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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 92 matches for " Saldiva "
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Nossos doentes pneumopatas e a polui o atmosférica Air pollution and our lung disease patients
Paulo Saldiva
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/s1806-37132008000100001
A Cost-Benefit Evaluation of the Air Quality and Health Impacts in São Paulo, Brazil  [PDF]
Diego Velloso Veronez, Luiz Alexandre Kulay, Paulo Hilário N. Saldiva, Simone G. El K. Miraglia
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.329134
Abstract: The objective was to assess the impact on health due to the exposure to air pollution derived from the renewal of the urban bus fleet in S?o Paulo. The study analyzed the substitution of the bus fleet through the variation of the concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as PM10 in the municipality of S?o Paulo and its associated health’s benefits values compared to the investments performed in the bus fleet renewal. PM10 average annual reduction due to the bus improvement system resulted on 22.3%. A cost-benefit evaluation considered the renewal investments’ costs compared to the obtained valued health benefits and it resulted in 4.31. Although the result may suggest a not viable investment, it must be observed that air pollution reduction favors health impacts and that this relation could be improved if additional investments on sustainable transportation increase.
Avalia??o antropométrica e consumo alimentar em crian?as menores de cinco anos residentes em um município da regi?o do semiárido nordestino com cobertura parcial do programa bolsa família
Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Médici;Silva, Luiz Fernando Ferraz;Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento;
Revista de Nutri??o , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1415-52732010000200005
Abstract: objective: the objective of this study was to assess the health and nutritional status of children under five years of age and to associate the quality of the foods consumed with the bolsa família program in a city located in the brazilian semi-arid region. method: a total of 189 children from a sample of 411 households in the city of jo?o camara (rn) were assessed. weight and height were measured and socioeconomic and food habits were determined with the use of questionnaires. the nutritional status of the children was determined with the weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height indicators. univariate analyses were done and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to test the hypothesis of the study. results: of the studied children, 4.3% were underweight, 9.9% were stunted and 14.0% were overweight. the nutritional status of children whose families receive the bolsa família financial aid was not significantly different from those whose families do not receive the aid. in both groups, the consumption of fruits and non-starchy vegetables was low and similar. children from families who receive the aid were 3 times more likely to eat junk food (or 3.06 - ci 1.35-6.95). conclusion: the food intake patterns of this population indicate that they are at food and nutritional risk. health professionals need to intervene in order to promote healthier eating habits.
Diagnósticos histopatológicos das pneumoconioses
Capelozzi, Vera Luiza;Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132006000800015
Abstract: asbestos-related diseases constitute a major health problem due to the great number of workers exposed to asbestos over the past 50 years. personal injury lawsuits against industries that deal with asbestos number in the hundreds, and new cases continue to be filed. the scientific issues related to asbestos are complex, and, although the broad outlines of asbestos-related diseases have been well-established, many significant aspects (such as the pathology involved) are poorly understood. in brazil, asbestos has been mined commercially since 1940, with production levels recently approaching 200,000 tons/year, resulting in the asbestos exposure of approximately 10,000 workers in the mining activity, and an unknown number of workers in asbestos-cement industry, primarily roofers and concrete rooftop water tank installers. one study, using appropriate methods of scientific investigation to evaluate the effects of such exposure on the health of asbestos mine workers in brazil was conducted as part of a multicenter study and entitled "morbidity and mortality among workers exposed to asbestos in mining activities, 1940-1996". drawing upon the experience acquired during the course of that study, the objective of the current report was to give an overview of asbestos-related diseases, with a special focus on the difficulties involved in establishing the histopathological diagnosis.
