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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1753 matches for " Sam Virtue "
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Nothing Iffy about HIF in the Hypothalamus
Sam Virtue,Antonio Vidal-Puig
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001116
Abstract: Two crucial biological processes are (1) the sensing and coordination of responses to low oxygen levels and (2) the control of food intake and energy expenditure. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of proteins is known to regulate responses to low oxygen, whereas neuropeptides derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are implicated in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. It is now becoming apparent that these two apparently disparate processes may be linked, with the exciting discovery that HIF proteins can act in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure as reported in the current issue of PLoS Biology. This primer discusses the traditional role of HIF proteins in terms of responding to oxygen levels in the periphery and also their new role in coordinating responses to nutrients in the brain through regulation of POMC.
Nothing Iffy about HIF in the Hypothalamus
Sam Virtue ,Antonio Vidal-Puig
PLOS Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001116
Abstract: Two crucial biological processes are (1) the sensing and coordination of responses to low oxygen levels and (2) the control of food intake and energy expenditure. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of proteins is known to regulate responses to low oxygen, whereas neuropeptides derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are implicated in the control of food intake and energy expenditure. It is now becoming apparent that these two apparently disparate processes may be linked, with the exciting discovery that HIF proteins can act in the brain to regulate food intake and energy expenditure as reported in the current issue of PLoS Biology. This primer discusses the traditional role of HIF proteins in terms of responding to oxygen levels in the periphery and also their new role in coordinating responses to nutrients in the brain through regulation of POMC.
Genome-Wide Profiling of MicroRNAs in Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Mouse Models of Obesity
Lena Bengestrate, Sam Virtue, Mark Campbell, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Dirk Hadaschik, Peter Hahn, Wolfgang Bielke
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021305
Abstract: In recent years, there has been accumulating evidence that microRNAs are key regulator molecules of gene expression. The cellular processes that are regulated by microRNAs include e.g. cell proliferation, programmed cell death and cell differentiation. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly regulated cellular process for which several important regulating factors have been discovered, but still not all are known to fully understand the underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of 597 microRNAs during the differentiation of mouse mesenchymal stem cells into terminally differentiated adipocytes by real-time RT-PCR. In total, 66 miRNAs were differentially expressed in mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes compared to the undifferentiated progenitor cells. To further study the regulation of these 66 miRNAs in white adipose tissue in vivo and their dependence on PPARγ activity, mouse models of genetically or diet induced obesity as well as a mouse line expressing a dominant negative PPARγ mutant were employed.
Running Head: Hemispheric Processing of Slogans Brand Familiarity in Advertisement Slogans: The Role of the Left and Right Cerebral Hemispheres
Kristy Vance,Sandra Virtue
International Journal of Marketing Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ijms.v3n3p42
Abstract: Previous research shows that brand familiarity can affect purchase behavior, such that a familiar brand will be preferred over a less familiar brand. Previous research also shows that the use of metaphoric advertisements increases purchase intent. However, it is unknown how consumers implicitly process familiar brands when reading advertisements. Through the divided visual field paradigm, we investigated how the left and right cerebral hemispheres process familiar brands when presented with advertisement slogans. Participants in this experiment read familiar brand names and were presented with metaphoric, literal, or neutral slogans. Participants responded to related target words briefly shown to either the right or left hemisphere. The right hemisphere showed greater facilitation for literal than for metaphoric slogans when consumers were presented with familiar brands. Purchase intent ratings were higher when targets were presented to the left hemisphere. These findings suggest that brand familiarity influences consumers’ processing of slogans in the right hemisphere and affects purchase intent ratings in the left hemisphere.
SNO and Supernovae
C. J. Virtue,for the SNO Collaboration
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(01)01465-7
Abstract: The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has unique capabilities as a supernova detector. In the event of a galactic supernova there are opportunities, with the data that SNO would collect, to constrain certain intrinsic neutrino properties significantly, to test details of the various models of supernova dynamics, and to provide prompt notification to the astronomical community through the Supernova Early Warning System (SNEWS). This paper consists of a discussion of these opportunities illustrated by some preliminary Monte Carlo results.
