Abstract:
Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how properties of binary spaces can be useful in making inferences from microarray data. In particular, we use the Tanimoto similarity metric for binary vectors, which has been used effectively in the Chemoinformatics literature for retrieving chemical compounds with certain functional properties. This measure, when incorporated in a kernel framework, helps recover any information lost by quantization. By implementing a spectral clustering framework, we further show that a second reason for high performance from the Tanimoto metric can be traced back to a hitherto unnoticed systematic variability in array data: Probe level uncertainties are systematically lower for arrays with large numbers of expressed genes. While we offer no molecular level explanation for this systematic variability, that it could be exploited in a suitable similarity metric is a useful observation in itself. We further show preliminary results that working with binary data considerably reduces variability in the results across choice of algorithms in the preprocessing stages of microarray analysis.

Abstract:
In this letter we propose analytical evaluation method for the electron density and the energy density in multi-layered high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The algorithm is used to simulate the variation of the electron density and the energy density against temperature of hetero-junction AlGaN/GaN. The proposed procedure guaranties the reliable application of the contribution of multi-layered HEMTs structure. In conclusion, the obtained results are estimated and discussed.

Abstract:
This paper proposes that even when all countries have access to common technology frontier and can use the technologies which are fully appropriate to their needs, there will still be productivity differences across countries depending on their relative skill endowments. To illustrate this view, we have constructed a two sector model of productivity differences in which the level of technology is determined endogenously depending on the aggregate capital externalities. The relative supply of skilled and unskilled labor determines the direction of technical choices of the countries and differences in these relative factor supplies lead to cross-country income differences combined with the fact that capital is more productive in the advance of the skilled labor complement technologies than in the unskilled labor complement technologies.

Abstract:
The developments in preventive and curative medicine, improvement of life conditions and nutrition have rapidly increased the number of elderly people in the general population. Approximately half of all cancer events occur in people 65 years and older. Cancer is the most second cause of all death in this patient population. Aging is a personal phenomenon and physiology may not necessarily be parallel to the chronological age. Elderly people are known to have a higher incidency of both cancer and comorbidity. Cancer patients age 70 and older have the least 3 comorbidities. Decision-making for cancer treatment in geriatric population must first evaluate personal functional capacity. Elderly people are not only older adults; they have unique physiologic features and pharmacological response patterns. Life expectancy and chemotherapy complication risks may be determined by comprehensive geriatric assessment and results of this assessment provide better judgment in the choice of standard or palliative treatment.

Abstract:
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells that drive tumorigenesis, as well as give rise to a large population of differentiated progeny that make up the bulk of the tumor. The same specific signaling pathways play a functional role in CSC renewal and/or differentiation as with normal stem cells, the only difference being that the same signaling pathways are dysregulated in CSCs. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that CSCs are resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. Future studies should lead to development of CSC-targeted therapies for cancer treatment.

Abstract:
Therapeutic ultrasound is one of the most widely used electrophysical agents. The users are generally not well aware of the details of the technology of ultrasonic generators and cannot be asked to perform the complicated physical measurements to test their equipment. Frequently, the only way to check the performance of the device is the observance of oil or water bubbles on the surface of the piezoelectiric probe. If bubbles are present, the generator is regarded as operating correctly. Many surveys on the output of therapeutic ultrasound equipment have revealed discrepancies between the indicated and actual ultrasonic output of many devices. International safety standards recommend a limit below 30% variation in acoustic intensity for ultrasound therapy equipment. So, further improvements in the accuracy of ultrasound machine calibration are needed. Proper calibration is essential to provide patients with a more accurate ultrasound dosage and, therefore, with a safer and more appropriate treatment. This review highlights the need for users to be aware of the potential inaccuracy of the machine and of the importance of regular calibration. They could be informed better with a systematic training in their education curricula on specific variables of ultrasound machines. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2011;57:94-100.

