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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461945 matches for " Salako A "
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Application of Morphological Indices in the Assessment of Type and Function in Sheep
Salako,A. E;
International Journal of Morphology , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022006000100003
Abstract: live weight and eight body measurements records taken on 284 sheep comprising 226 west african dwarf and 58 yankasa sheep were analysed. the sheep were extensively managed within the south west nigeria. the aim was to achieve a preliminary assessment of type and function from zoometrical indices produced from combinations of different morphometric scores. the indices used were weight, height slope, length index, width slope, depth index, foreleg length balance and cumulative index. the body measurements used were wither height, body length, hip length, hip width, rump height, foreleg length, chest width and heart girth. the body measurements showed that the yankasa is bigger than the wad sheep. the measured parts are highly correlated. tested indices showed that both sheep are typical meat animals. this was shown by the cumulative index, length and balance indices which were 2.80, 1.01 and 0.59 in wad and 1.18, 0.93 and 0.75 for yankasa respectively. the distribution of the indices among the different age groups revealed that weight index is highest at the 8-tooth age for both breeds , this trend is the same for length index, foreleg length index and cumulative indices. the respective coefficient of variation between breeds indicates the amount of opportunity available for improving the breeds through selection. further, height slope index/length index and weight index and height slope/cumulative index were significantly (p<0.05) correlated. the implications for the respective varieties are discussed
Principal Component Factor Analysis of the Morphostructure of Immature Uda Sheep
Salako,A. E.;
International Journal of Morphology , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022006000500009
Abstract: ten body measurements were taken on 30 uda sheep aged 0-14 months within the humid southwest nigeria. the body measurements were wither height (wh), body length (bl), rump length (rl), rump height (rh), rump width (rw), foreleg length (fl), shoulder width (sw), face length (fal), tail length (tl) and heart girth (hg). the aim was to investigate the variance structure and provide an objective description of the body shape (conformation) of the sheep within the first years of life using a cluster analysis. this was possible sequel to the application and permission of the pearson's correlation coefficient. applying the traditional use of wither height for size estimation, the animal measured 65.83±5.81cm. other body measurements for that age group were: bl=59.37±4.50, rl=22.1±1.12, rh=65.18±6.06, rw=12.90±1.24, fl=41.62±2.29, sw=14.40±1.45, fal=21.47±1.82, tl=40.72±2.71 and hg=71.98±4.30cm. variability was generally high within body measurements. correlations among body dimensions were positive and significant (p<0.05, 0.01; r=0.40-0.99). the factor solution from principal component analysis (pca) produced two clusters after a promax rotation of the transformation matrix. the first and second principal components explained 67.6 and11.03% of the generalized variance in body measurements and gave approximately equal emphasis to each variable. the first component contained measurements that are closely associated with bone growth (fl, tl, fal, rh, wh and bl) while the second one appeared to produce dimensions that are relatively less associated it (rw, sw and rl). the underlying factors are explained
Application of Morphological Indices in the Assessment of Type and Function in Sheep Aplicación de índices Morfológicos en la Evaluación de Tipo y Función en Oveja
A. E Salako
International Journal of Morphology , 2006,
Abstract: Live weight and eight body measurements records taken on 284 sheep comprising 226 West African Dwarf and 58 Yankasa sheep were analysed. The sheep were extensively managed within the south west Nigeria. The aim was to achieve a preliminary assessment of type and function from zoometrical indices produced from combinations of different morphometric scores. The indices used were weight, height slope, length index, width slope, depth index, foreleg length balance and cumulative index. The body measurements used were wither height, body length, hip length, hip width, rump height, foreleg length, chest width and heart girth. The body measurements showed that the Yankasa is bigger than the WAD sheep. The measured parts are highly correlated. Tested indices showed that both sheep are typical meat animals. This was shown by the cumulative index, length and balance indices which were 2.80, 1.01 and 0.59 in WAD and 1.18, 0.93 and 0.75 for Yankasa respectively. The distribution of the indices among the different age groups revealed that weight index is highest at the 8-tooth age for both breeds , this trend is the same for length index, foreleg length index and cumulative indices. The respective coefficient of variation between breeds indicates the amount of opportunity available for improving the breeds through selection. Further, height slope index/length index and weight index and height slope/cumulative index were significantly (p<0.05) correlated. The implications for the respective varieties are discussed Fueron medidos el peso en vivo y 8 parámetros del cuerpo, en 