time, resulted in disks of standard diameter. Two parallel lines and three perpendicular lines reproduced on the surface. The distance between two parallel lines was measured at different time intervals i.e. 1 hour, 24, 48 and 72 hours by using travelling microscope (magnus) and compared with standard die measurements made according to ADA specification no.19 to find out the dimensional stability of these interocclusal recording materials. Total 120 samples were made for observation and results were subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and then Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test for comparison among groups at the 0.05 level of significance. After statistical analysis of the data, results were obtained and analyzed for interpretation.The results shows significant difference between the dimensional stability of all three material at different intervals with p-value <0.05. Comparatively the polyether bite registration material showed less distortion with good dimensional stability compared to Po
Increasing the Adaptive Capacity in Unembanked Neighborhoods? An Exploration into Stakeholder Support for Adaptive Measures in Rotterdam, The Netherlands  [PDF]
Anita Kokx, Tejo Spit
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.14015

Cities in deltas are vulnerable to climate change, especially their unembanked neighborhoods that are not protected by dikes. Rising sea levels and extreme water levels in the rivers can lead to the flooding of these urban areas. The Netherlands has a long history in water management. However, building dikes and the elevation of land are traditionally treated as rather stand-alone measures. Attention is rarely paid to the surrounding area, let alone to the complex context of cities and certainly not to disadvantaged neighborhoods. Yet, inner-city area redevelopment may provide opportunities to integrate flood management in these planning processes. In order to investigate the support of stakeholders for risk-reducing adaptive measures and more resilient measures, we did research in an unembanked inner-city area in the city of Rotterdam (The Netherlands), in which we conducted in-depth interviews with the central stakeholders. The main conclusion is that the most important barriers for integrating climate adaptation measures into that neighborhood are the fragmentation of water-safety policy (e.g. elevation of rebuilding locations) and the hierarchical governance arrangement in water management. This type of fragmentation led on its turn to fragmentation with other policy goals for the neighborhood. It also led to fragmentation between different areas in the same neighborhood that received political attention and those that are excluded from water-safety policy. This questions the approach in terms of social justice. An important side effect is that this governance arrangement also restricted innovation towards climate adaptation. Therefore, integrating water-safety policies in urban planning (in its capacity as a more integrative and comprehensive spatial approach) should be considered the best option to increase the adaptive capacity in delta cities. Not only can the negative effects in terms of policy fragmentation be dealt with effectively, but also spatial fragmentation can be tackled.

Capacity Building for the Integration of Climate Adaptation into Urban Planning Processes: The Dutch Experience  [PDF]
Thomas Hartmann, Tejo Spit
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.33023
Abstract: The institutions of the Dutch (urban) planning system face four challenging characteristics of climate adaptation measures. These measures are uncertain in their effects, in competition with other interests, multifaceted, and inherently complex. Capacity building is a key issue for the implementation of climate adaptation measures in urban planning processes, which aim to achieve Climate-Proof Cities (CPC). For successful capacity building, it is important to define the relevant stakeholders and tailor the adaptation strategies first to (the position of) these stakeholders and next to the specific urban conditions and issues. In addition, scientific insights and tools can be of assistance, and the use of climate maps can help to create a common language. Such common understanding of climate problems can lead to “goal entwinement” between actors, which can support the implementation of climate adaptation strategies in urban planning. Awareness, recognition and urgency are the most important components of this common understanding, which may differ for each stage in every urban planning process. In order to overcome the pragmatism that rules in day-to-day urban planning processes, multi-level arrangements between different tiers of government must be employed to improve the penetration of climate adaptation measures. After all, it still remains a soft interest in a hard process.
