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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 287 matches for " Salmah Muhamad "
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Influence of Uracil in Fermentation Media on β-Glucan Production by Agrobacterium Radiobacter A 1.5 and Agrobacterium sp. Bro 1.2.1
Kusmiati,Salmah Muhamad,Sukma Nuswantara,Swasono R.Tamat
Makara Seri Sains , 2007,
Abstract: Optimum β-glucan production can be achieved by an optimum condition in the fermentation media. Uracil, as a precursor of UDP-glucose, may act as a glucose donor in the formation of polysaccharides such as β-glucan. It is expected that addition of certain quantity of uracil into the fermentation media in a suitable growth phase of Agrobacterium radiobacter A 1.5 and Agrobacterium sp. Bro 1.2.1, will significantly increase the β-glucan production. In this investigation, 0.025%; 0.05% or 0.1% of uracil were added into the fermentation media during the logarithmic phase (24 hour) or stationary phase (46 hour) of growth. The β-glucan product was evaluated from the β-glucan (crude) dry-weight and from the β-glucan content. Beta-glucan content was determined as glucose by the Hisamatsu-AOAC and HPLC methods. The highest β-glucan (crude) dry-weight produced by the A. 1.5 was in a medium containg 0.025% uracil (24 hour), whilst by the A. Bro 1.2.1 was in a medium containg 0.1% uracil (46 hour), both higher than control. The highest β-glucan content produced by the A. 1.5 (27.03%) was in a medium containg 0.025% uracil (46 hour), while control produced only 23.28%. The highest β-glucan content produced by the Bro 1.2.1 (29.34%) was in a medium containg 0.025% uracil (24 hour), while control produced only 28.75%. Two-way anova analysis showed that there were no significant influence difference (α = 0,05) from various concentration of uracil in either growth phases, to the yield of β-glucan (crude) dry-weight nor to the β-glucan equivalent glucose content.
Application of DNA Technology in Determining the Virulence Genes Responsible for Haemorrhagic Septicaemia of Pasteurella multocida Serotype B by Using ‘Shotgun’ Cloning
Salmah Ismail
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: A pure culture of Pasteurella multocida strain B2 has been chosen for shotgun cloning into pUC18 system to determine the virulence genes responsible for haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cow, cattle and buffaloes. Sau3A1 partially digested genomic DNA (2 – 9 kb) from B2 strains was cloned into BamHI site of pUC18. 25 of 790 clones obtained were randomly selected for DNA analysis and mice virulence test. Only one, named as B/392 recombinant plasmid was found to be stable maintained in E. coli host system. The other 23 clones which have tested were found plasmid lost upon subculturing. The plasmid size of B/392 was estimated as 3.6 kb while the size of the inserted fragment was estimated as 0.9 kb (double digested with PstI and SmaI). Clone B/392 showed lethality in mice with at least 100 colony forming unit (CFU) of organisms, and 0.1 ml of the bacterial cultures was injected to cause death within 6 to 24 hours. Further investigation of the B/392 clone was needed to identify the virulence determinant of HS in Pasteurella multocida
Plasmid Curing and its Role of Pathogenicity in Pasteurella multocida Serotype B Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Isolates
Salmah Ismail
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A total of 150 purified isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype B which has been used in previous (Salmah, 2004) were further carried out for plasmid DNA curing experiment to determine hyaluronidase activity, antibiotic resistance pattern (ARP) and mice lethality test (LD50) for their role of pathogenicity. A plasmid curing experiment was carried out by using the intercalating agent; ethidium bromide and rifampicin, where it was found all the plasmids had been ‘cured` (plasmidless) from Pasteurella multocida. All of these plasmidless isolates remained their phenotypic characteristics. They shown the same antibiotic resistance pattern as before curing, produced hyaluronidase and possessed lethality activity in mice when injected intraperitoneally (i.p). Based on this observation, the antibiotic resistance, hyaluronidase activity and mice virulence could probably chromosomal-mediated. This plasmid might not played any role in pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida serotype B, however this information is important for the construction of shuttle vectors in genetic studies of the pathogenicity of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS).
Restriction Enzyme Analysis of Pasteurella multocida serotype B strains isolated from Haemorrhagic Septicaemia outbreaks in Malaysia
Salmah Ismail
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A total of 150 P. multocida isolates from HS cases obtained from Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Petaling Jaya were reconfirmed of their biochemical characteristics. Plasmid DNA profiling and Agarose gel electrophoresis were carried out as described recently (Salmah, 2004) to determine size, number and profile of plasmids for each isolate. Plasmids detected were 100% in all P. multocida isolates with identical profile of 2 plasmids size 3.0 and 5.5 kb. No large plasmids could be detected in all isolates. Only 4 of 30 REs were found to cleave these plasmids with identical restriction fingerprints – BglII, HaeIII, RsaI and SspI. From RE analysis results obtained, it can be concluded that the plasmid DNA in serotype B isolates are identical. The finding of this preliminary study will help to further investigate whether any of these plasmids are related to virulence mechanism (pathogenicity) of P. multocida.
