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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 210665 matches for " Samantha L. Bell "
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Expression of a Malarial Hsp70 Improves Defects in Chaperone-Dependent Activities in ssa1 Mutant Yeast
Samantha L. Bell,Annette N. Chiang,Jeffrey L. Brodsky
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020047
Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent form of malaria and encodes a large number of molecular chaperones. Because the parasite encounters radically different environments during its lifecycle, many members of this chaperone ensemble may be essential for P. falciparum survival. Therefore, Plasmodium chaperones represent novel therapeutic targets, but to establish the mechanism of action of any developed therapeutics, it is critical to ascertain the functions of these chaperones. To this end, we report the development of a yeast expression system for PfHsp70-1, a P. falciparum cytoplasmic chaperone. We found that PfHsp70-1 repairs mutant growth phenotypes in yeast strains lacking the two primary cytosolic Hsp70s, SSA1 and SSA2, and in strains harboring a temperature sensitive SSA1 allele. PfHsp70-1 also supported chaperone-dependent processes such as protein translocation and ER associated degradation, and ameliorated the toxic effects of oxidative stress. By introducing engineered forms of PfHsp70-1 into the mutant strains, we discovered that rescue requires PfHsp70-1 ATPase activity. Together, we conclude that yeast can be co-opted to rapidly uncover specific cellular activities mediated by malarial chaperones.
Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface
Samantha L. Sampson
Clinical and Developmental Immunology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/497203
Abstract: The mycobacterial PE/PPE proteins have attracted much interest since their formal identification just over a decade ago. It has been widely speculated that these proteins may play a role in evasion of host immune responses, possibly via antigenic variation. Although a cohesive understanding of their function(s) has yet to be established, emerging data increasingly supports a role for the PE/PPE proteins at multiple levels of the infectious process. This paper will delineate salient features of the families revealed by comparative genomics, bioinformatic analyses and genome-wide screening approaches and will summarise existing knowledge of subcellular localization, secretion pathways, and protein structure. These characteristics will be considered in light of findings on innate and adaptive host responses to PE/PPE proteins, and we will review the increasing body of data on B and T cell recognition of these proteins. Finally, we will consider how current knowledge and future explorations may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of these intriguing proteins and their involvement in host pathogen interactions. Ultimately this information could underpin future intervention strategies, for example, in the area of new and improved diagnostic tools and vaccine candidates.
Efficacy of Role Play in Concert with Lecture to Enhance Student Learning of Immunology
Samantha L. Elliott
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2010, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v11i2.211
Abstract: Despite numerous reports that active learning increases student understanding, many barriers still exist that prevent faculty from shedding the traditional passive lecture and adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. This study looks at the use of role play as an active learning technique to convey new material, or as reinforcement to traditional lecture. A pre- and post-test survey was utilized to determine student learning gains, along with an anonymous survey to determine student attitudes about role play. Student learning gains are similar regardless of class size, role-playing participation or learning style, and reflect an increase in lower order cognition. Attitudes and learning gains indicate role play is preferable as a reinforcement technique, although the order does not matter if both lecture and role play are utilized to convey information. These data provide insight into the best practices of role-playing implementation in concert with traditional lecture format.
Mycobacterial PE/PPE Proteins at the Host-Pathogen Interface
Samantha L. Sampson
Journal of Immunology Research , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/497203
Abstract: The mycobacterial PE/PPE proteins have attracted much interest since their formal identification just over a decade ago. It has been widely speculated that these proteins may play a role in evasion of host immune responses, possibly via antigenic variation. Although a cohesive understanding of their function(s) has yet to be established, emerging data increasingly supports a role for the PE/PPE proteins at multiple levels of the infectious process. This paper will delineate salient features of the families revealed by comparative genomics, bioinformatic analyses and genome-wide screening approaches and will summarise existing knowledge of subcellular localization, secretion pathways, and protein structure. These characteristics will be considered in light of findings on innate and adaptive host responses to PE/PPE proteins, and we will review the increasing body of data on B and T cell recognition of these proteins. Finally, we will consider how current knowledge and future explorations may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of these intriguing proteins and their involvement in host pathogen interactions. Ultimately this information could underpin future intervention strategies, for example, in the area of new and improved diagnostic tools and vaccine candidates. 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) represents an ongoing threat to global health, with the current epidemic fuelled by HIV-coinfection and an increasing incidence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis [1]. Effective new interventions are urgently needed, and genes that are unique to mycobacteria may provide a starting point for developing these. The intriguing pe/ppe genes first attracted attention due to their genetically hypervariable nature [2, 3] and were initially exploited as informative molecular markers for mycobacterial strain typing [2, 4]. Shortly thereafter, the first M. tuberculosis genome sequence was completed, and it was revealed that these variable regions were in fact part of two extensive families encoding almost 200 putative proteins [5]. It is now known that these genes are unique to mycobacteria and are particularly abundant in pathogenic mycobacteria, such as M. tuberculosis. Naturally, the PE/PPE families have provoked much speculation, although we have yet to establish a complete understanding of their function. However, the advent of the mycobacterial genomic age, together with improved molecular tools and a deeper understanding of the immunopathogenesis of TB, has advanced our knowledge of these gene families and the potential functions
Temperament and reproductive biology: emotional reactivity and reproduction in sheep
Blache, Dominique;Bickell, Samantha L.;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010001300044
Abstract: reproductive capacity is controlled by a large number of factors such as season, social interactions and metabolic status. however, the influence of emotional reactivity on reproductive success has not been intensively investigated in farm animals. in this review, we define emotion reactivity and the expression of its inter individual variability named temperament. we briefly describe our protocol to measure temperament in sheep and discuss the heritability of temperament traits. using the results obtained from our flock of sheep selected for calm or nervous temperament, we illustrate how this selection affects the reproductive biology from changing the inexperienced ewe's response to the male effect to improving lamb survival and ovulation rate. we conclude that the mechanisms by which selection for temperament affects the different steps of the reproductive cycle are not yet understood but nevertheless this type of selection could have a great impact on reproduction efficiency of sheep and other domestic ruminants.
