Abstract:
In the framework of the so called Open Quantum Relativity, we investigate a quantum universe, starting from a minimal set of variables defining the given quantum state. Entanglement between quantum states is the way to link different regions of the universe, even if (apparently) causally disconnected. As a consequence, the concept of causality results recovered and enlarged. Besides, the observed CDM model emerges from this picture, giving the possibility to realize a statistical and quantum interpretation of the cosmological constant. In particular, the novelty consists in the fact that the presently observed universe could be the result of several entanglement phenomena giving rise to a certain amount of entropy directly related to the value of cosmological constant.

Abstract:
The issues of quintessence and cosmic acceleration can be discussed in the framework of higher order theories of gravity. We can define effective pressure and energy density directly connected to the Ricci scalar of curvature of a generic fourth order theory and then ask for the conditions to get an accelerated expansion. Exact accelerated expanding solutions can be achieved for several fourth order theories so that we get an alternative scheme to the standard quintessence scalar field, minimally coupled to gravity, usually adopted. We discuss also conformal transformations in order to see the links of quintessence between the Jordan and Einstein frames.

Abstract:
Newtonian limit of Extended Theories of Gravity (in particular, higher--order and scalar--tensor theories) is theoretically discussed taking into account recent observational and experimental results.

Abstract:
The so-called ()-gravity has recently attracted a lot of interest since it could be, in principle, able to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe without adding unknown forms of dark energy/dark matter but, more simply, extending the General Relativity by generic functions of the Ricci scalar. However, apart several phenomenological models, there is no final ()-theory capable of fitting all the observations and addressing all the issues related to the presence of dark energy and dark matter. An alternative approach could be to “reconstruct” the form of () starting from data without imposing particular classes of model. Besides, adopting the same philosophy, we take into account the possibility that galaxy cluster masses, estimated at X-ray wavelengths, could be explained, without dark matter, reconstructing the weak-field limit of analytic () models. The corrected gravitational potential, obtained in this approximation, is used to estimate the total mass of a sample of 12 well-shaped clusters of galaxies.

Abstract:
The cosmological constant Λ can be achieved as the result of entangled and statistically correlated minisuperspace cosmological states, built up by using a minimal choice of observable quantities, i.e., Ωm and Ωk, which assign the cosmic dynamics. In particular, we consider a cosmological model where two regions, corresponding to two correlated eras, are involved; the present universe description would be, in this way, given by a density matrix ？ρ, corresponding to an entangled final state. Starting from this assumption, it is possible to infer some considerations on the cosmic thermodynamics by evaluating the Von Neumann entropy. The correlation between different regions by the entanglement phenomenon results in the existence of Λ (in particular ΩΛ) which could be interpreted in the framework of the recent astrophysical observations. As a byproduct, this approach could provide a natural way to solve the so called coincidence problem.

Abstract:
General features of microscopic and macroscopic chiral structures can be discussed under the standard of orthogonal group theory. Configuration space of systems, not physical space, is taken into account. This change of perspective allows to overcome traditional shortcomings related to true and false chirality, statistical realization of mirror images, classification of objects as more or less chiral. From this viewpoint, a chiral object is a physical system whose configurations are described by the O(N) algebra in an abstract N-dimensional space. A quantum mechanical interpretation is straightforward due to the fact that combinations of chiral states give rise to parity states which can be interpreted as energy eigenstates.

Abstract:
We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin-shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in literature which have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-lambda R_c [1-(R_c/R)^{2n}] in the regime R >> R_c. From the solar-system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter gamma, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the LambdaCDM cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-lambda R_c(R/R_c)^p with 0

Abstract:
The relation connecting the emitted isotropic energy and the rest-frame peak energy of the \nuF\nu spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts (the Amati relation), strictly depends on the cosmological model, so we need a method to obtain an independent calibration of it. Using the Union Supernovae Ia catalog, we obtain a cosmographic luminosity distance in the y-redshift and demonstrate that this parametrization approximates very well the fiducial standard comsomlogical model \LambdaCDM. Furthermore, by this cosmographic luminosity distance dl, it is possible to achieve the Amati relation independent on the cosmological model. The cosmographic Amati relation that we obtain agrees, in the errors, with other cosmological-independent calibrations proposed in the literature. This could be considered a good indication in view to obtain standard candles by Gamma-Ray Bursts Key words. Gamma rays : bursts - Cosmology

Abstract:
We study the well formulation of the initial value problem of f(R)-gravity in the metric-affine formalism. The problem is discussed in vacuo and in presence of perfect-fluid matter, Klein-Gordon and Yang-Mills fields. Adopting Gaussian normal coordinates, it can be shown that the problem is always well-formulated. Our results refute some criticisms to the viability of f(R)-gravity recently appeared in literature.

Abstract:
We study the weak-field limit of string-dilaton gravity and derive corrections to the Newtonian potential which strength directly depends on the self interaction potential and the nonminimal coupling of the dilaton scalar field. We discuss also possible astrophysical applications of the results, in particular the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies.