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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 452 matches for " Sajjan Shiva "
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On a Generic Security Game Model  [PDF]
Vivek Shandilya, Sajjan Shiva
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2017.107008
Abstract: To protect the systems exposed to the Internet against attacks, a security system with the capability to engage with the attacker is needed. There have been attempts to model the engagement/interactions between users, both benign and malicious, and network administrators as games. Building on such works, we present a game model which is generic enough to capture various modes of such interactions. The model facilitates stochastic games with imperfect information. The information is imperfect due to erroneous sensors leading to incorrect perception of the current state by the players. To model this error in perception distributed over other multiple states, we use Euclidean distances between the outputs of the sensors. We build a 5-state game to represent the interaction of the administrator with the user. The states correspond to 1) the user being out of the system in the Internet, and after logging in to the system; 2) having low privileges; 3) having high privileges; 4) when he successfully attacks and 5) gets trapped in a honeypot by the administrator. Each state has its own action set. We present the game with a distinct perceived action set corresponding to each distinct information set of these states. The model facilitates stochastic games with imperfect information. The imperfect information is due to erroneous sensors leading to incorrect perception of the current state by the players. To model this error in perception distributed over the states, we use Euclidean distances between outputs of the sensors. A numerical simulation of an example game is presented to show the evaluation of rewards to the players and the preferred strategies. We also present the conditions for formulating the strategies when dealing with more than one attacker and making collaborations.
Ramya Dharam,Sajjan G. Shiva
International Journal of Cyber-Security and Digital Forensics , 2012,
Abstract: Software systems, like web applications, are often used to provide reliable online services such as banking, shopping, social networking, etc., to users. The increasing use of such systems has led to a high need for assuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user data. SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs) is one of the major security threats to web applications. It allows attackers to get unauthorized access to the back-end database consisting of confidential user information. In this paper we present and evaluate a Runtime Monitoring Technique to detect and prevent tautology based SQLIAs in web applications. Our technique monitors the behavior of the application during its post- deployment to identify all the tautology based SQLIAs. A framework called Runtime Monitoring Framework, that implements our technique, is used in the development of runtime monitors. The framework uses two pre-deployment testing techniques, such as basis-path and data-flow to identify a minimal set of all legal/valid execution paths of the application. Runtime monitors are then developed and integrated to perform runtime monitoring of the application, during its post-deployment for the identified valid/legal execution paths. For evaluation we targeted a subject application with a large number of both legitimate inputs and illegitimate tautology based inputs, and measured the performance of the proposed technique. The results of our study show that runtime monitor developed for the application was successfully able to detect all the tautology based attacks without generating any false positives.
Comparative Analysis of Serial Decision Tree Classification Algorithms
Matthew Nwokejizie Anyanwu,Sajjan Shiva
International Journal of Computer Science and Security , 2009,
Abstract: Classification of data objects based on a predefined knowledge of the objects is a data mining and knowledge management technique used in grouping similar data objects together. It can be defined as supervised learning algorithms as it assigns class labels to data objects based on the relationship between the data items with a pre-defined class label. Classification algorithms have a wide range of applications like churn prediction, fraud detection, artificial intelligence, and credit card rating etc. Also there are many classification algorithms available in literature but decision trees is the most commonly used because of its ease of implementation and easier to understand compared to other classification algorithms. Decision Tree classification algorithm can be implemented in a serial or parallel fashion based on the volume of data, memory space available on the computer resource and scalability of the algorithm. In this paper we will review the serial implementations of the decision tree algorithms, identify those that are commonly used. We will also use experimental analysis based on sample data records (Statlog data sets) to evaluate the performance of the commonly used serial decision tree algorithms
Patterns of medication use for the treatment of menopausal symptoms before and after the women’s health initiative; implications for decision-making practices of women and women’s health professionals  [PDF]
Chioma Uzoigwe Smith, Srini Rajagopalan, Shiva Sajjan, Shuvayu Sankar Sen, Wenchen Kenneth Wu, Henry Hu
Health (Health) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/health.2011.37069
Abstract: Background: The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) published findings in 2002 that changed the perception of the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the reduction of cardiovascular risks. Menopausal women using HRT for the relief of vasomotor symptoms were advised to use the lowest possible dose of HRT over the shortest possible duration. Objective: This study sought to examine patterns of HRT use for the treatment of menopausal symptoms before and after the WHI among women at least 40 years of age. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on a total of 1367 women in the pre-WHI group and 6467 women in the post-WHI group using the U.S. General Electric (GE) Centricity electronic medical record database. Menopause diagnosis was assessed using ICD-9 codes. Clinical characteristics and medication use were assessed for women with at least 3 years of enrollment (1 year baseline, 2 years follow-up). Results: The proportion of women in the post-WHI group that initiated HRT was significantly less than that of women in the pre-WHI group (31.3% vs. 56.9%, respectively; p < 0.001). Combination HRT use declined significantly (21.9% pre-WHI cohort vs. 7.2% post- WHI cohort, p < 0.001) among increases in non-HRT use, namely SSRIs (15.2% pre-WHI cohort v. 22.3% post-WHI cohort, p < 0.001) and tranquilizers (9.5% pre-WHI cohort v. 15.8% post-WHI cohort, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of the WHI 2002 publication made an impression on the perception of HRT’s role in the relief of menopausal symptoms. Decision-making on the part of women seeking treatment for vasomotor symptoms and women’s health professionals demonstrates that despite HRT precautions, women continue to exhibit a need for HRT use. This study’s findings suggest that women seeking treatment for menopausal symptom relief and women’s health professionals continue to work together to find the appropriate balance between therapy use and adherence to therapy use guidelines.
