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An assessment of abundance, habitat use and activity patterns of three sympatric pheasants in an Eastern Himalayan Lowland tropical Forest of Arunachal Pradesh, India
K. Muthamizh Selvan,Salvador Lyngdoh,Gopi Govindan Veeraswami,Bilal Habib
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2013,
Abstract: Eastern Himalayan biodiversity hotspot is rich in pheasant diversity, as eleven of the seventeen pheasant species in India occur here. Despite the richness, these pheasants have been least studied in their natural habitats and their current population status, ecology and behavioural patterns are unknown. We estimated abundance, habitat use and activity pattern of three pheasants, i.e. Red Jungle Fowl Gallus gallus (RJF), Kalij Pheasant Lophura leucomelanos (KP) and Grey Peacock Pheasant Polyplectron bicalcaratum (GPP) in Pakke Wildlife Sanctuary and Tiger Reserve, Arunachal Pradesh. Data collected from line transects and camera traps were used for estimating abundance, habitat use and activity patterns. Program Oriana 4.2 was used to determine the activity pattern of three species. Questionnaire survey was conducted around the protected area to determine the conservation threats for these species. Red jungle fowl had the highest density of 12.9 individuals/km2 and a photographic rate of 3.19/100 trap nights among all the pheasants. Shrub cover, litter cover and grass cover were positively associated (p<0.001) with pheasant detections, where as disturbance (p<0.001) was negatively correlated. 60% of habitat overlap was observed between KP and RJF. Dillenia indica dominated habitats were significantly correlated with pheasants detections (R=0.34, p<.0001). The mean activity of GPP, RJF and KP were 6.30 hrs ± 3.37 hrs, 7.49 hrs ± 0.14 hrs and 8.29 hrs ± 0.18 hrs respectively. Additional studies on current status of these species and management plans are critical for pheasant conservation in this critical biodiversity hotspot.
Prey Preferences of the Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia): Regional Diet Specificity Holds Global Significance for Conservation
Salvador Lyngdoh, Shivam Shrotriya, Surendra P. Goyal, Hayley Clements, Matthew W. Hayward, Bilal Habib
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088349
Abstract: The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36–76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.
Efficacy of 2 Drops versus 3 Drops Proparacaine 0.5% Ophthalmic Solution for Phacoemulsification Surgery: A Comparative Study  [PDF]
Tanie Natung, Jacqueline Syiem, Avonuo Keditsu, Nilotpal Saikia, Ranendra Hajong, Laura Amanda Lyngdoh
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.53015
Abstract: Background and Aim: Phacoemulsification surgery with intraocular lens implantation is routinely done under topical anaesthesia in many centres. No comparative study on the efficacy of number of drops of topical anaesthetics effective for phacoemulsification surgery has been done. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of 2 drops versus 3 drops proparacaine 0.5% ophthalmic solution for phacoemulsification surgery. Methods: Patients with uncomplicated cataract undergoing phacoemulsification surgery were randomised into two groups. Group 1 (n = 53) received 3 drops of proparacaine 0.5% whereas group 2 (n = 47) received 2 drops of the same solution before the start of surgery. All the patients underwent phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation. Each patient’s subjective experience of pain was measured using a 10 point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAS). Patient’s cooperation during the surgery was assessed using a 3 point score. Both the evaluating resident doctor and patients were blinded. Results: In group 1, 73.6% patients scored 0, 20.8% scored 1 and 5.7% scored 2 of VAS respectively and in group 2, 89.4%, 6.4%, 4.3% patients scored 0, 1 and 2 of VAS respectively. In patient cooperation, 90.1% and 9.4% patients in group 1 scored 1 and 2 respectively whereas 87.2% and 12.8% patients scored 1 and 2 respectively in group 2. No statistically significant difference in the mean VAS (P = 0.0.55) and patient cooperation score (P = 0.597) was found between the two groups. The mean VAS score was 1.24 ± 0.534 and the mean patient cooperation score was 1.11 ± 0.314. The mean total surgical time was 25.11 ± 2.68 minutes. No additional drops were required for either group. Conclusions: Topical anaesthesia with both 2 drops and 3 drops proparacaine 0.5% ophthalmic solution is effective for phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Additional anaesthesia may be unnecessary in these cases.
An Alternative View to the Cause of Market Failures: A Dynamic Approach  [PDF]
Salvador Contreras
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.47069
Abstract:

This paper presents an alternative view to the cause and size of market failures. The work here suggest that the size of the market failure is not man made per se but rather given a full set of initial conditions it is endogenous to the dynamical forces at play. It is shown that the level and variance of market failures is tied to the location of the steady state (i.e. level of development). The paper finds that only changes to the location of the steady state produces changes to the potential level of the market failure. This paper adds to the increasing body of literature the notion that institutional change is not a sufficient condition to sustained economic development.

