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Incidence of Hearing Abnormality in Neonate Intensive Care Unit Hospitalized Neonate
Mohammad Mahdi Ghasemi,Mohammad Taghi Shakeri,Saman Rezaei,Ali Dashti
Audiology , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Risk factors including asphyxia, meningitis, form of delivery, etc may cause hearing loss in neonates results in speech and language deprivation, emotional and educational problems. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hearing loss and its relationship with risk factors among neonates hospitalized in neonate intensive care unit (NICU). Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional study on 234 NICU hospitalized neonates in Ghaem and Imam-Reza hospitals of Mashhad. Epidemiologic and pathologic information were obtained. Otoacoustic emissions were done in all of neonates. Patients referred to the second otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and patients failed in the second test controlled by auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results: Hearing abnormality was found in 11 neonates (4.7%) including 2 girls and 9 boys. (1 neonate with mild, 2 with mild to moderate, 2 with moderate to severe, 1 with sever to profound hearing loss and 4 with auditory neuropathy). Hearing abnormality has a significant greater incidence in group with apgar 5 and in patients with icterus (in need with transfusion). Conclusion: Incidence of hearing loss in NICU hospitalized neonates is greater in comparison with general population. It has a greater incidence in group with icterus (in need with transfusion) and apgar 5, so, a comprehensive hearing screening program must be applied for early identification and intervention.
Investigation of Tinnitus Characteristics in 36 Patients with Subjective Tinnitus with Unknown Etiology
Mahdi Bakhshaee,Mohammad mahdi Ghasemi,Ehsan Khadivi,Saman Rezaei
Audiology , 2006,
Abstract: Background and Aim: Tinnitus represents the perception of sound without an external stimulus. The prevalence of tinnitus ranges from 3% to 30%. In most cases its etiology is unknown. Tinnitus can be classified as pulsatile or nonpulsatile. Nonpulsatile form is the most common form and almost exclusively subjective in nature. There is a range of condition attributed to nonpulsatile high frequency tinnitus (acoustic neuroma, Meniere’s disease, ototoxic agents, and noise exposure, etc). There are many studies about form, site, loudness, and frequency of tinnitus and how it can affect the quality of patient life. Materials and methods: This was a descriptive and analytic study. Thirty-six patients (23 men and 13 women) with mean age 53.1 year old with subjective tinnitus evaluated in Pezhvak audiometric clinic in Mashhad.The data consisting of age sex, loudness, frequency form and site of tinnitus. Evaluation of effects of tinnitus on the quality of life and habits was performed with a tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). Results: Tinnitus was unilateral in 64% of cases. The right site was more common. Mean pitch was 7.03 kHz and average loudness was 3.8 dB SPL. SDS was in normal range in all of patients. There was a high frequency sensory neural hearing loss (above the 4 kHz) in most of the patients. The greatest score (60.3%) of TQ related to intrusiveness aspect. Sleep disorder has the lowest score (39/3%). Global score was 52.4%. Conclusion: Nonpulsatile subjective tinnitus has a broad range of etiology with unknown mechanism in most cases and without any history of underlying disease in a large group of patients. This symptom mostly involves the patients` lifestyle that is intrusiveness aspect in comparison with the other aspects including sleep, hearing and somatic complaints. There is no cure for most patient and more studies are needed in the future.
Gamma-ray compton spectrum analysis to enhance medical imaging using wavelet transformation  [PDF]
Ali Pazirandeh, Saman Ebrahimi
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.311123
Abstract: Cs-137 radioactive source with 661.7 keV gamma- ray energy and Am-241 with 59.5 keV gamma-ray energy were used to study the body structure of materials by examining transmitted gamma-ray spectrum using a scintillation detector, NaI(Tl). Due to specific characteristic properties of the medium, the passing Compton broad scattering spectrum contains valuable information. It is possible to mark and to specify the Compton spectrum caused by atomic specifications of Al, Cu, bone, muscle, and lipid as interactive materials. Wavelet transforms and other multi-scale analysis functions have been used for compact signal and image representations in de-noising, compression and feature detection processing problems for about twenty years. Comparing the transmitted spectra through muscle, bone and a tumor-like (fat) and analyzing each spectrum by wavelet analysis, the differences of the medium were shown. This study is devoted to use of wavelet transform for feature extraction associated with gamma spectrum, which corresponds to image pixel, and their classification in comparison with the Haar and Rbio3.1 transforms.