Plasmid DNA Profilling of Pasteurella multocida Serotype A, B, D and Untypable (U) Isolates From Animals
Salmah Ismail
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A total of two-hudred (200) P. multocida isolates obtained from Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Petaling Jaya were screened for their presence of plasmid via alkaline lysis method (Sambrook, et al. 1989). The size, number and profile of plasmids for each isolate were estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. 37% were noted to harbor small plasmid DNA, ranging in size from 1.5 to 3.6 Mda and there was no presence of large plasmids in all isolates. No plasmids could be detected for serotype A. The plasmid size ranged from 1.5 to 3.6 megadaltons (Mda) with seven different plasmid profiles. All isolates of P. multocida serotype B were found to contain a common plasmids. The finding of this study will help to further investigate whether any of these plasmids are related to virulence mechanism (pathogenicity) of P. multocida. Therefore, the aim of this study is to detect the presence of plasmids in isolates of P. multocida serotype A, B, D and untypable (U).
Hyaluronidase Determination Among Pasteurella multocida Serotype A, B, D and Untypable Isolates
Salmah Ismail
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A total of 115 Pasteurella multocida isolates were collected from various sources of animals in Malaysia and were purified by Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Petaling Jaya. Isolates were subcultured once on BHI blood agar, incubated at 37?C overnight before amplified in BHI broth. Before carrying out to any further studies, all the isolates were first reconfirmed as Pasteurella multocida by gram staining, colonial morphology and a series of biochemical tests. The cultures of Pasteurella multocida were tested for the production of hyaluronidase by using modification method of Smith and Willett (1968). Hyaluronidase production was demonstrated in all isolates of Pasteurella multocida serotype B, whereas, none was detected in serotype A, D and untypable.
Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Pasteurella multocida Isolates from Pasteurellosis Disease Animals in Malaysia
Salmah Ismail
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: A total of 200 bacterial isolates identified as Pasteurella multocida from pasteurellosis disease animals were analysed for their antibiotic susceptibilities towards 10 different antibiotics. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was determined by using both commercial discs and E-test strips. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (Cm), erythromycin (Em), gentamicin (Gm), kanamycin (Km) and trimethoprim + trimethoxazole (Sxt). Sixty five (32.5%) isolates were resistant towards ampicillin (Am), seventy six (38%) isolates were resistant to streptomycin (Sm) and forty one (20.5%) isolates were resistant to tetracycline (Te). All of them presented resistance to spectinomycin (SH) and triple sulphonamides (S3). Eight different pattern of antibiogram were displayed by all the serotype of P. multocida included the untypable isolates; S3SH (35%), S3SHTe (8%), SmS3SHTe (4%), AmS3SH (16%), AmS3SHTe (2.5%), SmS3SH (19.5%), AmSmS3SH (8.5%) and AmSmS3SHTe (6%).
An Attitude and Character Instructional Development Based on Curriculum 2013 in Elementary School  [PDF]
Badeni Muhamad, Sri Saparahayuningsih
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.72025
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the weaknesses of the instructional model of attitude and character in the 2013 elementary school curriculum and to develop a conceptual model of attitude and character instruction being able to instill the attitudes and characters contained in the content of social studies subject of elementary schools in the curriculum of 2013. The results of this study showed that 1) scientific learning approach was only able to develop scientific attitudes of students, while sorts of other attitudes were very less embedded into the students’ self. 2) The application of the integrated scientific instructional model was able to instill the values of attitudes and characters contained in the content of social studies to the student.
Observations of Embryonic Changes in Middle and Late Stages of the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)  [PDF]
Muhamad Abidalla, Donatella Battaglia
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.63015
Abstract: The embryogenesis of lepidopteran insects has morphogenetic events accompanying the blastokinesis movements (anatrepsis and katatrepsis) in early and late stages, respectively. Katatrepsis is related to embryonic movement with yolk mass and regression of amnioserosa folds in the second half of the development cycle. The whole mount method and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) were used for analysing the embryonic developmental changes. Those changes in the middle and late embryonic periods were described and divided into eight stages: 1) Completion of segmentation and differentiation of cephalic and thoracic appendages (32 - 40 hours post-oviposition h. PO); 2) Expanded growth of cephalo-gnathal and abdominal parts (41 - 60 h. PO); 3) Completion of thoracic appendages and appearance of pleuropodia, katatrepsis (60 - 70 h. PO); 4) Pre-revolution morphogenetic movement of the cephalo-gnathal region (71 - 80 h. PO); 5) revolution of the embryo (81 - 100 h. PO); 6) Beginning of dorsal closure (101 - 115 h. PO); 7) completion of dorsal closure (116 - 120 h. PO); and 8) full-grown embryo just before hatching (121 - 144 h. PO).
The Efficiency Measurement of Indonesian Universities Based on a Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis  [PDF]
Umi Mahmudah, Muhamad Safiih Lola
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2016.66085
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to measure the relative efficiency of Indonesian universities in 2015. There are twenty five DMUs with four inputs and five outputs that are analyzed. Due to the low number of Indonesian scientific publications, this study analyses the performance of the top 25 universities based on the Webometrics ranking as it has been used as one of the indicators of university achievements by the Higher Education of Indonesia. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to obtain the scores of efficiency, while the Fuzzy approach is applied to address the possibility of errors from the auditor’s assessment in determining the input and output variables correctly. The FDEA can be used in measuring the universities performances under imprecise inputs and outputs. Both the CRS (constant returns to scale) and the VRS (variable returns to scale) models are presented. The empirical results show that 36 percent of universities perform efficiently on the CRS model while 52 percent of universities have efficient performances under the VRS model. Furthermore, the well-known universities have shown relatively low scores, which indicate they need to improve their performances in publishing scientific work, as well as providing useful information to the public through the official websites. Generally, the results of the VRS model are better than the CRS model for both the DEA and the FDEA methods.
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