Clinico-pathological discrepancies in a general university hospital in S?o Paulo, Brazil
Kotovicz, Fabiana;Mauad, Thais;Saldiva, Paulo H. N.;
Clinics , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322008000500003
Abstract: introduction: the autopsy rate has continuously diminished over the past few decades, reducing the quality of medical care and the accuracy of statistical health data. objective: to assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses by comparing pre- and postmortem findings, and to identify potential risk factors for misdiagnoses. methods: retrospective evaluations performed between june 2001 and june 2003 in a 2500-bed tertiary university hospital in s?o paulo, brazil, including 288 patients who died at that institution and had a postmortem examination. results: clinical and autopsy records were reviewed and compared for categorization using the adapted goldman criteria. the overall major and minor discrepancy rates were 16.3% and 28.1%, respectively. the most common missed diagnoses were pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction, and the most prevalent underlying diseases were infectious diseases, cerebro-cardiovascular conditions, and malignancies. patients age 60 or older had an increased risk of diagnostic disagreement, as did female patients. the period of hospitalization, last admission unit at the hospital and underlying disease were not significantly related to the pre-mortem diagnostic accuracy. discussion: the discrepancy rate found in this study is similar to those reported globally. the factors influencing diagnostic accuracy as well as the most commonly missed diagnoses are also consistent with the literature. conclusion: autopsy remains a crucial tool for improving medical care, and effort must be focused on increasing its practice worldwide.
Homeopathically prepared dilution of Rana catesbeiana thyroid gland modifies speed of metamorphosis Diluci 3n homeop tica de tiroides de Rana catesbeiana modifica la velocidad de metamorfosis Dilui § £o homeop tica de tire 3ides de Rana catesbeiana modifica a velocidade de metamorfose
JRP Guedes,CM Ferreira,HMB Guimar???£es,PHN Saldiva
International Journal of High Dilution Research , 2006,
Effects of Environmental Water Contamination in the Reproductive System of Mice  [PDF]
Paulo Augusto Amador Pereira, Ana Júlia Lichtenfels, Luiz Alberto Amador Pereira, Olaf Malm, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Alfésio Luís Ferreira Braga, Chin An Lin
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A014

This study investigated the effects on the reproductive system of balb-c mice exposed to water collected from different sources near to a deactivated fertilizer waste depositary. Eighty male mice were separated in four groups: Group A (mineral water); Group B (water from the water treatment station); Group C (water from Cubatao city); Group D (water from the waste depositary region). They were exposed to water since they were weaned until they reached sexual maturity, then they were coupled with females in reproductive age and after this mating time they were sacrificed. The evaluated parameters were testicle weight, sperm analysis, pregnancy rate, sex ratio of the offspring and Sertoli cell count. The analysis of the water did not show presence of pollutants in the Group “A” and Group “C” water. Group “B” showed low level of cadmium, 3.58 ± 0.50 μg/L. Group “D” showed the presence of PAH’s and high levels of lead (221 ± 16 μg/L), cadmiun (12.6 ± 1.2 μg/L) and mercury (5.3 ± 1.1 μg/L). The tests of Levene and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were employed to verify the homogeneity of the variances and the tack to the normal curve, respectively. ANOVA was used for parametric tests and Kruskall-Wallis was used for non-parametric tests, while Turkey tests were employed for multiple comparisons. There were no differences between groups in testicle weight, sperm analysis, pregnancy rate and Sertoli cell count. There was a significant reduction in sex-ratio of the offspring in Group B. This alteration cannot be explained by the cadmium levels in Group B water. In the present study we cannot associate the exposition to contaminated water from the waste depositary and reproductive alterations.

Elemental Composition of PM2.5 in Araraquara City (Southeast Brazil) during Seasons with and without Sugar Cane Burning  [PDF]
Flavio Soares Silva, Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi, Romà T auler, Paulo Afonso de André, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Rene van Grieken, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de Marchi
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.65041
Abstract: Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm (PM2.5), present in polluted air, has been associated with a large spectrum of health impairments, mainly because of its deep deposition into the lungs. Araraquara City (Southeast Brazil) is surrounded by sugar-cane plantations, which are burned to facilitate the harvesting; this process causes environmental pollution due to the large amounts of soot that are released into the atmosphere. In this work, the elemental composition of PM2.5 was studied in two scenarios, namely in sugar-cane harvesting (HV) and in non-harvesting (NHV) seasons. The sampling strategy included one campaign in each season. PM2.5 was collected using a dichotomous sampler (10 L·min-1, 24 h) with PTFE filters. Information concerning the bulk elemental concentration was provided by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. Enrichment factor analysis indicated that S, Cl, K, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb were highly enriched relative to their crustal ratios (to Al). Principal component analysis was used to get some insight about the sources of the elements. Principal component 1 (PC1) explained 30.5% of data variance. The elements that had high loading (>0.7) were: S, Cr, As, and Pb; these are associated with combustion of fossil fuels. In principal component 2 (PC2), Cl, Cu, Zn, and Cd showed high loadings; these elements are associated with biomass burning. The Ni concentration found is three times larger than the threshold of risk for lung cancer, as recommended by the World Health Organization.
