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An Approach to a Universal System of Units  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.29071
Abstract: According to many scientists, there are some redundancies in the SI system of units. Through an entropy approach that depends on a previous analogy between the electrical, mechanical and thermal fields; it was possible to introduce a system of units that removes such redundancies. According to the second law of thermodynamics, the temperature was defined as a quality of heat. Following a proved analogy, the electrical and magnetic potentials may represent also the qualities of electric and magnetic fluxes. According to published experimental results, the electric and the magnetic potentials generates also electromotive forces, EMF, that were measured by Al-Fe thermocouples. The chemical potential or the concentration gradient generates also an EMF, as in the concentration cells, which is measured here by the same Al-Fe thermocouple. Such measurement-results are introduced to define a unique scale for measuring the potentials or qualities of the thermal, chemical, electric, and magnetic fields. The mentioned qualities are not defined by directly measurable quantities, as length and time, but they are found as functions of dimensionless concentrations of mass or energy fluxes. Hence, the volt, as a unit of the introduced EMF scale for potentials measurement, is postulated as a dimensionless unit. Finally, a universal system of units that is based only on three dimensions; L, T, and E, and four fundamental units; meter, second, Joule and volt is introduced in this paper to delete the SI redundancies. The energy replaces the mass as a fundamental unit in the introduced US as it plays a dominant role in most of the scientific and engineering fields. The ampere is not included as a fundamental unit since the charge is considered as a form of energy that is measured in one of the US fundamental units, Joule. The candela and the mole were also not considered as fundamental units as they can be related to the selected fundamental units by appropriate numbers. The limited number of dimensions in the introduced US simplifies the application of the “π” dimensional theorem to find plausible relations between the main parameters that characterize many physical phenomena and the energy conversions and interactions.
Comments Concerning Measurements and Equations in Electromagnetism  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.212089
Abstract: The previously introduced US of units has raised many comments. Such comments were the claims of how to measure the electric current and magnetic flux. Other comments were concerned by violating the fundamental laws of electro-magnetism. Such violation is not the concern of the introduced system of units. But it is related to the previous mess in the available SI system of units.
An Entropy-Approach to the Duality Property  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2011.36036
Abstract: According to a previously introduced entropy approach, it is possible to clarify the confusions of the duality concept that electrons and light may behave as waves or particles. In other words, the electron is clearly defined in this paper as a particle and the light is neatly defined as waves. Such an approach considered the flow of electric charges as a flow of ionized waves and the magnetic flux as electromagnetic waves of magnetic potential. By a similar entropy approach, the particle’s kinetic energy is defined also as electromagnetic waves. So, the electron can be defined as an energized particle whose electric charge, magnetic energy and kinetic energy are forms of electromagnetic waves. According to these definitions and similarity of the mechanisms and laws characterizing the flow of mass and energy in general, the flow of electrons can be postulated as a simultaneous flow of two energy-components; particulized energy and wave energy. Hence, the electron doesn’t have a dual nature. Rather, its behavior as a particle or as waves depends on the relative contributions of such components in the electron’s flow. Reviewing the results of de-Broglie’s experiments, it is possible to consider the flow of any particles as a simultaneous flow of waves and particles. Introducing the definition of the flow of electric charges as ionized waves, the photoelectric-effect can be postulated as an ionization process of the incident radiation during its reflection into an electric field. Similarly, the photovoltaic phenomena are postulated as a result of a photorefractive effect that may induce an electric potential into the incident radiation when crossing the electrically biased p-n junctions of photocells. Such postulates eliminate the confusing particle-property of light and prove that light has a wave-nature only. The truth of the introduced postulates is proven through finding plausible explanation of the sintering phenomena and thermoelectricity. Finally, this paper succeeded in introducing plausible explanations of results of Thompson’s experiment and other phenomena that end the confusions in defining the true nature of light and electrons as waves and particles.
An Entropy Approach to Tesla’s Discovery of Wireless Power Transmission  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2013.54025

Following an entropy approach, the electric current can be postulated as a flow of electromagnetic waves that has an electric potential. Such postulate is verified in this article by results of experimental measurement then it is applied to review Tesla’s discovery of wireless power transmission. Tesla discovered the wireless transmission of electric power during his operation in an entirely new domain of physics based on abrupt discharging of electrostatic charges. He realized that electrons were not responsible for such discovered phenomena. So, he called the new energy as “Radiant Electricity”. He didn’t identify that the true nature of electric current was a flow of electromagnetic waves that can be normally radiated through air. So, he proposed the term “Aether gas” to describe the discovered transfer of the electric charges by radiation from his designed tower, though air, to specified receivers. Following an entropy approach, the nature of the discovered radiated energy can be identified as electromagnetic waves that have an electric potential. So, the followed approach succeeds in eliminating the confusing observations of Tesla’s measurements in his famous experiment and the confusions found in modern literature that deals with such energy as an “Ambiguous Radiant Energy”.

