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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1704 matches for " Salvatore Cuzzocrea "
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Characterization of a novel and spontaneous mouse model of inflammatory arthritis
Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/ar3434
Abstract: Adipue and colleagues [1] have characterized the novel IIJ (inherited inflamed joints) mouse strain, a new murine model of inflammatory, possibly autoimmune, arthritis that is similar both histologically and serologically to human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other murine models of autoimmune arthritis [1]. RA is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disorder characterized by synovitis and severe joint destruction. The pathogenesis of RA is a complex process, involving synovial cell proliferation and fibrosis, pannus formation, and cartilage and bone erosion [2]. Rodent models of RA have been used extensively to evaluate potential new therapeutic agents.Arthritis in the mouse can be induced, can occur spontaneously in some inbred strains, or can result from single gene mutations (Table 1). Induced murine arthritis models include immunization with type II collagen (DBA/1LacJ), or treatment with pristane (BALB/c), thymocytes (C3H/He), mycoplasma (CBA), or a high fat diet (C57BL). Spontaneous models can be grouped according to their origin: development of autoimmune-prone strains by selective mixing of previously existing inbred strains (for example, the MRL/lpr strain [3]); targeted gene manipulation (for example, the TCR trans-genic K/BxN model [4], TNF-α overexpression models [5], the IL-1Ra knock-out model [6], and the gp130Y759F-induced mutant); and identification of spontaneous mutants from breeding colonies (for example, SKG mice with a point mutation in Zap-70 [7]).Despite the existence of all of these models, it is well known that no animal model represents RA in its entirety. In addition, clinical manifestations are different between different strains of mice, even if the same induction protocol is employed, and some of the strains are even selected because of their susceptibility to auto-immunity. Even though it is improbable that a single animal model could assume and reproduce human disease in its entirety and consistently, animal models have allowed us
Role of TNF-α in lung tight junction alteration in mouse model of acute lung inflammation
Emanuela Mazzon, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Respiratory Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-8-75
Abstract: An important consequence of acute lung injury is the disruption of the paracellular alveolar permeability barrier [1]. The permeability barrier in terminal airspaces of the lung is due in large part to tight junctions between alveolar epithelial cells, which regulate the flow of molecules between apical and basolateral compartments [2,3]. Transmembrane proteins in the occludin and claudin families are the major transmembrane structural elements of tight junctions [4,5]. It has previously been shown that alveolar epithelial cells express occludin and zona occludens 1 (ZO-1) as part of the tight junction complex [6,7]. In addition to these components, the importance of claudins in pulmonary barrier function is underscored by the viability of occludin-deficient mice [8].Moreover, is well known that airway epithelial cells perform many important functions, serving as an interface between environmental stimuli and the lung parenchyma. Normally the lower airways are pristine, free of bacterial flora or inflammatory cells, and are well protected by several layers of defenses including antimicrobial peptides, mucin, and ciliary action. There is a brisk epithelial response to airway injury caused by many different mechanisms [9,10]. Acute lung inflammatory response is also is associated to epithelial cytokine expression [11] as well as to the expression of the signaling cascade leading to apoptosis (programmed cell death). Activation of epithelial proinflammatory signaling cascades is mediated by tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α a prototypic member of a cytokine family which regulates essential biologic functions (e.g. cell differentiation, proliferation, survival, apoptosis) and a broad spectrum of responses to stress and injury [12]. It is primarily produced by immune cells such as monocytes and macrophages, but it can also be released by many other cell types, including acinar cells. Membrane bound or soluble TNF-α interacts with two different surface receptors, TNF-α recept
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Acute Lung Injury
Rosanna Di Paola,Salvatore Cuzzocrea
PPAR Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1155/2007/63745
Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs regulate several metabolic pathways by binding to sequence-specific PPAR response elements in the promoter region of target genes, including lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism. Recently, PPARs and their respective ligands have been implicated as regulators of cellular inflammatory and immune responses. These molecules are thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by negatively regulating the expression of proinflammatory genes. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR ligands possess anti-inflammatory properties and that these properties may prove helpful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the lung. This review will outline the anti-inflammatory effects of PPARs and PPAR ligands and discuss their potential therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammatory lung disease.
Pharmacological and clinical overview of cloperastine in treatment of cough
Maria Antonietta Catania, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S16643
Abstract: rmacological and clinical overview of cloperastine in treatment of cough Review (10766) Total Article Views Authors: Maria Antonietta Catania, Salvatore Cuzzocrea Published Date March 2011 Volume 2011:7 Pages 83 - 92 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S16643 Maria Antonietta Catania1, Salvatore Cuzzocrea1,2 1Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina; 2IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, Italy Abstract: Cough constitutes an impressive expression of the normal defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. Productive cough associated with catarrh is an important protective system for the lung because it favors the upward movement of secretions and foreign bodies to the larynx and mouth. Cough may also appear without bronchial secretions, as dry cough, which may be persistent when inflammatory disease is chronic or when, in the early stages of respiratory disease, bronchial secretions are not yet fluid. Sometimes bronchitis-induced cough does not significantly affect quality of life, whilst in other cases cough may become so intense as to impair daily activities severely, resulting in permanent disability. This type of cough is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical advice. The use of cough suppressants may be appropriate for reaching a precise diagnosis and when dry cough is persistent. Cloperastine has been investigated in various types of cough and, unlike codeine, has been shown to possess dual activity. It also acts as a mild bronchorelaxant and has antihistaminic activity, without acting on the central nervous system or the respiratory center. Here we review the preclinical and clinical evidence of the efficacy and tolerability of cloperastine.
