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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 167894 matches for " Samara E. Soghoian "
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mHealth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Thomas J. Betjeman,Samara E. Soghoian,Mark P. Foran
International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/482324
Abstract: Mobile phone penetration rates have reached 63% in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and are projected to pass 70% by 2013. In SSA, millions of people who never used traditional landlines now use mobile phones on a regular basis. Mobile health, or mHealth, is the utilization of short messaging service (SMS), wireless data transmission, voice calling, and smartphone applications to transmit health-related information or direct care. This systematic review analyzes and summarizes key articles from the current body of peer-reviewed literature on PubMed on the topic of mHealth in SSA. Studies included in the review demonstrate that mHealth can improve and reduce the cost of patient monitoring, medication adherence, and healthcare worker communication, especially in rural areas. mHealth has also shown initial promise in emergency and disaster response, helping standardize, store, analyze, and share patient information. Challenges for mHealth implementation in SSA include operating costs, knowledge, infrastructure, and policy among many others. Further studies of the effectiveness of mHealth interventions are being hindered by similar factors as well as a lack of standardization in study design. Overall, the current evidence is not strong enough to warrant large-scale implementation of existing mHealth interventions in SSA, but rapid progress of both infrastructure and mHealth-related research in the region could justify scale-up of the most promising programs in the near future. 1. Introduction Mobile phones are increasingly accessible worldwide. There are an estimated 6.8 billion mobile phones being used in the world in 2013, compared to 1 billion in 2002, corresponding to penetration rates of approximately 96% globally: 128% in developed countries and 89% in developing countries [1]. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the penetration of cell phones is estimated to be 63% in 2013 and projected to pass 70% by 2015 [2]. Hundreds of millions of people in SSA who never gained access to traditional landlines for telecommunication now use mobile phones on a regular basis [3]. In many developing countries, wireless technology is less expensive and more readily available than wired technology [4]. This technology has unique potential to reach large numbers of people living in resource-limited or remote locations. Mobile health (mHealth) is the use of mobile phone technology for health-related purposes. This relatively new, dynamic, and rapidly evolving field includes the development and study of mobile phone applications such as short messaging service (SMS), voice calling, and
Factors Influencing Students’ Choice of Elective Science Courses: A Case Study from the American University of Sharjah  [PDF]
Fatin Samara
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38010
Abstract: Scientific studies in higher education are becoming an increasing matter of discussion. The Ameri- can University of Sharjah (AUS) encourages the scientific literacy of students who are not enrolled in science or engineering majors by including two required science courses in the curriculum. The courses of choice include biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, astronomy and physics. This study investigates the factors that contribute to students’ choice when selecting science courses at AUS. A survey comprised of open-ended questions as well as quantitative enquiries was administered to students enrolled in environmental science (ENV 100), aiming to investigate the main reason behind their choice. The results of this two year study showed significantly positive attitudes toward the course contents and the benefit of the course towards their future careers. Furthermore, it reveals that students are highly influenced by previous experiences with subjects, professors’ popularity, peer recommendation, their abilities in memorization, and skills in math. The study reveals that the main concern for students is related to the high amount of information and details that the course content covers. In addition, the possibility of obtaining a higher grade was also studied by observing the grade point average (GPA) for science courses over a period of four years. Nonetheless, the main factor for course choice was their genuine interest for the subject matter, which is this case study, was the environmental studies course.
Aware Diffusion: A Semi-Holistic Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Kamil Samara, Hossein Hosseini
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2016.83004
Abstract: Routing is a challenging task in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) due to the limitation in energy and hardware capabilities in WSN nodes. This challenge prompted researchers to develop routing protocols that satisfy WSNs needs. The main design objectives are reliable delivery, low energy consumption, and prolonging network lifetime. In WSNs, routing is based on local information among neighboring nodes. Routing decisions are made locally; each node will select the next hop without any clue about the other nodes on the path. Although a full knowledge about the network yields better routing, that is not feasible in WSNs due to memory limitation and to the high traffic needed to collect the needed data about all the nodes in the network. As an effort to try to overcome this disadvantage, we are proposing in this paper aware diffusion routing protocol. Aware diffusion follows a semi-holistic approach by collecting data about the available paths and uses these data to enforce healthier paths using machine learning. The data gathering is done by adding a new stage called data collection stage. In this stage, the protocol designer can determine which parameters to collect then use these parameters in enforcing the best path according to certain criteria. In our implementation of this paradigm, we are collecting total energy on the path, lowest energy level on the path, and hop count. Again, the data collected is designer and application specific. The collected data will be used to compare available paths using non-incremental learning, and the outcome will be preferring paths that meet the designer criteria. In our case, healthier and shorter paths are preferred, which will result in less power consumption, higher delivery rate, and longer network life since healthier and fewer nodes will be doing the work.
