Abstract:
Rutherford classical scattering theory, as its quantum mechanical analogue, is modified for scattering cross-section and the impact parameter by using quantum mechanical momentum, (de Broglie hypothesis), energy relationship for matter oscillator (Einstein’s oscillator) and quantum mechanical wave vectors, and , respectively. It is observed that the quantum mechanical scattering cross-section and the impact parameter depended on inverse square law of quantum action (Planck’s constant). Born approximation is revisited for quantum mechanical scattering. Using Bessel and Neumann asymptotic functions and response of nuclear surface potential barrier, born approximations were modified. The coulombic fields inside the nucleus of the atom are studied for reflection and transmission with corresponding wave vectors, phase shifts and eigenfunctions Bulk quantum mechanical tunneling and reflection scattering, both for ruptured and unruptured nucleus of the atom, are deciphered with corresponding wave vectors, phase shifts and eigenfunction. Similar calculation ware accomplished for quantum surface tunneling and reflection scattering with corresponding wave vectors, phase shifts and eigenfunctions. Such diverse quantum mechanical scattering cross-section with corresponding wave vectors for tunneling and reflection, phase shifts and eigenfunctions will pave a new dimension to understanding the behavior of exchange fields in the nucleus of the atom with insides layers both ruptured and unruptured. Phase shifts, δ_{l} for each of the energy profile (partial) will be different and indeed their corresponding wave vectors for exchange energy eigenvalues.

Abstract:
We developed energy profiles for the fractional quantized states both on the surface of electron due to overwhelming centrifugal potentials and inside the electron at different locations of the quantum well due to overwhelming attractive electrodynamic potentials. The charge as a physical constant and single entity is taken as density and segments on their respective sub-quanta (floats on sub quanta) and hence the fractional charge quantiz at in. There is an integrated oscillatory effect which ties all fractional quantized states both on the surface and in the interior of the volume of an electron. The eigenfunctions, i.e., the energy profiles for the electron show the shape of a string or a quantum wire in which fractional quantized states are beaded. We followed an entirely different approach and indeed thesis to reproducing the eigenfunctions for the fractional quantized states for a single electron. We produced very fascinating mathematical formulas for all such cases by using Hermite and Laguerre polynomials, spherical based and Neumann functions and indeed asymptotic behavior of Bessel and Neumann functions. Our quantization theory is dealt in the momentum space.

Abstract:
Theories of Mott and Weertmann pertaining to quantum mechanical tunneling of dislocations from Peierls barrier in cubic crystals are revisited. Their mathematical calculations about logarithmic creep rate and lattice vibrations as a manifestation of Debye temperature for quantized thermal energy are found correct but they can not ascertain to choose the mass of phonon or “quanta” of lattice vibrations. The quantum mechanical yielding in metals at relatively low temperatures, where Debye temperatures operate, is resolved and the mathematical formulas are presented. The crystal plasticity is studied with stress relaxation curves instead of logarithmic creep rate. With creep rate formulas of Mott and Weertmann, a new formula based on logarithmic profile of stress relaxation curves is proposed which suggests simultaneous quantization of dislocations with their stress, i.e., and depinning of dislocations, i.e., , where is quantum action, σ is the stress, N is the number of dislocations, A is the area and t is the time. The two different interpretations of “quantum length of Peierls barrier”, one based on curvature of space, i.e., yields quantization of Burgers vector and the other based on the curvature of time, i.e., yields depinning of dislocations from Peierls barrier in cubic crystals, are presented. , i.e., the unitary operator on shear modulus yields the variations in the curvature of time due to which simultaneous quantization, and depinning of dislocations occur from Peierls barrier in cubic crystals.

Abstract:
Background: The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is 21% of which 35% is contributed by male factor. Male infertility has multifactorial etiologies ranging from modifiable to genetic risk factors. Among all the risk factors that may account for male infertility, obesity is one of the emerging public health problems. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the association of obesity with infertility in Pakistani men. Methods: We conducted a case control study. Cases were men with impaired semen parameters and controls did not have impaired semen parameters. Results: The final multivariable logistic regression model after adjusting for the effect of other variables revealed that with every 1 kg/m^{2} increase in BMI the odds of being infertile was 6% higher as compared to being fertile (aOR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.11). Moreover the odds of having education of higher secondary or above was 3 times greater among cases as compared with the controls (OR = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.66, 5.77). Furthermore the odds of having previous medical conditions increasing the risk of infertility was higher among cases as compared with the controls (OR = 3.07; 95% CI = 1.63, 5.79). Conclusion & recommendations: This study indicates that obesity is an important risk factor for male infertility. Moreover our findings also indicate that higher educational status and previous medical conditions are also associated with male infertility. Thus awareness can be raised through treating physicians and public health messages.

Abstract:
With conjecture of fractional charge quantization (quantum dipole/multiple moments), Fourier transform stretching, twisting and twigging of an electron quanta and waver strings of electron quanta, the mathematical expressions for mesoscopic fractional electron fields in a cavity of viscous medium and the associated quantum dielectric susceptibility are developed. Agreement of this approach is experimentally evidenced on barite and Fanja site molecular sieves. These findings are in conformity with experimental results of 2012 Physics Nobel prize winning scientists, Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland especially for cavity quantum electro-dynamics electron and its associated mesoscopic electric fields. The mover electron quanta strings lead to warping of space and time following the behaviour of quantum electron dynamics.