The Effect of Clay Content and Land Use on Dispersion Ratio at Different Locations in Sulaimani Governorate—Kurdistan Region—Iraq  [PDF]
Saman M. K. Rasheed
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2016.61001
Abstract: Land use changes from natural ecosystems into managed ecosystems resulted in negative impact on soil structure and quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the influences of different land-use types on physical and chemical properties of soils in Sulaimani governorate. Land use systems including natural forest, pastureland and agriculture were identified. Ten of soil samples were collected from the 0 - 30 cm depth, and some soil physical and chemical properties of soil were determined. The land use alters from forest to agriculture resulting in significant decrease in organic matter, calcium carbonate and soil surface area and with this change, dispersion ratio affected on the physical property. The value of DR was highest in the Zrguezi Gawra cultivated with Cucumber and the lowest value in Dukan is 13%, and correlation coefficient between dispersion DR with sand, silt and bulk density is positive, value is (0.4979, 0.0126 and 0.7536) respectively, and with clay and specific surface area (SSA) the correlation coefficient value is (-0.7281 and -0.4466).
Application of Artificial Neural Networks in Order to Predict Mahabad River Discharge  [PDF]
Saman Mohammadi, Maaroof Siosemarde
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2016.67040
Abstract: Estimating of river discharge is one of the more important parameters in the water resources management. In recent years, due to increasing population, increased water consumption in industrial, agricultural and health sections, thus water shortge becomes a global problem. Accurate estimation of the river discharge is one of the most important parameters in surface water resources management, especially in order to determine appropriate values in flood, drought, drinking, agricultural and industral topics. The case study in this research is Mahabad River that is located in west Azarbaijan province in west north of Iran. In this study, we used 70%, 15% and 15% data in order to train, validate and test, respectively. In this study, data of Kawtar and Baitas stations were used in order to determine Mahabad River discharge. In each ststion, several different networks were prepared using NeuroSolutions V.6.0 software. The neural models included Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Generalized Feed Forward, Jordan/Elman, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) and Principle Component Analysis (PCA), and different transfer functions included Tanh, Sigmoid, Linear Tanh, Linear Sigmoid and the number of hidden layers of.The different number of nodesin layers with different learning algorithms (Momentum, Levenberg Marquardt, Quickprop, DeltaBarDelta, Conjugate Gradient) and different networks were compared. The results showed the artificial neural networks. They predicted the river discharge with 10.67 and 0.94 (m3/s)2 and the high value of correlation coefficient with 0.88 and 0.75 for Kawtar and Baitas stations respectivly.
Soil and Subsurface Sediment Microzonation Using with Seismic Refraction Tomography for Site Assessment (Case Study: IKIA Airport, Iran)  [PDF]
Khalil Rezaei
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2016.63016
Abstract: The site effects relating to the amplification of ground motion under earthquake loading are strongly influenced by both the subsurface soil condition and the geologic structure. In this study, for site characterization at the Imam Khomeini International Airport (IKIA) area in south of Tehran, in-situ seismic refraction tomography were carried out as a part of site investigations project, in addition geologic setting, borehole drilling, ground waters information and measurements. Based on seismic refraction studies, three layers are separable which with increasing in depth the S and P wave velocity is increased and this indicates increasing in compaction of soil and geologic materials. In the second and third separated layers, the zones with low and high seismic shear wave velocity is approximately equal, and northeast and southwest of the airport site has the low velocities, in addition to containing loose soils, highly weathered stones, and low depth to groundwater. In terms of Poisson’s ratio, the most important and key installations of airport site are located in suitable positions. According to Iranian Seismic Code, most of the lands around the airport are in class 2 and 3. It seems that a fault or a discontinuity is passed from northwest to the southeast of the study area. This site, according to geological, subsurface geophysical, and geotechnical boreholes studies, is high risk-earthquake prone.
