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OALib Journal期刊

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Phytopharmacological review of Xanthium strumarium L. (Cocklebur)
Kamboj Anjoo,Saluja Ajay
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Xanthium strumarium L. (Family: Compositae) a medicinal plant commonly found as a weed, is widely distributed in North America, Brazil, China, Malaysia and hotter parts of India. The herb is traditionally used mostly in treating several ailments. Extracts of the whole plant, especially leaves, roots, fruits and seeds have been applied in traditional medicine for the treatment of leucoderma, poisonous bites of insects, epilepsy, salivation, long-standing cases of malaria, rheumatism, tuberculosis, allergic rhinitis, sinitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, constipation, diarrhoea, leprosy, lumbago, pruritis, bacterial and fungal infections. This comprehensive account provides a botanical description of the plant, its phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities are reviewed, focussing on antibacterial, antitumour, antitussive, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, hypoglycaemic, antimitotic, antioxidant, antitrypanosomal, CNS depressant activity, diuretic effects, contact dermatitis, insecticidal and herbicidal activities. Most of the pharmacological effects can be explained by the constituents like sesquiterpene lactones, glycoside, phenols, polysterols present in all plant parts. However, future efforts should concentrate more on in vitro and in vivo studies and also on clinical trials in order to confirm traditional wisdom in the light of a rational phytotherapy. Because of its multi-activity, in particular, anti-tumour, anti-cancer activity, so much attention is focussed on the herb. Finally, research needs quantitation of individual constituents and assessment of their pharmacological activities in humans.
Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats
Tatiya, Anil U;Saluja, Ajay K;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000152
Abstract: machilus macrantha nees, lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. in order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions m. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. test materials viz. petroleum ether (pe), alkaloidal fraction (ch), acetone extracts (tan) and mucilage (mm) (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) obtained from m. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and freund's complete adjuvant (fca) induced arthritis activity. diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. test materials have significantly (p<0.01) inhibited paw edema after carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. administration of test materials of m. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. in addition to this, bark of m. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (esr, ra factor, crp, liver transferase enzyme) in fca-induced arthritis. it also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of rbc and reduction in total leukocyte migration. bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of m. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its hplc, nmr and gc-ms study. in conclusion, extracts of m. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.
Further studies on membrane stabilizing, anti-inflammatory and FCA induced arthritic activity of various fractions of bark of Machilus macrantha in rats
Anil U Tatiya,Ajay K Saluja
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2011,
Abstract: Machilus macrantha Nees, Lauraceae, bark is traditionally used in the treatment of asthma, tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In order to validate, mechanism based anti-inflammatory activity of fractions M. macrantha bark are investigated for first time. Test materials viz. petroleum ether (PE), alkaloidal fraction (CH), acetone extracts (TAN) and mucilage (MM) (250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) obtained from M. macrantha bark were tested for membrane stabilizing, anti-nociceptive; anti inflammatory and Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis activity. Diclofenac sodium and morphine were used as the reference standards in pharmacological assay. Test materials have significantly (p<0.01) inhibited paw edema after Carrageenan and histamine induction at higher doses. Administration of test materials of M. macrantha (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) significantly reduced abdominal writhing, formalin nociception, cotton pellet granuloma and vascular permeability in experimental animal. In addition to this, bark of M. macrantha showed chronic anti-rheumatic effect by suppressing the swelling volume, arthritis index, hematological and biochemical parameters (ESR, RA factor, CRP, liver transferase enzyme) in FCA-induced arthritis. It also significantly inhibited protein denaturation, heat-induced haemolysis of RBC and reduction in total leukocyte migration. Bioassay guided fractionation of the pet. ether extract of bark of M. macrantha led to isolation and characterization of β-sitosterol and stigma sterol confirmed by its HPLC, NMR and GC-MS study. In conclusion, extracts of M. macrantha bark can be explored as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute and chronic arthritis.
Physicochemical and pharmacological assessment of a traditional biomedicine: Mukta shouktic bhasma
Nitin Dubey,Nidhi Dubey,Rajendra S. Mehta,Ajay K. Saluja
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2009,
Abstract: Mukta shouktic bhasma (MSB) is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal preparation. This biomedicine is synthesized through special calcination of mother of pearl as mentioned in the classical Ayurvedic text. Physicochemical characterization of MSB was carried out using modern techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The study showed that the raw material mukta shouktic (mother of pearl) is an organo-mineral matrix containing calcium carbonate in aragonite form. The aragonite form of calcium carbonatetransforms to a stable calcite form during the process of bhasma formation and forms the main crystalline component of MSB. The heat treatment does result in partial conversion of calcite to calcium oxide, which appears as calcium hydroxide(not more than 2% w/w) in the final product. The organic content of processed material degraded gradually. Physical evaluation revealed that MSB is a fine grayish white powder having a poor flow property with narrow particle size distribution of 1.22 to 22.52 m having a mean particle size of 10.20±0.45 m. A clearly identifiable fraction of MSB particles was below 50 nanometer. The presence of nanosized particles in MSB might impart the therapeutic property of this medicine. Trace element analysis of MSB revealed the presence of metals, like arsenic, lead, chromium, cadmium, mercury, and tin under regulatory acceptable limits at the prescribed dose of MSB. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed calcium as the major element (40.22 wt %) in MSB. Microbial load for the formulation was found to be within limits. Animals were found to be safe up to a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight in acute toxicity studies. A significant (P<0.05) reduction in hyperpyrexia in rat was produced by MSB.
