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Groundwater Potential on the Jos – Bukuru Plateau, North Central Nigeria. Using Lineaments from Gravity Measurements  [PDF]
Samaila Crah Alkali, Solomon Nehemiah Yusuf
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.38072
Abstract: The rocks of the Jos – Bukuru area in North Central Nigeria is characterized by negative and positive gravity residual anomalies ranging from –25 to +20 mGals. Lineaments were extracted from the gravity residual anomaly map for the purpose of assessing the groundwater resources in the area. The region is marked by more than one set of lineaments, each with its distinctive orientation and probably spacing. Lineaments shorter than 20 km in length are shallow structures suitable for this exercise because of their importance in groundwater recharge, transmission and discharge. In a bin size of 15oone major and one minimum striking directions between 000o and 030o were obtained. The major type lies between 000o and 015o, while the minimum one is oriented within the 015o and 030o direction. These directions correspond to the stress axis of the essentially north – south trending geological structures of Nigeria. Invasions of mineralizing fluids might had sealed some of the joints and other fractures, however where the open spaces are not sealed, weathering and erosion widen and deepened the joints paving routes for surface water flows and direct seepage into the underlying strata. On the lineament density and lineament intersection maps the closures suggest probable discontinuity of the aquifer units. On this basis of the lineament density and the lineament intersection results, the area was divided into three hydrogeological zones. Site 1 is considered most favourable for water well development, while site 3 may result in low yields or even in abortive water wells.
Electroless Plating of Palladium Membranes on Porous Substrates for Hydrogen Separation and the Effects of Process Factors on Plating Rate and Efficiency: A Review  [PDF]
Abubakar Alkali
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2020, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2020.82001
Abstract: The electroless plating of palladium and palladium alloy membranes is fast becoming an important and enabling technology. This is more so when juxtaposed with the rising demand for high purity hydrogen for applications particularly in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The effect of process factors such as sensitization and activation during surface modification, concentration of the reducing agent, plating temperature, time, pH, additives, air aeration on plating efficiency, quality of the palladium film and deposit morphology is reviewed with the aim of identifying areas requiring further investigation. The paper also reviews how these process factors could be optimised for better plating efficiency and overall membrane quality. The concentration of the reducing agent has been identified as the limiting factor on plating efficiency albeit other process factors separately impact on the plating efficiency. Furthermore, bulk precipitation caused by concentration of the reducing agent has been identified as a major problem during electroless plating with hydrazine based plating baths. To ameliorate this problem, a multi step addition of the hydrazine reducer in separate portions has been recommended.
Application of Secondary Resistivity Parameters to Determine Potential Aquifer Horizon: Case Study of Basement Rocks of Hussara, Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Solomon Nehemiah Yusuf, S. C. Alkali
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2012.41002
Abstract: Twenty five vertical electrical sounding using the Schlumberger configuration with current electrode spacing of AB/2 = 100 m were carried out in Hussara, north-eastern, Nigeria. The field data were smoothened and interpreted using IX1D inversion [1] computer software. Secondary resistivity and secondary resistivity derived parameters were used to determine the potential aquifer horizon. Longitudinal conductance map of the third geoelectric layer indicates a higher conducting zone along the eastern part which may indicate possible concentration of weathered materials. Intermediate conductance striking from the north to the southeast may constitute a horizon with increased aquifer materials, while the lower conductivity values may indicate areas of fractured bedrock where the degree of decomposition of the rock fragments is minimal. The transverse resistance map of the same horizon revealed the contour values increasing from the west towards the east perhaps due to the increasing presence of fresh bedrock close to the surface.