Immobilized Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Pyrano[3,2-b]indole Derivatives
Saman Damavandi
Journal of Chemistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/841632
Abstract: An ionic liquid-catalyzed synthesis of 2-amino-4,5-dihydro-4-arylpyrano[3,2-b]indole-3-carbonitrile derivatives through a novel three-component condensation of 3-hydroxyindole, aromatic aldehydes and malononitrile in the presence of silica supported ionic liquid of [pmim]HSO4SiO2 (silica supported 1-methyl-3-(triethoxysilylpropyl)imidazolium hydrogensulfate) as an efficient catalyst is described.
Towards the Contribution of NEMDBs in Global Genetic Heterogeneity
Saman Majeed
International Journal of Emerging Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Research into disease genetics has advanced many folds after the completion of Human Genome Project. Disease Genetics is a complex research area involving core databases, locus-specific databases, and National Ethnic/population Mutation Databases (NEMDBs). Recent progress in disease genetics has emphasized the need of population specific mutation repositories. This has given way to the development of NEMDBs worldwide. To emphasize its importance, a timely overview is presented highlighting the need for a Genetic Disease Database for Pakistan, stressing its over-riding importance and discussing the seriously lacking progress made so far in its accomplishment. Data management has been the greatest problem with the outburst of genetic data being generated in the subcontinent. Many factors contribute to this slow progress. The primary cause is limited funding. It is arguably the most fundamental problem for this kind of research to take place along with the intrinsic research bias towards acquiring new data rather than managing the old data. Valuable discoveries that deal with the genetic basis of disease are therefore being wasted, and this can only be remedied by creating a National Mutation Database specific to Pakistani population. Advancement in scale and sophistication has resulted in vast amount of data being generated. Therefore, there should be possibility to correlate all of this information to ascertain a detailed understanding of how genetic differences influence human health.
Hydraulic Jumps on Adverse Slope in Two Cases of Rough and Smooth Bed
Saman Nikmehr
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: One of the most frequently encountered cases of rapid varied flow is the hydraulic jump. It occurswhen a supercritical flow has to change into subcritical flow. Nowadays jump study upon sloping beds,especially adverse slopes, is important because of the length of jump and the energy loss. In this research jumpstudy has been done upon four adverse slopes -0.00125, -0.0025, -0.00375 and -0.005 in two cases of roughand smooth bed. The results showed that the Sequent depth ratio and the length of jump upon smooth bed hasbeen more than rough bed for the same slopes and Froude numbers. Also comparison with percentage of theenergy loss, more energy loss has occurred upon rough bed than smooth bed.
The Comparative Study of Reactive Tact and Prevention of the Goods Smuggling in Iran and America's Laws
Saman Saeedi
International Journal of Nations Research , 2018, DOI: -
Abstract: The topic of the present study is "The comparative study of reactive tact and prevention of the goods smuggling in the Islamic Republic of Iran and the United States of America's Laws ". The reason behind that is upon facing a problem we need to come up with a solution to get out of the situation. Moreover, getting out of the situation is not enough, but the solution must cover the future. Therefore, scientific solutions must be made with the precise plan to be productive. The solutions based on studying and researches are not the ways to deal with any offense. Instead of punishing a criminal, we must seek the cause of the crime. Why does this person commit a crime and in what situation has he committed the crime? What has been the context of this crime? In the present study, the factors affecting smuggling of goods and the ways of fighting them as well as the criminal policy with decriminalization of the crime will be studied and then we will continue to follow the usual procedure for the goods smuggling case in government agencies
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