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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 955 matches for " Salman Salamatian "
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From the Information Bottleneck to the Privacy Funnel
Ali Makhdoumi,Salman Salamatian,Nadia Fawaz,Muriel Medard
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We focus on the privacy-utility trade-off encountered by users who wish to disclose some information to an analyst, that is correlated with their private data, in the hope of receiving some utility. We rely on a general privacy statistical inference framework, under which data is transformed before it is disclosed, according to a probabilistic privacy mapping. We show that when the log-loss is introduced in this framework in both the privacy metric and the distortion metric, the privacy leakage and the utility constraint can be reduced to the mutual information between private data and disclosed data, and between non-private data and disclosed data respectively. We justify the relevance and generality of the privacy metric under the log-loss by proving that the inference threat under any bounded cost function can be upper-bounded by an explicit function of the mutual information between private data and disclosed data. We then show that the privacy-utility tradeoff under the log-loss can be cast as the non-convex Privacy Funnel optimization, and we leverage its connection to the Information Bottleneck, to provide a greedy algorithm that is locally optimal. We evaluate its performance on the US census dataset.
Managing your Private and Public Data: Bringing down Inference Attacks against your Privacy
Salman Salamatian,Amy Zhang,Flavio du Pin Calmon,Sandilya Bhamidipati,Nadia Fawaz,Branislav Kveton,Pedro Oliveira,Nina Taft
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1109/JSTSP.2015.2442227
Abstract: We propose a practical methodology to protect a user's private data, when he wishes to publicly release data that is correlated with his private data, in the hope of getting some utility. Our approach relies on a general statistical inference framework that captures the privacy threat under inference attacks, given utility constraints. Under this framework, data is distorted before it is released, according to a privacy-preserving probabilistic mapping. This mapping is obtained by solving a convex optimization problem, which minimizes information leakage under a distortion constraint. We address practical challenges encountered when applying this theoretical framework to real world data. On one hand, the design of optimal privacy-preserving mechanisms requires knowledge of the prior distribution linking private data and data to be released, which is often unavailable in practice. On the other hand, the optimization may become untractable and face scalability issues when data assumes values in large size alphabets, or is high dimensional. Our work makes three major contributions. First, we provide bounds on the impact on the privacy-utility tradeoff of a mismatched prior. Second, we show how to reduce the optimization size by introducing a quantization step, and how to generate privacy mappings under quantization. Third, we evaluate our method on three datasets, including a new dataset that we collected, showing correlations between political convictions and TV viewing habits. We demonstrate that good privacy properties can be achieved with limited distortion so as not to undermine the original purpose of the publicly released data, e.g. recommendations.
East Jerusalem Students’ Attitudes towards the Acquisition of Hebrew as a Second or Foreign Language in the Arab Educational System of East Jerusalem and Society’s Support  [PDF]
Salman Ilaiyan
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.326151
Abstract: This is a pioneering study examining the eighth grade students’ attitudes in the Arab Education System in East Jerusalem towards learning Hebrew as a foreign/second language: their readiness to communicate in it, and the extent of the community support to learning it. The study is based on Schuman’s (1978) social theories regarding acquiring foreign/second language. The extent of the learner’s social integration in the community of the foreign/second language determines the extent of his success in acquiring the language. The study sample included 643 eighth grade students from East Jerusalem schools who are learning Hebrew as an elective subject. The study questionnaire included three parts: 1) Attitudes towards learning a foreign/second language 2) Readiness to communicate in a foreign/second language 3)The social support. The study findings indicate statistically significant positive correlation between all the measures of the following variables: 1) Attitudes towards a foreign/second language and readiness to communicate in it. 2) Attitudes towards Hebrew as a school subject got a higher positive score than attitudes towards the speakers of the language. 3) Family support (father/mother) got a higher positive score than the friends’ support, and this is following the instrumental issue. The main conclusion of the study is that there is a need to formulate a systemic and unique work plan accompanied with an addition of suitable position and budget to handle the problem of teaching Hebrew as a foreign/second language.