The Role of Dentist in the Distinguish of Child Abuse: A Case Report
C. Stavrianos,L. Zouloumis,E. Samara,D. Tatsis,A. Eliades
Research Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjmsci.2010.285.287
Abstract: When a child presents for examination particularly if there is any evidence of severe or repeated trauma involved, the history may alert the dentist to the possibility of a child abuse. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. These behaviors are serious crimes, both as misdemeanors and felonies, punishable by arrest and imprisonment. Dentists should be aware that physical or sexual abuse may result in oral or dental injuries or conditions that sometimes can be confirmed by laboratory findings. When questions arise or when consultation is needed, a pediatric dentist or a dentist with formal training in forensic odontology can ensure appropriate testing, diagnosis and treatment. This case report aims to present a case of a physically abused child 12 years old. The examination revealed fracture of the left ocular area and as a result the adipose tissue all around the eyeball fall like a drop into the sinus. The CT scan of the facial skull was done so as to detect the consequences of the fracture. In conclusion, the ability to properly identify suspicious injuries to the head, face, mouth and neck of a child is imperative for dentists. Dentists are encouraged to be knowledgeable about such findings and their significance and to meticulously observe and document them.
Annals of the University of Petrosani : Economics , 2010,
Abstract: The main purpose of evaluation is to determine the financial position and the outcome of the entity’s activity. With the intensification of the phenomena of globalization of economies and financial markets and the emergence of phenomena such as inflation, it began to be more often used the assessment based on the current value and, in particular, on the fair value. The users of the financial statements must always be taken into when selecting a basis of evaluation. Internationally, we can observe the tendency that, by the use of a certain bases of evaluation, to respond favourably to the needs of a various range of users; a balance must be assured between the relevance of the information (their usefulness in decision-making) and their reliability (their objectivity).
Ghassan Samara
International Journal of Cyber-Security and Digital Forensics , 2012,
Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Network security is one of the hottest topics of research in the field of network security. One of the ultimate goals in the design of such networking is to resist various malicious abuses and security attacks. In this research new security mechanism is proposed to reduce the channel load resulted from frequent warning broadcasting happened in the adversary discovery process a€“ Accusation Report (AR) - which produces a heavy channel load from all the vehicles in the road to report about any new adversary disovery. Furthermore, this mechanism will replace the Certificate Revocation List (CRL), which cause long delay and high load on the channel with Local Revocation List (LRL) which will make it fast and easy in the adversary discovery process.
Security Analysis of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET)
Ghassan Samara
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1109/NETAPPS.2010.17
Abstract: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) has mostly gained the attention of today's research efforts, while current solutions to achieve secure VANET, to protect the network from adversary and attacks still not enough, trying to reach a satisfactory level, for the driver and manufacturer to achieve safety of life and infotainment. The need for a robust VANET networks is strongly dependent on their security and privacy features, which will be discussed in this paper. In this paper a various types of security problems and challenges of VANET been analyzed and discussed; we also discuss a set of solutions presented to solve these challenges and problems.
Efficient Certificate Management in VANET
Ghassan Samara
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in this research We propose a flexible, simple, and scalable design for VANET certificates, and new methods for efficient certificate management, which will Reduce channel overhead by eliminating the use of CRL, and make Better certificate Revocation Management. Also it will increase the security of the network and helps in identifying the adversary vehicle.
Increasing Network Visibility Using Coded Repetition Beacon Piggybacking
Ghassan Samara
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET) is one of the most challenging research areas in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. In this research, we propose a new mechanism for increasing network visibility, by taking the information gained from periodic safety messages (beacons), and inserting it into a 'neighbor' table. The table will be propagated to all neighbors giving a wider vision for each vehicle belonging to the network. It will also decrease the risk of collision at road junctions as each vehicle will have prior knowledge oncoming vehicles before reaching the junction.
A New Security Mechanism for Vehicular Communication Networks
Ghassan Samara
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Vehicular communication networks is a promising and emerging technology to facilitat road safety, Safety of life, traffic management, and infotainment dissemination for drivers and passengers. One of the ultimate goals in the design of such networking is to resist various malicious abuses and security attacks. In this research new security mechanisms are proposed to achieve secure certificate revocation, which is considered among the most challenging design objective in vehicular ad hoc networks.
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