Surgical misadventure: A case for thoughtful patient preoperative assessment
MOA Samaila
Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research , 2005,
Abstract: Breast abscess is a common problem in women particularly in lactating women in Tropical Africa. Occasionally a chronic breast abscess may mimic carcinoma of the breast. This is a case presentation of a 45-year old woman who presented with a 1year history of progressively increasing right breast swelling associated with enlarged axillary lymph nodes. It was diagnosed breast cancer and patient had a radical mastectomy in a peripheral hospital. Histology of the specimen however revealed a chronic breast abscess with granulation tissue formation,extensive fibrosis of the surrounding breast tissue and nodal hyperplasia. Patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. An assessment of the psychological impact of losing a breast in this patient was not possible as patient was lost to follow up. Optimal clinical examination by the surgeon and preoperative cytological diagnosis would ensure that the patient is spared unnecessary mutilating surgery. Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research Vol. 7(1&2) 2005: 214-215
Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria
Samaila Modupeola
African Journal of Paediatric Surgery , 2009,
Abstract: Background: The increased prevalence of hitherto uncommon tumours in children in our geographic setting formed the basis for this study. This study aimed to determine the current histopathologic distribution pattern of paediatric malignancies in Zaria. Materials and Methods : An eight year (2000-2007) consecutive analysis of malignant tumours in children ages 0 to 15 years in a referral University laboratory. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and processed in wax. Tumours were characterised histologically into tissues of origin and categorised into three age groups; < 1 year, 1-5 years and 6-15 years. Result : 189 children with malignant tumours were analysed. They showed a male preponderance (M: F; 1.2: 1.0) and their ages ranged from 5 days to 15 years. Tumours of mesenchymal origin were the commonest (115: 60.8%) while epithelial tumours including germ cell tumours accounted for 74 (39.2%) cases. The age group 1-5 years had the highest epithelial tumours while age group 6-15 years had the most tumours with 102 (54%) cases overall. The five commonest tumours over-all were rhabdomyosarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, retinoblastoma, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and nephroblastoma. Germ cell tumours affected the ovary predominantly and two of the endodermal sinus tumour cases were seen in the testis of an eighteen month child and sacrococcygeum of a 5 year old girl, respectively. Of the six immature teratoma cases, four were cutaneous in distribution. The vascular tumours included epithelioid haemangioendothelioma, haemangioblastoma and Dabska tumour and they accounted for (5.8%) of all tumours seen. The commonest sites of occurrence of these tumours were the oculo-orbital, jaw, head and neck regions with 82 cases (43.4%) while lymph nodes were involved in 31 (16.4%) cases. Conclusion : The distribution and occurrence of malignant tumours in children is age related. Lymphomas were the commonest tumours overall while retinoblastoma and Burkitt lymphoma were the commonest tumours affecting children below 5 years and 6-10 years old, respectively, in our centre. The head region and lymph nodes were the sites of predilection for majority of these tumours.
Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria
Samaila MOA
Annals of African Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background : Adnexal skin tumors share many features in common and differentiate along one line. Their detailed morphological classification is difficult because of the variety of tissue elements and patterns seen. They may be clinically confused with other cutaneous tumors. The aim of this report is to review and classify all adnexal tumors seen in a pathology department over a 16 year period. Method : A 16-year retrospective analysis of all adnexal skin tumors seen in a large University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria from January 1991- December 2006. All tissue specimens were fixed in 10% formalin, processed in paraffin wax and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. Histology slides were retrieved, studied and lesions characterized. Results : Fifty-two adnexal tumors were seen, accounting for 0.9% of all cutaneous tumors seen within the same period. The median age was 33 years (range: 4 days -70 years). Clinical presentations varied from discreet swellings and nodules to ulcerated masses. Five patients presented with recurrent lesions. Only two cases had a clinical diagnosis of adnexal tumor. Twenty-four (46%) of the lesions were distributed in the head and neck region. Duration of symptoms was 2 months to 15 years (median: 12months). Tumours of the sweat gland were the commonest– 41(78.8%); they comprised predominantly eccrine acrospiroma (17), characterized histologically by solid nests of round to polygonal cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, forming tubules in areas. Tumours of sebaceous gland were 7 (13.5%); they comprised mainly Nevus sebaceous of Jadassohn (6), composed of immature sebaceous glands and pilar structures microscopically and a solitary sebaceous adenoma. Tumours of hair follicle were 4 (7.7%) and included trichoepithelioma, characterized microscopically by multiple horn cysts and epithelial tracts connecting abortive pilar structures and a trichofolliculoma. Forty-six lesions (88.5%) were benign and six (11.5%) malignant. Conclusion : Adnexal skin tumors have distinct histological patterns which differentiates them from other cutaneous tumors. They are commonly distributed in the head, neck and trunk. The commonest variants are those of eccrine sweat gland origin. Malignant adnexal tumors are uncommon in our setting.