Abstract:
The nationalist project of Kemalist ideology was constructed in the house . Women were reduced tofertiliy and mother roles, and thus raising new generations. Education of women basicly important forthe existence of the nation and for the citiziens who were going to be raised. As a modernist practice,Village Instutes provide us different foresights in terms of women education. Women’s most importantmission in the Village Institutes was the education of village women. Women teachers who had takencourses from the Institute went to the villages and in the construction process of a new nation, theycontributed to the education of other women living in villages. Women’s job opportunities mostly tookshape from feminine roles. Women teachers’ heavy fixture was sewing machine when they went tovillages. Apart from being a teacher they had got a new job now. This was a job which has mostly to betaught to the women living in the village and their daughters. The education policy of Village Instituteswhich was mostly based on “the education at work principle” was the continuity of housework forwomen.

Abstract:
Holomorphic quantization of 2+1 dimensional pure Yang-Mills theory is studied with focusing on finite large scales. Previously we have shown that (Yildirim, 2015, Int. J. Mod. Phys A, 30(7), 1550034) topologically massive Yang-Mills theory exhibits a Chern-Simons splitting behavior at large scales, similar to the topologically massive AdS gravity model in its near Chern-Simons limit. This splitting occurs as a sum of two Chern-Simons terms with levels k/2 each. In the pure Chern-Simons limit, the split parts add up to give the original Chern-Simons term in the action. The opposite limit of the gravitational analogue is an Einstein-Hilbert term with a negative cosmological constant, which can be written as subtracted two half Chern-Simons terms. With this motivation, the gauge theory version of this limit is investigated, showing that at large distances, pure Yang-Mills theory acts like a topological theory that consists of split Chern-Simons parts with levels k/2 and -k/2. At very large distances these split terms cancel, making the Yang-Mills theory trivial as expected due to existence of a mass gap. Gauge invariance of the split parts is discussed. It is also shown that, this splitting behavior can be exploited to incorporate link invariants of knot theory, just like in the topologically massive case.

Abstract:
In this thesis, topologically massive Yang-Mills theory is studied in the framework of geometric quantization. This theory has a mass gap that is proportional to the topological mass $m$. Thus, Yang-Mills contribution decays exponentially at very large distances compared to $1/m$, leaving a pure Chern-Simons theory with level number $k$. The focus of this research is the $near$ Chern-Simons limit of the theory, where the distance is large enough to give an almost topological theory, with a small contribution from the Yang-Mills term. It is shown that this almost topological theory consists of two copies of Chern-Simons with level number $k/2$, very similar to the Chern-Simons splitting of topologically massive AdS gravity model. As $m$ approaches to infinity, the split parts add up to give the original Chern-Simons term with level $k$. Also, gauge invariance of the split Chern-Simons theories is discussed for odd values of $k$. Furthermore, a relation between the observables of topologically massive Yang-Mills theory and Chern-Simons theory is obtained. It is shown that one of the two split Chern-Simons pieces is associated with Wilson loops while the other with 't Hooft loops. This allows one to use skein relations to calculate topologically massive Yang-Mills theory observables in the near Chern-Simons limit. Finally, motivated with the topologically massive AdS gravity model, Chern-Simons splitting concept is extended to pure Yang-Mills theory at large distances. It is shown that pure Yang-Mills theory acts like two Chern-Simons theories with level numbers $k/2$ and $-k/2$ at large scales. At very large scales, these two terms cancel to make the theory trivial, as required by the existence of a mass gap.

Abstract:
Topologically massive Yang-Mills theory is studied in the framework of geometric quantization. Since this theory has a mass gap proportional to the topological mass m, Yang-Mills contribution decays exponentially at very large distances compared to 1/m, leaving a pure Chern-Simons theory with level number k. In this paper, the near Chern-Simons limit is studied where the distance is large enough to give an almost topological theory, with a small contribution from the Yang-Mills term. It is shown that this almost topological theory consists of two copies of Chern-Simons with level number k/2, very similar to the Chern-Simons splitting of topologically massive AdS gravity. Also, gauge invariance of these half-Chern-Simons theories is discussed. As m approaches to infinity, the split parts add up to give the original Chern-Simons term with level k. Reduction of the phase space is discussed in this limit. Finally, a relation between the observables of topologically massive Yang-Mills theory and Chern-Simons theory is shown. One of the two split Chern-Simons pieces is shown to be associated with Wilson loops while the other with 't Hooft loops. This allows one to use skein relations to calculate topologically massive Yang-Mills theory observables in the near Chern-Simons limit.