Difficulties Experienced by the Arab Teacher during His First Year of Teaching as a Result of Personal and Organizational Variables  [PDF]
Salman Ilaiyan
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.46053

This pioneer study deals with difficulties faced by the beginning Arab teacher. The theoretical framework of the research is based on Veenman’s (1984) analysis, which indicates 24 difficulties faced by the beginning teacher. These difficulties have been classified into eight categories ranked in order of importance. The study seeks to identify the difficulties experienced by the beginning Arab teacher during his first year of teaching and to predict his future dissatisfaction with teaching based on those difficulties. The questionnaire drafted especially for this study was completed by 130 participants (beginning teachers). The responses were analyzed, yielding six factors of difficulty. The findings indicate difficulties involving: 1) the interpersonal communication between beginning Arab teachers on the one hand and both students and parents on the other, 2) overload, 3) didactic and disciplinary knowledge, 4) support and recognition, 5) organizational climate (school culture), and 6) satisfaction. We examined the correlation between the beginning Arab teacher’s difficulties and his dissatisfaction with his work. The research findings reveal that the organizational climate (school culture) and overload factors significantly affect the satisfaction variable. With regard to the relation between the beginning Arab teacher’s general background characteristics and his difficulties in the first year, the background variable, specialization, was found to affect the factors of difficulty.

Re-Internationalization v/s Initial Internationalization: Comparison of Modes of Operations  [PDF]
Salman Ali
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2019.91017

Re-internationalization is defined as firms’ re-entry into international operations after they have abandoned all their previous internationalization efforts. In this paper, we report findings from a survey administered among senior-level managers of re-internationalized Indian firms where we studied the differences in firms’ choices in modes of operations during re-internationalization phase as compared to initial internationalization phase. The results from the survey indicated that firms tended to go for high involvement modes of operations during re-internationalization as compared to the relatively low involvement modes of operations undertaken during initial internationalization. This trend of going for higher involvement modes of operations was more visible in firms that had a presence in a relatively higher number of countries during the re-internationalization stage. This incremental nature of internationalization, i.e. going from initial low involvement modes of operations toward high involvement modes of operations as firms gained experience in both time and space from their initial through re-internationalization attempts, found support for the Uppsala model of internationalization. Being among the first studies on the topic, we expect this study to serve as a foundation for researchers to explore deeper related queries. This study also has meaningful practical and policy implications.

Characterization of P2P IPTV Traffic: Scaling Analysis
Thomas Silverston,Olivier Fourmaux,Kave Salamatian
Computer Science , 2007,
Abstract: P2P IPTV applications arise on the Internet and will be massively used in the future. It is expected that P2P IPTV will contribute to increase the overall Internet traffic. In this context, it is important to measure the impact of P2P IPTV on the networks and to characterize this traffic. Dur- ing the 2006 FIFA World Cup, we performed an extensive measurement campaign. We measured network traffic generated by broadcasting soc- cer games by the most popular P2P IPTV applications, namely PPLive, PPStream, SOPCast and TVAnts. From the collected data, we charac- terized the P2P IPTV traffic structure at different time scales by using wavelet based transform method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work, which presents a complete multiscale analysis of the P2P IPTV traffic. Our results show that the scaling properties of the TCP traffic present periodic behavior whereas the UDP traffic is stationary and lead to long- range depedency characteristics. For all the applications, the download traffic has different characteristics than the upload traffic. The signaling traffic has a significant impact on the download traffic but it has negligible impact on the upload. Both sides of the traffic and its granularity has to be taken into account to design accurate P2P IPTV traffic models.