Abstract:
Quantum theory with conjecture of fractional charge quantization, eigenfunctions for fractional charge quantization, fractional Fourier transform, Hermite function for fractional charge quantization, and eigenfunction for a twisted and twigged electron quanta is developed and applied to resistivity, dielectricity, giant magneto resistance, Hall effect and conductance. Our theoretical relationship for quantum measurements is in good conformity and in agreement with most of the experimental results. These relationships will pave a new approach to quantum physics for deciphering measurements on single quantum particles without destroying them. Our results are in agreement with 2012 Physics Nobel Prize winning Scientists, Serge Haroche and David J. Wineland.

Abstract:
We performed a case note review of all patients who had been prescribed antipsychotic medication at the psychiatry outpatient clinic of a tertiary care university hospital in Pakistan over a 4-year period.A total of 50% of patients had a BMI in the overweight or higher range at baseline. Patients showed a mean weight gain of 1.88 kg from baseline in 3 months and 3.29 kg in 6 months. Both of these values were statistically significant. The increase in mean BMI from baseline was 0.74 and 1.3 in 3 months and 6 months, respectively. In patients for whom we had at least one further weight measurement after baseline, 48% (39/81) showed a clinically significant weight gain.Pakistani patients are just as likely to put on weight during antipsychotic treatment as patients from other countries. Considering that this population already has a much higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus compared to the Western countries, the consequences of increased weight may be even more serious in terms of increased morbidity and mortality.The mortality rate of people suffering from schizophrenia has been estimated to be twice as high as in the general population[1]. More than two thirds of this excess mortality is due to 'natural' causes[2], with death due to cardiovascular complications being the leading cause of this excess mortality[3].The first reports of an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance in people suffering from schizophrenia appeared in the literature several years before the first antipsychotic became available[4,5]. Soon after chlorpromazine was discovered reports suggesting an association between chlorpromazine and diabetes started appearing[6]. Since then many studies have been published firmly establishing a clear link between antipsychotics and diabetes mellitus, more with atypical than typical antipsychotics [7-10]. This led to a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation in 2003 for including a warning about association with hyperglycaemia and diabetes o

Abstract:
The quantum electrodynamic (QED) behaviour is studied for quantum Hall effect (QHE). Quantum theory with conjecture of fractional charge quantization (quantum dipole moment), eigenfunctions for fractional charge quantization at the surface of a twisted and twigged electron quanta and above its surface, fractional Fourier transform and Hermite function for fractional charge quantization is developed. With energy eigen value equation for QHE and with energy operator on an eigenfunction of a twisted and twigged electron quanta, the corresponding eigenfunctions are normalized with Schrodinger’s quantum wave mechanical equation for electric scalar and magnetic potentials, respectively (QED behavior). The fractional electric and magnetic fields with their corresponding potentials for the quantized fractional states in semiconducting hereto structures are theoretically calculated. Such mathematical expressions are in good agreement with experimental results of Nobel Prize winning scientists Klitzing, Haroche, Peter and Gruebber. Our results can also explain the hybridized states of orbits with emphasis on sigma and pi bonding and their corresponding antibonding orbitals as a manifestation of electrophilic and nucleophilic chemical reactions.

Abstract:
This paper is about short review of earthquake statistics and efforts for earthquake mitigation,
hazard and risk assessment studies in Pakistan. Pakistan and adjoining region lying between longitude
60°E to 78°E and latitude 20°N to 45°N are selected for the study as this region has a history
of many large earthquakes because of its location in the region of intersection of three plates
namely Indian, Eurasian and Arabian Sea plate. This paper is based on the study of both seismological
history of the region which includes recent and historical seismicity based on earthquake
catalogue as well as geological knowledge supplemented with available fault system information.
In this study, Pakistan and adjoining regions are divided into 14 seismogenic zones. Seismicity of
each zone is studied considering also the major cities in the respective zone and type of infrastructure
which is mainly responsible for earthquake disaster rather than earthquake itself.

Abstract:
Objective: Migraine, a common chronic neurological disorder involves a pathophysiology having both multiple genetic and environmental factors. 5, 10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) involved in folate metabolism has an important role in a cell for folate availability which is critical for DNA integrity. Methods: This case-control study conducted in Srinagar, Kashmir (North India) between 2013 and 2015 was designed to evaluate risk induced due to MTH-FR 677C>T gene polymorphisms to contribute in susceptibility for migraine in Kashmir population (North India). Using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method, we tested the genotype distribution of 100 migraine patients in comparison with 120 healthy migraine-free controls from the same geographical region. Results: The genotypic frequencies of the patients and controls were not significantly associated (p > 0.05). Higher distribution of TT mutant genotype was found in controls as against the cases (5% versus 1%) but association was not significant (p > 0.05). Per copy frequency of T allele (Val) was found to be 0.14 in cases versus 0.19 in controls (p < 0.05). Higher frequency of variant genotypes was found more in controls as compared to migraine with aura as 33.3% versus 12% respectively (p > 0.05). Similar scenario was observed when migraine without aura was compared with controls where variant genotype (16% cases versus 39.0% controls: p > 0.05) as well as allele frequency was found to be less in cases (cases 0.15 versus 0.19 controls: p > 0.05). Conclusions: We conclude that MTHFR gene C677T polymorphism has no role in predisposition to the migraine in our population and cannot serve as a predictive factor for the risk of migraine.