Living in a Bottomless Pit: Households’ Responses to Land Subsidence, an Example from Indonesia  [PDF]
Erlis Saputra, Tejo Spit, Annelies Zoomers
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2019.101001
Abstract: Land subsidence has severe physical and economic implications for both areas and people. Numerous scholars have shown that land subsidence has had massive impacts at global, national and regional levels, and that the impacts were usually responded to by the government. However, little attention has been paid to what land subsidence means to people’s daily lives and how much it costs them. To fill that gap, this article draws on empirical research carried out in three areas in Indonesia to provide a better understanding of what land subsidence means to households, and how they respond to the consequences and how much it costs them to do so. An analysis of a survey of 330 households shows that they have been suffering from various severities of impacts of land subsidence for an extended period. Whereas some of the households respond to the impacts by making small preparations or adapting to the damages, others can do nothing due to a lack of money and their continuously declining earning capacity. Thus, the affected households are effectively throwing money into a bottomless pit. We argue that these households must escape the vicious circle caused by land subsidence by increasing their income capacity or even abandoning the affected areas.
Los problemas del desarme nuclear en la postguerra fría: Las naciones unidas y la conferencia de desarme en la década del noventa
Ana Tejo Carrasco
Historia Actual Online , 2011,
Abstract: En este artículo se analiza el desarrollo del desarme nuclear y los pensamientos a favor de su realización definitivo en los noventas. El desarme estuvo bajo la dirección de las Naciones Unidas a través de la Conferencia de Desarme, el cual intentó la eliminación paulatina de las armas nucleares, problema heredado de la Guerra Fría. Este programa no tuvo grandes avances por el desarrollo de la política nuclear de las potencias, lo que ocasionó críticas al funcionamiento de la organización y la constante presión de la opinión pública por el continuo peligro de estas armas que se acentúa cada década. Palabras claves: Conferencia de Desarme (CD), Desarme Nuclear, política nuclear. ___________________________ Abstract: This article analyzes the development of nuclear disarmament and arguments in favor of a definitive one during the nineties. The disarmament process was carried out by the UN through the Conference of Disarmament (DC) who attempted to slowly eliminate nuclear weapons, a Cold War inherited problem. The development of nuclear policies by powerful countries made the schedule of the DC failed which criticizes the way this organization works and the constant pressure from public opinion for the danger these weapons represent, a danger that accentuates each decade. Keywords: Conference of Disarmament (DC), Nuclear Disarmament, nuclear policies.
Fighting the Ignorance: Public Authorities’ and Land Users’ Responses to Land Subsidence in Indonesia  [PDF]
Erlis Saputra, Thomas Hartmann, Annelies Zoomers, Tejo Spit
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2017.61001
Abstract: Land subsidence can have a considerable impact on the socio-economic viability of areas. In urban areas, land subsidence tends to damage buildings and infrastructures gradually, while in rural peat land it slowly destroys vegetation. The damages will worsen since climate change has further implications for the areas affected by land subsidence. In Indonesia, the response to land subsidence varies in different areas in terms of awareness, urgency and action on the part of both public authorities and land users. This paper systematically investigates these varied responses in urban and rural peat land areas. Interviews with experts and surveys of 330 land users in selected sub-districts were conducted and further supplemented by focus group discussions. We found that both the public authorities as well as the land users’ responses were considered as of limited value to contest land subsidence. We suggest that the endorsement of land users’ response into governmental policies would make a significant difference in improving land subsidence management.
Tourism and Disasters: Impact of Disaster Events on Tourism Development in Indonesia 1998-2016 and Structural Approach Policy Responses  [PDF]
Erda Rindrasih, Patrick Witte, Tejo Spit, Annelies Zoomers
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2019.122006
Abstract: Over the last two decades, disaster events have affected tourist destinations in many countries around the world. Although disasters have attracted considerable attention in academia, little attention has been paid to the impacts of recurring disasters on the multiyear performance of the tourism industry in a specific country. This paper discusses the relationship between the performance of the tourism industry and disaster events and examines the spillover effects of disasters on the tourism sector in Indonesia. It also highlights the Indonesian policy responses in tourism following multiple disasters. The paper analyses the multiyear (1998-2016) performance of the tourism industry using the variables number of inbound tourists, national/regional income from tourism, and hotel room occupancy rates. Secondary data were collected from several sources, including legal documents, Indonesia’s tourism statistics, media outlets and newspapers articles. The results show that during the past 18 years, disasters have affected the performance of the tourism industry differently in terms of the scale of destruction, the location of disasters and the type of disasters (human vs. nature induced). The spillover effect between provinces has also been captured from the data. Overall, this paper argues that in dealing with multiple disasters over long periods of time, the continuation of regular tourism activities needs a structural approach in terms of policy responses.