It's Not How Fat You Are, It's What You Do with It That Counts
Samuel Virtue,Antonio Vidal-Puig
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060237
Abstract:
It's Not How Fat You Are, It's What You Do with It That Counts
Samuel Virtue ,Antonio Vidal-Puig
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060237
Abstract:
Long-Term Effect of Photoperiod, Temperature and Feeding Regimes on the Respiration Rates of Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba)  [PDF]
Matthew Brown, So Kawaguchi, Steven Candy, Toshihiro Yoshida, Patti Virtue, Steve Nicol
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2013.32A005
Abstract:

Antarctic krill is thought to undergo an annual cycle of biological processes to cope with seasonal changes in their environment. The question of whether, and to what degree, seasonal environmental parameters such as photoperiod, food availability and temperature govern metabolism in krill is not clear. In this long-term laboratory study, respiration rates were determined in krill incubated under simulated natural light cycle or total darkness, subjected to fed or starved conditions and on krill kept at different temperatures (-1°C, 1°C and 3°C). There was a strong and significant increasing trend of respiration rates with month in all experimental treatments. In August (late winter), the mean respiration rates ranged between 0.22 - 0.35 μL O2 mg.DW-1.hr-1 for krill in both simulated seasonal light and complete darkness, and 0.25 - 0.26 μL O2 mg.DW-1.hr-1 for both fed and starved krill. Mean maximal respiration rates were recorded in October and December for all light and feeding treatments (0.46 - 0.56 μL O2 mg.DW-1.hr-1). Mean respiration rates for krill in the temperature treatments

PPAR gamma 2 Prevents Lipotoxicity by Controlling Adipose Tissue Expandability and Peripheral Lipid Metabolism
Gema Medina-Gomez,Sarah L Gray,Laxman Yetukuri,Kenju Shimomura,Sam Virtue,Mark Campbell,R. Keira Curtis,Mercedes Jimenez-Linan,Margaret Blount,Giles S. H Yeo,Miguel Lopez,Tuulikki Sepp?nen-Laakso,Frances M Ashcroft,Matej Ore?i?,Antonio Vidal-Puig
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030064
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARg2) is the nutritionally regulated isoform of PPARg. Ablation of PPARg2 in the ob/ob background, PPARg2?/? Lepob/Lepob (POKO mouse), resulted in decreased fat mass, severe insulin resistance, β-cell failure, and dyslipidaemia. Our results indicate that the PPARg2 isoform plays an important role, mediating adipose tissue expansion in response to positive energy balance. Lipidomic analyses suggest that PPARg2 plays an important antilipotoxic role when induced ectopically in liver and muscle by facilitating deposition of fat as relatively harmless triacylglycerol species and thus preventing accumulation of reactive lipid species. Our data also indicate that PPARg2 may be required for the β-cell hypertrophic adaptive response to insulin resistance. In summary, the PPARg2 isoform prevents lipotoxicity by (a) promoting adipose tissue expansion, (b) increasing the lipid-buffering capacity of peripheral organs, and (c) facilitating the adaptive proliferative response of β-cells to insulin resistance.
Lipocalin Prostaglandin D Synthase and PPARγ2 Coordinate to Regulate Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism In Vivo
Sam Virtue, Mojgan Masoodi, Vidya Velagapudi, Chong Yew Tan, Martin Dale, Tapani Suorti, Marc Slawik, Margaret Blount, Keith Burling, Mark Campbell, Naomi Eguchi, Gema Medina-Gomez, Jaswinder K. Sethi, Matej Ore?i?, Yoshihiro Urade, Julian L. Griffin, Antonio Vidal-Puig
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039512
Abstract: Mice lacking Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) have unexpectedly normal glucose tolerance and mild insulin resistance. Mice lacking PPARγ2 were found to have elevated levels of Lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expression in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). To determine if induction of L-PGDS was compensating for a lack of PPARγ2, we crossed L-PGDS KO mice to PPARγ2 KO mice to generate Double Knock Out mice (DKO). Using DKO mice we demonstrated a requirement of L-PGDS for maintenance of subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) function. In scWAT, DKO mice had reduced expression of thermogenic genes, the de novo lipogenic program and the lipases ATGL and HSL. Despite the reduction in markers of lipolysis in scWAT, DKO mice had a normal metabolic rate and elevated serum FFA levels compared to L-PGDS KO alone. Analysis of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (epididymal WAT) showed elevated expression of mRNA and protein markers of lipolysis in DKO mice, suggesting that DKO mice may become more reliant on intra-abdominal WAT to supply lipid for oxidation. This switch in depot utilisation from subcutaneous to epididymal white adipose tissue was associated with a worsening of whole organism metabolic function, with DKO mice being glucose intolerant, and having elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to any other genotype. Overall, L-PGDS and PPARγ2 coordinate to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
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