Serological screening for antenatal toxoplasma infection in India
Khurana S,Bagga R,Aggarwal A,Lyngdoh V
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: Purpose: Detection of infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy to prevent congenital infection. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out from January 2005 to 2006 in 300 pregnant women. Antitoxoplasma IgG, IgM, IgA antibody and IgG avidity were assessed using ELISA. Atleast two samples were taken atleast 3 weeks apart preferably one in each trimester. Result: Of these 300 pregnant women, anti toxoplasma IgG antibodies were detected in 46 (15.33%) cases, while 9 (3%) had positive anti toxoplasma IgM with IgA and /low IgG avidity antibodies suggestive of acute infection during or just before pregnancy. Conclusion: The results indicate that about 85% of female population of Chandigarh is susceptible to toxoplasma infection and thus should be specifically educated about prevention of this infection during pregnancy
Brain abscess due to Streptococcus sanguis
Dhawan B,Lyngdoh V,Mehta V,Chaudhry R
Neurology India , 2003,
Abstract:
Glial heterotopia of maxilla: A clinical surprise
Mahalik Santosh,Lyngdoh Toijam,Menon Prema,Sodhi Kushaljit
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons , 2011,
Abstract: Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass lesion which often presents as a clinical surprise. We report a case of extranasal glial heterotopia in a neonate with unusual features. The presentation, management strategy, etiopathogenesis and histopathology of the mass lesion has been reviewed.
Development of an Agent-Based Model and Its Application to the Estimation of Global Carbon Emissions  [PDF]
Paula Castesana, Salvador Puliafito
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A003
Abstract:

With the purpose of studying the influence of population dynamics and economic growth on energy consumption and carbon emissions, an endogenous economic growth model is proposed incorporating physical and human capital and using an Agent-Based Model. The model can test different development strategies by identifying the key factors existing at the agent level that may speed up or slow down a given path, and therefore it is an interesting tool to develop and to test mitigation and/or adaptation measures. Favorable scenarios may be possible in societies that encourage investment in human capital through education and technological development, provided that this is accompanied by a reduction in consumption rates and the creation of physical capital by the population. Moreover, this model shows that human capital resulting from education not only raises productivity, but also plays a key role in the development and adoption of new technologies that drive long-term growth.

Más allá de los altares. Un obispo de Felipe V frente al régimen de ingresos parroquiales en Yucatán, 1715 1728
Aguirre Salvador, Salvador
Hispania Sacra : Revista de Historia Eclesiástica , 2011,
Abstract: In this article there is analyzed the management of the bishop of Yucatan, Juan Gómez de Parada, especially his reform to the parochial charges, in the frame of a period of critique to the clergy in the Spanish empire, and especially to the friars, on the part of the new monarchy of Philip V. Though the historiography on the Church of Yucatan already has emphasized the reforms stimulated by the bishop Juan Gómez de Parada, Nevertheless one neither has penetrated into them one nor has linked them to the new ecclesiastic policies of Philip V. Undoubtedly, the government of this bishop was marked by new winds reformists. En este artículo se analiza la gestión del obispo de Yucatán, Juan Gómez de Parada, en especial su reforma a los derechos parroquiales, en el marco de un periodo de crítica al clero en el imperio espanol, y en especial a los religiosos, por parte de la nueva monarquía de Felipe V. Aunque la historiografía sobre la Iglesia de Yucatán ya ha destacado las reformas impulsadas por el obispo Juan Gómez de Parada, sin embargo no se ha profundizado en ellas ni se les ha vinculado a las nuevas políticas eclesiásticas de Felipe V. Sin duda, el gobierno de este obispo estuvo marcado por nuevos vientos reformistas.
Bottom-Up Analysis of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions, with Particular Emphasis on Human Capital Investment  [PDF]
Paula Castesana, Salvador Enrique Puliafito
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A001
Abstract:

Short-term and mid-term projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions raise significant concern about the availability of the necessary energy resources to meet the growing demand and about the impact of emissions on global change. Different macroeconomic models address this issue through global variables, such as gross domestic product, production of goods and services, total population and natural resources extraction. However, the relations among these variables are neither linear nor simple. In an attempt to base said relations on a “bottom-up” perspective, the individual behavior of representative agents of economy, in terms of energy consumption and related carbon emissions, was studied, with particular emphasis on their investment in human capital. It was found that a higher investment in human capital (e.g., education, research) was translated into a better distribution of consumption, with a higher level of energy efficiency and a slight improvement in carbon emissions intensity.

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