Genotoxic potential generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon by Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay: a toxicity assessment study
Herbert A Sisenando, Silvia R Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Paulo HN Saldiva, Paulo Artaxo, Sandra S Hacon
Environmental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-10-41
Abstract: The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, where the plants were exposed to two types of exposure, active and passive.The results showed that in all the sampling seasons, irrespective of exposure type, there was an increase in micronucleus frequency, compared to control and that it was statistically significant in the dry season. A strong and significant relationship was also observed between the increase in micronucleus incidence and the rise in fine particulate matter, and hospital morbidity from respiratory diseases in children.Based on the results, we demonstrated that pollutants generated by biomass burning in the Brazilian Amazon can induce genetic damage in test plants that was more prominent during dry season, and correlated with the level of particulates and elevated respiratory morbidity.The Amazon is located in the northern portion of South America and 85% of its area lies within Brazilian territory, where it is known as "Brazilian Amazon Region" and accounting for 61% of the country's area. The region has been negatively affected by advancing economic development, especially agribusiness and cattle raising. This has provoked changes in soil pattern use, resulting in increased deforestation and an increase in biomass burning in both native forest and pasture areas [1,2]. Sugar cane is an example of agribusiness that is in full expansion in the Amazon biome, driven by the political incentive to produce and consume biofuel both nationally and internationally. Brazil is one of the largest producers of biofuel worldwide, with most production concentrated in the Midwest region. Sugar cane straw burning at harvest time is widely used in Brazilian production to facilitate harvesting and increase the yield of manual cutting; however, this archaic procedure results in increased pollutant concentration in the atmosphere [3-6].The Amazon accounts for 62% of the burnings that occur in Brazil during the dry and intermediate, dry and rain periods. The so
Micronucleus frequency in children exposed to biomass burning in the Brazilian Legal Amazon region: a control case study
Herbert Sisenando, Silvia de Medeiros, Paulo Artaxo, Paulo HN Saldiva, Sandra de Souza Hacon
BMC Oral Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-12-6
Abstract: The study was conducted during the dry seasons in two regions of the Brazilian Amazon. The assay was carried out on buccal epithelial cells of 574 schoolchildren between 6-16 years old.The results show a significant difference between micronucleus frequencies in children exposed to biomass burning compared to those in a control area.The present study demonstrated that in situ biomonitoring using a sensitive and low cost assay (buccal micronucleus assay) may be an important tool for monitoring air quality in remote regions. It is difficult to attribute the increase in micronuclei frequency observed in our study to any specific toxic element integrated in the particulate matters. However, the contribution of the present study lies in the evidence that increased exposure to fine particulate matter generates an increased micronuclei frequency in oral epithelial cells of schoolchildren.The Amazon extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the eastern slopes of the Andes, with 61% of the area belonging to Brazil, where it is called the Brazilian Amazon. The region has been environmentally affected by advancing economic development, especially agribusiness and ranching. This has provoked changes in land use, resulting in increased deforestation and increased biomass burning in both native forest and pasture areas [1,2]. Several studies show that pasture formation is the main land use in newly deforested regions [3]. Sugar cane is an example of agribusiness that is in rapid expansion in the Amazon biome, driven by the political incentive to produce and consume biofuel both nationally and internationally. Brazil is one of the largest producers of biofuel worldwide, with most production concentrated in the Midwest region. Sugarcane bagasse burning at harvest time is widely practiced in Brazilian production to facilitate harvesting and increase the yield of manual cutting; however, this archaic procedure results in increased pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere [4-7].Biomass bur
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