284 ovejas, siendo 226 enanas del Oeste Africano y 58 ovejas Yankasa. Las ovejas fueron obtenidas dentro del Sur Oeste de Nigeria. El objetivo fue lograr una valoración preliminar del tipo y función de índices zoométricos producto de combinaciones de diferentes valores morfométricos. Los índices usados fueron: Peso, altura inclinada, índice de longitud, anchura inclinada, índice de profundidad, longitud equilibrio pata delantera y balance e índice acumulado. Las medidas del cuerpo usadas fueron: altura, longitud del cuerpo, altura de la cadera, ancho de la cadera, altura de las ancas, longitud pata delantera, ancho del pecho y contorno del corazón. Las medidas del cuerpo mostaron que que la oveja Yankasa es más grande la oveja WAD. Las partes medidas están altamente correlacionadas. índices testeados mostraron que ambas ovejas son animales típicos de carne. Esto fue demostrado por el índice acumulado, longitud y equilibrio de los índices que fueron 2.80, 1.01 y 0.59 en WAD y 1.18, 0.93 y 0.75 en Y
Principal Component Factor Analysis of the Morphostructure of Immature Uda Sheep Análisis Factorial de los Principales Componentes de la Morfoestructura de Ovejas Uda Inmaduras
A. E. Salako
International Journal of Morphology , 2006,
Abstract: Ten body measurements were taken on 30 Uda sheep aged 0-14 months within the humid southwest Nigeria. The body measurements were wither height (WH), body length (BL), rump length (RL), rump height (RH), rump width (RW), foreleg length (FL), shoulder width (SW), face length (FaL), tail length (TL) and heart girth (HG). The aim was to investigate the variance structure and provide an objective description of the body shape (conformation) of the sheep within the first years of life using a cluster analysis. This was possible sequel to the application and permission of the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Applying the traditional use of wither height for size estimation, the animal measured 65.83±5.81cm. Other body measurements for that age group were: BL=59.37±4.50, RL=22.1±1.12, RH=65.18±6.06, RW=12.90±1.24, FL=41.62±2.29, SW=14.40±1.45, FaL=21.47±1.82, TL=40.72±2.71 and HG=71.98±4.30cm. Variability was generally high within body measurements. Correlations among body dimensions were positive and significant (P<0.05, 0.01; r=0.40-0.99). The factor solution from Principal component analysis (PCA) produced two clusters after a promax rotation of the transformation matrix. The first and second principal components explained 67.6 and11.03% of the generalized variance in body measurements and gave approximately equal emphasis to each variable. The first component contained measurements that are closely associated with bone growth (FL, TL, FaL, RH, WH and BL) while the second one appeared to produce dimensions that are relatively less associated it (RW, SW and RL). The underlying factors are explained En 30 ovejas Uda de 0-14 meses de vida de los humedales del Suroeste nigeriano, se realizaron 10 mediciones de su cuerpo. Las medidas fueron las siguientes altura de los miembros (AM), longitud del cuerpo (LC), longitud e caderas (LCd), altura de las caderas (AlCd), ancho de caderas (AnCd), longitud de los miembros anteriores (LMA), ancho de los hombros (AH), longitud de la cara (LDCa), longitud de la cola (LDCo) circunferencia a nivel del corazón (CC). El objetivo fue investigar las variaciones de estructura y proveer una descripción objetiva de la forma del cuerpo de la oveja dentro del primer a o de vida utilizando un análisis de grupo. Esto fue posible gracias a la aplicación del coeficiente de correlación de Pearson. Aplicando el usotradicional de altura de los miembros para estimación del tama o, el animal midió 65.83±5.81cm. Otras medidas del cuerpo para el grupo etario fueron: LC=59.37±4.50, LCd=22.1±1.12, AlCd=65.18±6.06, AnCd=12.90±1.24, LMA=41.62±2.29,
Selective Sentence Production Deficit in an Agrammatic Yoruba-English Bilingual Patient with Minor Stroke: A Case Study  [PDF]
Gerald C. Imaezue, Ibraheem A. Salako, Akinyemi T. Akinmurele
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2017.79030
Abstract: Speech helps us to communicate with our loved ones and significant others through construction of grammatically coherent sentences that are comprehensible to our communication partners. As such, impairment of this ability as a result of stroke can be debilitating and disabling to the patients as well as significant others. Agrammatism is deficit in the use and processing of grammatically coherent syntactic structures following damage to the Broca’s complex or region. Most studies have traditionally emphasized monolingual patients, with bilingualism now receiving increased attention. However, few studies have specifically investigated the effect of minor stroke on agrammatic bilingual individuals. This study examined an agrammatic Yoruba- English bilingual patient with minor stroke with a view to describing their sentence production (deficit). The findings strongly support the existence of distinct language-specific lexical-subsystem centres in the Broca’s complex for native and acquired languages (Yoruba-English) whereas both languages are likely connected to a single semantic system in the anterior temporal lobe and its surrounding regions. Furthermore, acquired language is more susceptible to brain damage than native language. This might imply that severity of deficit in speech production in both native and acquired language of bilingual aphasics may be determined by the size of lesion in the Broca’s complex or region.