Optimization of Bloom Filter Parameters for Practical Bloom Filter Based Epidemic Forwarding in DTNs
Ali Marandi,Mahdi Faghi Imani,Kave Salamatian
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Epidemic forwarding has been proposed as a forwarding technique to achieve opportunistic communication in Delay Tolerant Networks. Even if this technique is well known and widely referred, one has to first deal with several practical problems before using it. In particular, in order to manage the redundancy and to avoid useless transmissions, it has been proposed to ask nodes to exchange information about the buffer content prior to sending information. While Bloom filter has been proposed to transport the buffer content information, up to our knowledge no real evaluation has been provided to study the tradeoff that exists in practice. In this paper we describe an implementation of an epidemic forwarding scheme using Bloom filters. Then we propose some strategies for Bloom filter management based on windowing and describe implementation tradeoffs. By simulating our proposed strategies in ns-3 both with random waypoint mobility and realistic mobility traces coming from San Francisco taxicabs, we show that our proposed strategies alleviate the challenge of using epidemic forwarding in DTNs.
Modified technique for volumetric brain tumor measurements  [PDF]
Yasser M. Salman
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.21003
Abstract: Quantitative measurements of tumor response rate in three dimensions (3D) become more re-alistic with the use of advanced technology im-aging during therapy, especially when the tumor morphological changes remain subtle, irregular and difficult to assess by clinical examination. These quantitative measurements depend strongly on the accuracy of the segmentations methods used. Improvements on such methods yield to increase the accuracy of the segmentation process. Recently, the essential modification in the Traditional Region Growing (T-RG) method has been developed and a “Modified Region Growing Method” (MRGM) has been presented and gives more accurate boundary detection and holes filling after segmentation. In this pa-per, the new automatic calculation of the volu-metric size of brain tumor has been imple-mented based on Modified Region Growing Method. A comparative study and statistical analysis performed in this work show that the modified method gives more accurate and better performance for 3D volume measurements. The method was tested by 7 fully investigated pa-tients of different tumor type and shape, and better accurate results were reported using MRGM.
A Comparison and Performance of Different Optical Switching Architectures  [PDF]
Salman Ali AlQahtani
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2011.48063
Abstract: Optical Packet Switching (OPS) and transmission networks based on Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) have been increasingly deployed in the Internet infrastructure over the last decade in order to meet the huge increasing demand for bandwidth. Several different technologies have been developed for optical packet switching such as space switches, broadcast-and-select, input buffered switches and output buffered switches. These architectures vary based on several parameters such as the way of optical buffering, the placement of optical buffers, the way of solving the external blocking inherited from switching technologies in general and the components used to implement the WDM. This study surveys most of the exiting optical packet switching architectures. A simulation-based comparison of input buffered and output buffered architectures is presented. The performance analysis of the selected two architectures is derived using simulation program and compared at different scenarios. We found that the output buffered architectures give better performance than input buffered architectures. The simulation results show that the-broadcast-and-select architecture is attractive in terms that it has lees number of components compared to other switches.
Characteristics of “Exemplary Teachers” and Possible Factors Affecting Their Realization According to the Perception of Principals from the Arab Sector in Israel  [PDF]
Salman Ilaiyan, Rafi’ Safadi
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.71012
Abstract: This study examines the characteristics of exemplary teachers and the factors that are liable to inhibit/encourage their realization according to the perception of principals from the Arab sector in Israel. Ten principals were interviewed. They considered leading educational initiatives, coping with discipline problems, subject matter mastery, and employing a variety of teaching methods to be the exemplary teacher’s outstanding characteristics. Characteristics associated with ongoing professional development and relationships with colleagues, pupils, and parents were deemed less prominent. The principals did not manifest a unified stance vis-à-vis whether their schools’ physical-pedagogical infrastructure encouraged or inhibited the realization of the characteristics of exemplary teaching. It was recommended that in parallel to broadening didactic and disciplinary knowledge, it would be worthwhile fostering the ability of the teachers, in particular pre-service teachers and beginning teachers, to lead educational initiatives and establish interpersonal relationships, and giving them tools for coping with discipline problems.
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