Silvicultural Practices of Gum Arabic Tree (Acacia Senegal): A Review
Alkali, U. U.
Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries , 2010,
Abstract: The silvicultural practices of Acacia senegal (Gum Arabic tree) are reviewed in this paper. Acacia senegal is a tree of multiple uses and the main gum Arabic producing Acacia species. Its contribution towards environmental protection and economic development in the Sudano-sahelian is highly significant. The paper analysed the main environmental and climatic factors supporting the growth and development of the plants. Acacia senegal is grown in large areas of West, East, Central and Northern Africa and Asia. The climate, soil and water needs are well suited for its growth and development. Available literatures confirm that the tree can be produced at a seedlings stage in the nursery under a controlled environment up to the stage that will be ready for transplanting when the rainy season has fully established.
A Comparison of the Inhibiting Effect of CO and CO2 to Hydrogen Permeation and n-Value in Pd and Pd/Ag Membranes Prepared on Alumina Support  [PDF]
Abubakar Alkali, Karimatu Abdullahi
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2019.712001
Abstract: The mitigation of the CO inhibition effect in palladium membranes is necessary due to its significance in the efficiency of membrane reactors and hydrogen production systems. In this work, the hydrogen separation performance of a Pd and Pd/Ag membrane both of thickness 2 μm is investigated using a mixed gas with composition (H2 = 50%, CO = 28%, CO2 = 10%, CH4 = 8%, N2 = 4%) at temperature 623 - 873 K and pressure (0.05 - 0.4 bar) was investigated. The component gases CO and CO2 were observed to inhibit hydrogen permeation through the membrane and lead to deviations from Sievert’s law for n values 0.55 and 0.62 for the Pd membrane and unity for the Pd/Ag membrane. For the Pd/Ag membrane, the concentration of CO in the permeate stream was reduced as a result of the addition of Ag. The effect of the component gases to hydrogen permeation was observed to be lower for the Pd/Ag membrane. Annealing the membrane in hydrogen at high temperature decreased the inhibition effect and enhanced hydrogen permeation through the membrane.
A New Block-Predictor Corrector Algorithm for the Solution of y’’’=f(x, y, y’, y’’)  [PDF]
Adetola O. Adesanya, Mfon O. Udo, Adam M. Alkali
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.24047

We consider direct solution to third order ordinary differential equations in this paper. Method of collection and interpolation of the power series approximant of single variable is considered to derive a linear multistep method (LMM) with continuous coefficient. Block method was later adopted to generate the independent solution at selected grid points. The properties of the block viz: order, zero stability and stability region are investigated. Our method was tested on third order ordinary differential equation and found to give better result when compared with existing methods.

Assessment of the Level of Knowledge of the Nature of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Demonstrated by the Nigerian Veterinary Laboratory Staff Involved in HPAI Diagnosis in Nigeria  [PDF]
Bello Rabi’u Alkali, Kyauta Bulus Tanyigna, Yahaya Abubakar Yabo
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.54012
Abstract: The study was designed to evaluate the level of knowledge of Nigerian Veterinary Laboratory Staff on the nature of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) disease using structured questionnaires. The study comprised the Staff of National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) and five reference Veterinary Teaching Hospitals (VTH) designated for HPAI diagnosis. A total of 69 questionnaires were distributed to the laboratory staff. Questions on the general nature of the disease such as the cause, signs, mode of transmission, methods of identification, lesions, control and prevention, etc. were asked. The results showed that 77.38% of the staff answered all the questions correctly indicating their considerable knowledge of the HPAI disease. Considerable percentage of the staff listed correctly the equipment used for serology (36.23%) and RT-PCR (31.88%). Interestingly only 13.04% of the staff listed correctly the equipment used in rapid tests despite the fact that they are simpler and recommended for all P2 laboratories. In conclusion, the veterinary laboratory staff assessed demonstrated a significant level of knowledge on HPAI diagnosis; however, most of their laboratories lack the structure, organization, funds and basic facilities required for effective HPAI diagnosis.
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