Evaluation of the antimalarial activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Gossypium barbadense (Malvaeceae) in mice
Olanrewaju A. Salako,Olufunsho Awodele
Drugs and Therapy Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/dts.2012.e2
Abstract: Some medicinal plants have been shown to have antimalarial activity when used as combination therapy. Gossypium barbadense has been used by herbal medicine practitioners in combination with other herbs, and as a monotherapy in the treatment of malarial infection. The study was, therefore, aimed at evaluating the antimalarial effect of the aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense using mice infected with P. berghei. The suppressive effect was evaluated by administering 25 mice divided into five groups with 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg of aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense, 5 mg/kg of chloroquine, and 10 mL/kg of distilled water, respectively, starting from the day of inoculation with P. berghei for four days. The curative effect was evaluated by administering 25 mice divided into five groups as above with treatment starting 72 h post inoculation with P. berghei. The results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense, when used alone as monotherapy, has a non-significant (P ≥ 0.05) but slight suppressive antimalarial activity (23%) when compared with that of chloroquine (100%). The curative model also revealed that aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense showed no significant antimalarial activity. It can be concluded that the use of aqueous leaf extract of G. barbadense as monotherapy for malaria has no significant therapeutic effect. Therefore, it is not recommended to be used alone to manage malaria infection as practiced by some herbal medicine practitioners.
Hemoglobin Polymorphism and Morphometrical Correlates in the West African Dwarf Sheep of Nigeria
Akinyemi,M. O; Salako,A. E;
International Journal of Morphology , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022010000100029
Abstract: red cells extracted from blood samples taken by jugular venipuncture from a total of thirty-six traditionally managed adult west african dwarf rams and ewes were subjected to starch gel electrophoresis, stained to reveal the activities of different allelemorphs at hemoglobin locus and analyzed. the studies was aimed at examining genetic variation as well as pattern of segregation at the locus and unveil possible association that might exist between the phenotypes and selected zoometrical traits. from the three theoretically phenotypes expected to be produced in the population by the two co-dominant alleles identified, only two: hbaa and hbab were observed. the observed genotype frequencies conformed to hardy-weinberg's equilibrium. proportion of polymorphic loci was 10.10% while heterozygosity (h) was 0.218. investigation showed that the mendelian segregation at the loci tested was not congruent with investigated quantitative traits vis-à-vis horn and hair lengths tested. the hemoglobin phenotypes are independent of the traits tested.
Hemoglobin Polymorphism and Morphometrical Correlates in the West African Dwarf Sheep of Nigeria Polimorfismo de la Hemoglobina y Correlaciones Morfométricas en la Oveja Enana del Oeste áfricano en Nigeria
M. O Akinyemi,A. E Salako
International Journal of Morphology , 2010,
Abstract: Red cells extracted from blood samples taken by jugular venipuncture from a total of thirty-six traditionally managed adult West African Dwarf rams and ewes were subjected to starch gel electrophoresis, stained to reveal the activities of different allelemorphs at hemoglobin locus and analyzed. The studies was aimed at examining genetic variation as well as pattern of segregation at the locus and unveil possible association that might exist between the phenotypes and selected zoometrical traits. From the three theoretically phenotypes expected to be produced in the population by the two co-dominant alleles identified, only two: HbAA and HbAB were observed. The observed genotype frequencies conformed to Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Proportion of polymorphic loci was 10.10% while heterozygosity (H) was 0.218. Investigation showed that the Mendelian segregation at the loci tested was not congruent with investigated quantitative traits vis-à-vis horn and hair lengths tested. The hemoglobin phenotypes are independent of the traits tested. Hematíes extraídos de muestras de sangre tomadas por punción venosa yugular de un total de treinta y seis carneros y ovejas enanas del oeste áfricano, tradicionalmente manejadas como adultos, fueron sometidos a electroforesis en gel de almidón, y analizados mediante tinción para revelar las actividades de los morfoalelos en los diferentes locus de la hemoglobina. El objetivo del estudio fue examinar la variación genética, así como el patrón de segregación en el locus, y develar la posible asociación que puede existir entre los fenotipos y los rasgos zoométricos seleccionados. De los tres fenotipos teóricamente esperados a ser producidos en la población por los dos alelos co-dominantes identificados, sólo dos: HbAA y HbAB fueron observados. Las frecuencias genotípicas observadas se conformaron de acuerdo al equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg. La proporción de locis polimórficos fue 10,10%, mientras que la heterocigosidad (H) fue 0,218. La investigación mostró que la segregación mendeliana en los loci probados no fue congruente con los rasgos cuantitativos investigados vis-à-vis de longitud de cuernos y pelo. Los fenotipos de hemoglobina son independientes de las características de la prueba.