On tau functions associated with linear systems
Gordon Blower,Samantha L. Newsham
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: This paper considers the Fredholm determinant $\det (I+\lambda \Gamma_{\phi_{(x)}})$ of a Hankel integral operator on $L^2(0, \infty)$ with kernel $\phi (s+t+2x)$, where $\phi$ is a matrix scattering function associated with a linear system $(-A,B,C)$. The original contribution of the paper is a related operator $R_x$ such that $\det (I-R_x)=\det (I-\Gamma_x)$ and $-dR_x/dx=AR_x+R_xA$ and an associated differential ring ${\bf S}$ of operators on the state space. The paper introduces two main classes of linear systems $(-A,B,C)$ for Schr\"odinger's equation $-\psi"+u\psi =\lambda \psi$, namely (i) $(2,2)$-admissible linear linear systems which give scattering class potentials, with scattering function $\phi (x)=Ce^{-xA}B$; (ii) periodic linear systems, which give periodic potentials as in Hill's equation. The paper analyses ${\bf S}$ for linear systems as in (i) and (ii), and the tau function is $\tau (x) =\det (I+R_x)$. The isospectral flows of Schr\"odinger's equation are given by potentials $u(t,x)$ that evolve according to the Korteweg de Vries equation $u_t+u_{xxx}-6uu_x=0.$ Every hyperelliptic curve ${\cal E}$ gives a solution for $KdV$ which corresponds to rectilinear motion in the Jacobi variety of ${\cal E}$. Extending P\"oppe's results, the paper develops a functional calculus for linear systems, thus producing solutions of the KdV equations. If $\Gamma_x$ has finite rank, or if $A$ is invertible and $e^{-xA}$ is a uniformly continuous periodic group, then the solutions are explicitly given in terms of matrices.
Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients
L Human, J Bell
Southern African Journal of Critical Care , 2007,
Abstract: Oral hygiene care includes a combination of nursing activities that are often placed very low on the priority care list for a critically ill patient. This may have detrimental implications for the patient. A literature review was done to identify and describe the available evidence related to the beneficial effects of oral hygiene care and the way in which oral hygiene practices should be implemented for a critically ill patient. Various implications of poor oral hygiene care are highlighted, as well as the barriers that have been identified to preventing good oral hygiene care practice. A discussion of the available research evidence to guide oral hygiene care activities includes aspects of timing as well as recommended ‘tools'. While some nursing-led research has been published on this topic, there is scope for further investigation into oral hygiene care practices in the critically ill. Southern African Journal of Critical Care Vol. 23 (2) 2007: pp. 61-65
A New Hesperid From Haiti (Lepidoptera; Rhopalocera)
E. L. Bell
Psyche , 1935, DOI: 10.1155/1935/60469
Abstract:
Cover Schemes, Frame-Valued Sets and Their Potential Uses in Spacetime Physics
John L. Bell
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: The immensely fruitful concept of Grothendieck topology or covering issued from the efforts of algebraic geometers to study "sheaf-like" objects defined on categories more general than the lattice of open sets on a topological space. In the present paper the covering concept - here called a cover scheme -is presented and developed in the simple case when the underlying category is a preordered set. The relationship between cover schemes, frames (complete Heyting algebras), Kripke models, and frame-valued set theory is discussed. Finally cover schemes and frame-valued set theory are applied in the context of Markopoulou's 1999 account of discrete spacetime as sets "evolving" over a causal set.
Experiential Learning in Graduate Education: Development, Delivery, and Analysis of an Evidence-Based Intervention  [PDF]
Samantha M. Harden, Kacie C. Allen, Clarice N. Chau, Serena L. Parks, Ashley L. Zanko
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.35095
Abstract: Certain expectations are outlined for a young professional with a recently earned doctoral degree. In academia, it is anticipated that graduates will demonstrate the ability to obtain funding, actively engage in an interdisciplinary work environment, and value experiences with critical thinking and problem solving. This paper outlines a unique learning experience of five graduate research students who progressed from the initial stage of research question conceptualization to dissemination of research results. The process included a written research design proposal, grant review process, physical activity program development, intervention delivery, data analysis, and publication of findings. Challenges overcome by these young investigators throughout the research process (i.e. intervention recruitment, development and delivery) are included within the manuscript, as well as other important findings from this process evaluation. The first-hand account of their learning experiences demonstrates the value of promoting internal competition (i.e., within a department, college, university), while working as a collaborative research team to prepare graduate students for ‘real-world’ research and work-related scenarios. Graduate student faculty mentors should incorporate more opportunities for their students to glean research experience described here.
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