Multiplier Design Utilizing Tri Valued Logic for RLNS Based DSP Applications  [PDF]
Shalini Radakirishnan Valliammal, Sampath Palaniswami
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.74036
Abstract: Residue Number System (RNS) has proved shaping the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) units into highly parallel, faster and secured entities. The computational complexity of the multiplication process for a RNS based design can be reduced by indulging Logarithmic Number System (LNS). The combination of these unusual number systems forms Residue Logarithmic Number System (RLNS) that provides simple internal architectures. Till date RLNS based processing units are designed for binary logic based circuits. In order to reduce the number of input output signals in a system, the concept of Multiple Valued Logic (MVL) is introduced in literature. In that course of research, this paper uses Tri Valued Logic (TVL) in RLNS technique proposed, to further reduce the chip area and delay value. Thus in this research work three different concepts are proposed, it includes the design of multiplier for RLNS based application for number of bits 8, 16 and 32. Next is the utilization of TVL in the proposed multiplication structure for RLNS based system along with the error correction circuits for the ternary logarithmic and antilogarithmic conversion process. Finally the comparison of the two multiplication schemes with the existing research of multiplier design for RNS based system using booth encoding concepts. It can be found that the proposed technique using TVL saves on an average of about 63% of area occupied and 97% of delay value respectively than the existing technique.
Modified Cooperative Subchannel Allocation Algorithms and PSO Based Power Allocation for an Alamouti Decode and Forward Relaying Protocol in Multiuser OFDMA Systems  [PDF]
K. Shoukath Ali, P. Sampath
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78153
Abstract: The present work is a discussion on the performance analysis of Modified Cooperative Subchannel Allocation (CSA) Algorithms which is used in Alamouti Decoded and Forward (Alamouti DF) Relaying Protocol for wireless multi-user Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access (OFDMA) systems. In addition, the performance of approximate Symbol Error Rate (SER) for the Alamouti DF Relaying Protocol with the Cooperative Maximum Ratio Combining Technique (C-MRC)is analyzed and compared with SER upper bound. The approximate SER is asymptotically tight bound at higher Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). From the asymptotic tight bound approximate SER, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based Power Allocation (PA) is determined for the Alamouti DF Relaying Protocol. The simulation results suggested that the Modified Throughput based Subchannel Allocation Algorithm achieved an improved throughput of 6% to 33% compared to that of existing cooperative diversity protocol. Further, the Modified Fairness based Subchannel Allocation Algorithm rendered fairness of 7.2% to 17% among the multiuser against the existing cooperative diversity protocol.
A quantum computing scheme for the Hamiltonian path problem
G. Sampath
Physics , 2001,
Abstract: A quantum computing scheme that uses a single photon and multiple-slit gratings is suggested for the Hamiltonian path problem on a simple graph G of N vertices. The photon is input to an N-slit grating followed by an N x N matrix of `processing units'. A unit consists of a delay line followed by a grating with k slits (0 < k < N) whose outputs are directed to k units in the next row in a manner determined by the adjacency matrix of G. There is a one-to-one mapping between paths of length N-1 in the graph and physical paths through the matrix. The photon's path is a superposition of all these physical paths. The time taken by the photon along a physical path corresponding to a Hamiltonian path in G is a fixed value equal to the sum of N distinct delays, and is different from the time along any other path. The graph is Hamiltonian if any one of N detectors placed in the output of the N units in row N detects the photon at this fixed time.
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