Open Prostatectomy in the Management of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia in a Developing Economy  [PDF]
Abdulkadir A. Salako, Tajudeen A. Badmus, Afolabi M. Owojuyigbe, Rotimi A. David, Chinedu U. Ndegbu, Chigozie I. Onyeze
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2016.612029
Abstract: Background: Open prostatectomy (OP) is still relatively common in developing countries and remains a useful benchmark against which the minimal access surgical techniques are compared. This study aims to document the indications and outcomes of OP in a typical developing economy. Method: The records of patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who had OP in our university teaching hospital between July 2004 and June 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Some analyzed parameters include the demographic characteristics, indications, pre-operative work-up, anaesthetic techniques, OP type, complications, histopathology results and follow-up duration. Results: A total of 247 cases were studied. Mean age was 67 years while the commonest surgery indication was recurrent acute urinary retention. Average prostate specific antigen (PSA) was 8.4 ng/ml while hypertension was the most common comorbidity (44.1%). Regional anaesthesia was mainly used (79.4%) while retropubic prostatectomy was the commonest OP type done (58.7%). The enucleated specimen weighed above 60 g in 91.9% of cases. All our patients were able to micturate spontaneously with urine stream above 20 mls/second on follow-up one week after discharge. Mean duration of hospital admission and follow-up were 7 days and 9 months respectively. Complications occurred in 90 patients (36.4%), of which surgical site infections were the commonest (9.8%). There was 0.4% mortality. Histopathology results showed BPH (95.5%), (incidental) prostate adenocarcinoma (2.4%) or prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia (2.1%). Conclusion: OP remains an important therapeutic option for management of BPH in developing countries partly due to relatively large prostate size and presence of BPH complications from late presentationin many patients. The surgery is efficient and has relatively low morbidity and minimal mortality.
Morphometric Differentiation and Asessment of Function of the Fulani and Yoruba Ecotype Indigenous Chickens of Nigeria
Olawunmi,O. O; Salako,A. E; Afuwape,A. A;
International Journal of Morphology , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022008000400032
Abstract: data on bodyweight and 11 body measurements were taken on 51 fulani and 101 yoruba ecotype chicken from two central poultry markets: ilorin in the middle belt and ibadan in the southwest región of nigeria, respectively. the aim was to provide baseline information on size characteristics of fulani and yoruba ecotype chickens, differentiate between the types and use the morphometrical variables for a preliminary assessment of type and function. results showed that least square means of live weight, wing and shank length, body, thigh and toe length, beak length and breast breadth of the fulani ecotype were generally higher (p < 0.01) than those of the yoruba ecotype. the males were also superior (p < 0.01) to the females for comb, wing, shank length and breast breadth while live weight, toe and thigh length also differ (p< 0.05) within each ecotype. thecomb of males was more prominent than those of the females. coefficients of variation were very small signifying a monotypic condition and an almost equal opportunity of selection for type based on body parameters of the two ecotype chickens. the fulani ecotype was bigger than the yoruba ecotype chicken. the significantly longer (p<0.05) bodies of the fulani suggests a departure in function between the genotypes. the fulani chickens appear more closely suited for egg production than the yoruba type. their potential for developing a more adapted commercial stock and genetic improvement of the chickens for the región andother implications of type on function are discussed.
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