Detection of Heavy Metal Contents and Proximate Analysis of roots of Anogeissus latifolia
Vidita V. Bhargava,Ajay K Saluja,Kishor K. Dholwani
Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry , 2013,
Abstract: The study of heavy metal contamination in plants, serve to indicate the metal concentration status of the site, where plants have grown. This is an important tool for phytoremediation. Proximate analysis in plants gives valuable information and help to access the quality of the sample. So studies were carried out on the roots of Anogeissus latifolia which is useful in UTI infections, skin diseases, liver complaints, fever, epileptic fits etc. for heavy metal contents and proximate analysis of the root sample was also done. The root showed the absence of heavy metals when it was subjected to analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Spectrometer. The ash values, extractive values, moisture content, total solid content and crude fiber content of the root sample were also determined.
EVALUATION OF ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM METHANOLIC EXTRACT
Bhatt Mehul K,M. B. Shankar,Saluja Ajay K,Dholwani Kishor K
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum methanolic extract against strains of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Tulsi plant is known to possess therapeutic potentials and have been used, by traditional medicinal practitioners, as an expectorant, analgesic, anticancer, antiasthmatic, antiemetic, diaphoretic, antidiabetic, antifertility, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypolipidmic, anti-microbial, antifungal activity against Asperigillus niger. The extract was tested for its antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative bacteria like Escherichia coli. Inhibition of microbial growth was investigated using agar well diffusion method. UV-Visible and HPLC analysis of the extract was carried out for the presence of eugenol.
DISTRIBUTED SOURCE RATE LIMITING MECHANISM FOR WIRELESS MESH NETWORK
Navdeep Saluja
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) built with commodity 802.11 radios are a cost-effective means of providing last mile broadband Internet access. Their multi-hop architecture allows for rapid deployment and organic growth of these networks. In this paper we focus on fair rate allocation requirements. Our approach does not require any changes to individual mesh routers. Further, it uses existing data traffic as capacity probes, thus incurring a zero control traffic overhead. We propose the mechanism based on this approach on aggregate rate control (ARC). ARC limits the aggregate capacity of a network to the sum of fair rates for a given set of flows. We show that the resulting rate allocation achieved approximately max-min fair. We show how it can be used to achieve weighted flow rate fairness. Our comparative analysis show that our mechanisms improve fairness indices when compared with networks without any rate limiting, and are approximately equivalent to results achieved with distributed source rate limiting mechanisms that require software modifications on all mesh routers
Detection techniques of selective forwarding attacks in wireless sensor networks: a survey
Preeti Sharma,Monika Saluja,Krishan Kumar Saluja
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5120/7718-1082
Abstract: The wireless sensor network has become a hot research area due its wide range of application in military and civilian domain, but as it uses wireless media for communication these are easily prone to security attacks. There are number of attacks on wireless sensor networks like black hole attack, sink hole attack, Sybil attack, selective forwarding attacks etc. in this paper we will concentrate on selective forwarding attacks In selective forwarding attacks, malicious nodes behave like normal nodes and selectively drop packets. The selection of dropping nodes may be random. Identifying such attacks is very difficult and sometimes impossible. In this paper we have listed up some detection techniques, which have been proposed by different researcher in recent years, there we also have tabular representation of qualitative analysis of detection techniques
Strong convergence theorem for two asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings with errors in Banach space
G. S. Saluja
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics , 2007, DOI: 10.5556/j.tkjm.38.2007.85-92
Abstract: In this paper, we study strong convergence of common fixed points of two asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings and prove that if $K$ is a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Banach space $E$ and let $ S, Tcolon K o K $ be two asymptotically quasi-nonexpansive mappings with sequences $ {u_n}$, ${v_n}subset [0,infty) $ such that $ sum_{n=1}^{infty}u_n $$ egin{cases} x_{n+1}& = (1-alpha_n)x_n + alpha_nS^ny_n + l_n y_n &= (1-eta_n)x_n + eta_nT^nx_n + m_n, quad forall nin N end{cases} $$ where $ {l_n}_{n=1}^{infty},{m_n}_{n=1}^{infty} $ are sequences in $K$ satisfying $ sum_{n=1}^{infty}Vert l_nVert
Convergence theorems for strictly asymptotically pseudocontractive mappings in Hilbert spaces
Gurucharan Singh Saluja
Opuscula Mathematica , 2010,
Abstract: In this paper, we establish the weak and strong convergence theorems for a k-strictly asymptotically pseudo-contractive mapping in the framework of Hilbert spaces. Our result improve and extend the corresponding result of Acedo and Xu, Liu, Marino and Xu, Osilike and Akuchu, and some others.
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