An Entropy Approach to a Practical Limit of the Efficiencies of Developed and Multijunction Solar Cells  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2014.613039
Abstract: Following a previously introduced entropy approach and reviewing experimental measurements, we find a similarity option between photoelectric effects, photovoltaic effects and thermoelectric effects. The photovoltaic effect and the thermoelectric effect are proved in this study to be driven by a Seebeck effect which depends mainly on the thermal potential of the incident radiation and the interacting materials. Hence, we apply such exciting conclusion to derive an advanced efficiency limit of the developed and multijunction solar cells that exceed the previously derived limit by Shockley and Queisser.
A Fundamental Equation of Thermodynamics that Embraces Electrical and Magnetic Potentials  [PDF]
Salama Abdel- Hady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.23023
Abstract: This paper introduces an energy-analysis of the flow of electrical charges and magnetic flux in addition to the flow of heat into a thermodynamic system. The analysis depends on the results of a held experiment on a magnet that attracted iron balls and a Faraday’s discovery as well as similarities between the laws characterizing the flow of electric charges, magnetic flux and heat. As the electric charge and magnetic flux produce entropy changes in some applications as magnetic hysteresis and capacitive deionization, we may express the electric charges and magnetic flux in terms of entropy changes times their corresponding potentials by analogy to expressing heat as a product of temperature and entropy changes. Introducing such postulates into the held energy-analysis; a new fundamental equation of thermodynamics that embraces the flow of electric charges and magnetic flux in terms of the electric and magnetic potentials was derived. The derived equation proved its truth in numerous studies of general energy interactions. Such postulates help also in defining the electric charge and magnetic flux as categories of electromagnetic waves of assigned electric or magnetic potentials and offer plausible explanations of newly discovered phenomena in the fields of electromagnetism and thermodynamics as Kerr effect and magnetic expansion.
Interactive Effect of Forage Mixing Rates and Organic Fertilizers on the Yield and Nutritive Value of Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and Annual Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  [PDF]
Heba Sabry Attia Salama
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.64041

Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is the main winter forage legume in Egypt. Despite that the yield and protein content of berseem clover are high, it is characterized by low dry matter content especially in the 1st cut. Intercropping berseem clover with forage grasses, especially annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is a recommended technique to produce higher forage yield with better balanced nutritional quality. However, little is known about the performance of these proposed mixtures under the arising organic farming system in Egypt. Organic farming and the application of organic fertilizers (compost and poultry manure) are receiving increased attention in the last few years. Thus, the current study was carried out on the winter season of two successive years (2012 and 2013) in the experimental station of SEKEM organic farm, Egypt. Main aim was to investigate the variation in 1st cut forage yield and nutritive value of berseem clover and annual ryegrass, grown in pure stands and with three mixing rates, under three organic fertilization regimes (compost, poultry litter, and no fertilization). Nutritive value was judged through investigating the crude protein (CP), total carbohydrates (TC), and fiber fractions (NDF, ADF, and ADL). Results revealed significant two-way interaction between the forage treatments and the fertilization regimes for all the studied parameters. In general, mixing berseem clover with annual ryegrass, fertilized by compost or poultry litter resulted in significantly higher forage yield, dry matter content, and balanced CP, TC, and fiber fractions, compared to the pure stands.

An Entropy Approach to the Natures of the Electric Charge and Magnetic Flux  [PDF]
Salama Abdelhady, Mohamed S. Abdelhady
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2015.711028
Abstract: As a result of investigating analytically and experimentally the interchangeability between thermal, electrical and magnetic energies, it is proved in the presented study that the electric and magnetic energies have an equivalent grade and nature as the thermal energy. So, the natural flow of electric charges and magnetic flux is associated also by increase of entropy of universe, similar to the heat, and has the same nature of waves as the electromagnetic heat radiation. Casting the Maxwell’s wave equation into an energy frame of reference that replaces the time in wave equations by entropy, it is possible to represent the electric charges and magnetic flux as electromagnetic waves of electric and magnetic potentials. Such results lead to modify exclusively the definition of the physical nature of the electric charge and magnetic flux which is unavailable in literature.
Adherence to Clinical Practice Guidelines during Antenatal Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Integrative Review  [PDF]
Nisreen I. Salama, Lubna Abushaikha
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.810057
Abstract: The number of pregnant women affected by gestational Diabetes (GDM) is increasing globally with an estimated prevalence as high as 15%. Gestational Diabetes Miletus is associated with birth complications for women and newborn, includes development of type II diabetes, preeclampsia during pregnancy, increasing the risk of fetal loss, stillbirth and perinatal death. An integrative literature review applied, systematic search from different data base obtained from international and middle east countries to assess adherence level of guidelines. Clinical guidelines are set to ensure and assure homogeneity as well as the quality of provision of care. National and international consensus has yet to be achieved in the management of diabetes in pregnancy, adherence of recommended antenatal care content to a minimum level appears to be unmet. Complete provider adherence to first antenatal guidelines was 48.1%, Guideline dissemination alone does not change practice; assessment of barriers/enablers and implementation is important. Guidelines are useless when they are not used or adhered to. Each guideline needs an Appendix on how adherence has to be measured, there is a need for some uniformity across guidelines to measure adherence. Diabetes management is an essential constituent to prevent prognosis of diabetes complications.
Brasil, el legado económico de Lula: éxitos y límites
Ciclos en la historia, la econom?-a y la sociedad , 2011,
Abstract: this article examines the economic policies of the two administrations of lula da silva, highlighting his incredible popularity in which he concluded his eight years in the brazilian government. it explains the orthodox and heterodox orientations of its principal economic measures, and how they differ from those developed by his predecessor, fernando henrique cardoso. the article also distinguishes the main points of the policies in each of the two presidencies of lula: more continuity in the first, more interventionist in the second.
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