Pharmacological and clinical overview of cloperastine in treatment of cough
Maria Antonietta Catania,Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2011,
Abstract: Maria Antonietta Catania1, Salvatore Cuzzocrea1,21Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina; 2IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, ItalyAbstract: Cough constitutes an impressive expression of the normal defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. Productive cough associated with catarrh is an important protective system for the lung because it favors the upward movement of secretions and foreign bodies to the larynx and mouth. Cough may also appear without bronchial secretions, as dry cough, which may be persistent when inflammatory disease is chronic or when, in the early stages of respiratory disease, bronchial secretions are not yet fluid. Sometimes bronchitis-induced cough does not significantly affect quality of life, whilst in other cases cough may become so intense as to impair daily activities severely, resulting in permanent disability. This type of cough is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical advice. The use of cough suppressants may be appropriate for reaching a precise diagnosis and when dry cough is persistent. Cloperastine has been investigated in various types of cough and, unlike codeine, has been shown to possess dual activity. It also acts as a mild bronchorelaxant and has antihistaminic activity, without acting on the central nervous system or the respiratory center. Here we review the preclinical and clinical evidence of the efficacy and tolerability of cloperastine.Keywords: cough, cloperastine, inflammation, bronchitis
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Shock State
Emanuela Esposito,Salvatore Cuzzocrea,Rosaria Meli
The Scientific World Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2006.298
Abstract:
Neuroprotective Activities of Palmitoylethanolamide in an Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease
Emanuela Esposito,Daniela Impellizzeri,Emanuela Mazzon,Irene Paterniti,Salvatore Cuzzocrea
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041880
Abstract: The biochemical and cellular changes that occur following treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahyropyrid?ine(MPTP) are remarkably similar to that seen in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, which results in disabling motor disturbances. Activation of glial cells and the consequent neuroinflammatory response is increasingly recognized as a prominent neuropathological feature of PD. There is currently no effective disease-modifying therapy. Targeting the signaling pathways in glial cells responsible for neuroinflammation represents a promising new therapeutic approach designed to preserve remaining neurons in PD. Chronic treatment with palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), initiated 24 hr after MPTP injection (20 mg/kg), protected against MPTP-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Treatment with PEA reduced MPTP-induced microglial activation, the number of GFAP-positive astrocytes and S100β overexpression, and protected against the alterations of microtubule-associated protein 2a,b-, dopamine transporter-, nNOS- positive cells in the substantia nigra. Furthermore, chronic PEA reversed MPTP-associated motor deficits, as revealed by the analysis of forepaw step width and percentage of faults. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated MPTP systemic toxicity, while PEA-induced neuroprotection seemed be partially PPARα-dependent. The effects of PEA on molecules typically involved in apoptotic pathways were also analyzed. Our results indicate that PEA protects against MPTP-induced neurotoxicity and the ensuing functional deficits even when administered once the insult has been initiated.
TNF-α as a Therapeutic Target in Acute Pancreatitis — Lessons from Experimental Models
Giuseppe Malleo,Emanuela Mazzon,Ajith K. Siriwardena,Salvatore Cuzzocrea
The Scientific World Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2007.98
Abstract:
The Role of 5-Lipoxygenase and Leukotrienes in Shock and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
Antonietta Rossi,Carlo Pergola,Salvatore Cuzzocrea,Lidia Sautebin
The Scientific World Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2007.34
Abstract:
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Adrenomedullin on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Carrageenan in Mice
Talero Elena,Di Paola Rosanna,Mazzon Emanuela,Emanuela Esposito,Motilva Virginia,Cuzzocrea Salvatore
Mediators of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/717851
Abstract: Adrenomedullin (AM) is a 52 amino acid peptide that has shown predominant anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we evaluated the possible therapeutic effect of this peptide in an experimental model of acute inflammation, the carrageenan- (CAR-) induced pleurisy. Pleurisy was induced by injection of CAR into the pleural cavity of mice. AM (200 ng/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal route 1 h after CAR, and the animals were sacrificed 4 h after that. AM treatment attenuated the recruitment of leucocytes in the lung tissue and the generation and/or the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the intercellular cell adhesion molecules. Moreover, AM inhibited the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), thereby abating the generation of nitric oxide (NO) and prevented the oxidative and nitroxidative lung tissue injury, as shown by the reduction of nitrotyrosine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) levels. Finally, we demonstrated that these anti-inflammatory effects of AM were associated with the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. All these parameters were markedly increased by intrapleural CAR in the absence of any treatment. We report that treatment with AM significantly reduces the development of acute lung injury by downregulating a broad spectrum of inflammatory factors.
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