A VHDL Based Expert System for HardwareSynthesis
Sajjan G. Shiva,Judit U. Jones
VLSI Design , 1994, DOI: 10.1155/1994/93168
Using Semantic Wikis to Support Software Reuse
Sajjan G. Shiva,Lubna A. Shala
Journal of Software , 2008, DOI: 10.4304/jsw.3.4.1-8
Abstract: It has been almost four decades since the idea of software reuse was proposed. Many success stories have been told, yet it is believed that software reuse is still in the development phase and has not reached its full potential. How far are we with software reuse research? What have we learned from previous software reuse efforts? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions and propose a software reuse repository system based on semantic Wikis. In addition to supporting general collaboration among users offered by regular wikis, semantic Wikis provide means of adding metadata about the concepts and relations that are contained within the Wiki. This underlying model of domain knowledge enhances the software repository navigation and search performance and result in a system that is easy to use for non-expert users while being powerful in the way in which new artifacts can be created and located.
Knowledge Management in Global Software Development
Sajjan G. Shiva,Sarah B. Lee,Lubna A. Shala,Chris B. Simmons
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks , 2009, DOI: 10.1080/15501320802498513
Abstract: In today's global economy, shrinking business cycles and global competetition are changing the landscape of software development. Frequently, multiple and geographically dispersed development teams are working together on large complex software systems. The complexity of global software development (GSD) warrants investigation into practices for building highly effective geographically diverse teams. GSD introduces challenges such as physical distance, time-zone differences, and diversity of languages and cultures. Frequently, different parts of an organization might use different terms and naming schemes and may have unique ways of expressing concepts. Knowledge of dependencies between software components and a variety of technical platforms must be recognized and shared across the organization. Such a global environment requires a high degree of collaboration and knowledge sharing. The use of a flexible, user-friendly knowledge management system that allows natural language query processing across knowledge captured throughout the software development lifecycle (SDLC) is required to improve knowledge sharing and reuse.
Choices of health care financing schemes for resource poor country: An analysis of Nepal’s experiences  [PDF]
Shiva Raj Adhikari
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58176

An appropriate health care financing scheme can improve the efficient, equitable, and effective use of health care resources; however, each popular health care financing scheme has some advantages and disadvantages. The designing of health care financing strategy to fit with the country specific features is not straightforward. In resource poor country, allocation of resources for health care services are always critical and frequently unstable due to nuances annual budget process, small fiscal space, uncertainties in contributions of external development partners. Considerable quantities of country specific researches require for the choice of an appropriate health care financing scheme. The paper illustrates possible better options for the government to pursue the goal of ensuring that the poor receive more benefits. The paper compares the benefit incidences and cost of services with different options purposed for primary health care services by utilizing recently collected data from different hospitals in Nepal. The paper offers an alternative policy such as a universal free care below the district level services; but in the district level which is top level of primary care, “extended targeted free health care” may be an efficient, fair, and relatively simple approach.

Fatigue Behaviour of Silicon Carbide and Fly Ash Dispersion Strengthened High Performance Hybrid Al 5083 Metal Matrix Composites  [PDF]
N. Santhosh, U. N. Kempaiah, Ganesh Sajjan, Ashwin C. Gowda
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2017.55023
Abstract: Fatigue is a major issue concerning the use of aluminium composites in structural applications. Fatigue leads to weakening of material majorly due to the strain bands formed in the material when it is subjected to repeated loading; the damage that occurs due to fatigue is a progressive and localized one. The fatigue may occur at a stress limit much lesser than the ultimate stress limit of the composite specimen. Henceforth in the current work, fatigue behaviour of silicon carbide and fly ash dispersion strengthened high performance hybrid Al 5083 metal matrix composites are evaluated. The main purpose of fatigue characterisation is to distinctly evaluate the life cycle of components that are fabricated from metal matrix composites and eventually develop a framework model for the significant study of fatigue strength of the structure with persistent striations all along the interstitials of aluminium- silicon carbide-fly ash interfaces. Fatigue is a stochastic process rather than a deterministic one that gives a considerable scatter, even among samples of similar composition with the tests carried out in some of the critically controlled environments. Hence there is a need for statistical validation of the results to authenticate the data collected. Thus in the current work, analysis of variance is carried out to establish the authenticity of the results and validate them. The results and plots are presented with suitable rationale and inferences.
Host Evasion by Burkholderia cenocepacia
Shyamala Ganesan,Umadevi S. Sajjan
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2011.00025
Abstract: Burkholderia cenocepacia is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Some strains of B. cenocepacia are highly transmissible and resistant to almost all antibiotics. Approximately one-third of B. cenocepacia infected CF patients go on to develop fatal “cepacia syndrome.” During the last two decades, substantial progress has been made with regards to evasion of host innate defense mechanisms by B. cenocepacia. Almost all strains of B. cenocepacia have the capacity to survive and replicate intracellularly in both airway epithelial cells and macrophages, which are primary sentinels of the lung and play a pivotal role in clearance of infecting bacteria. Those strains of B. cenocepacia, which express both cable pili and the associated 22 kDa adhesin are also capable of transmigrating across airway epithelium and persist in mouse models of infection. In this review, we will discuss how this type of interaction between B. cenocepacia and host may lead to persistence of bacteria as well as lung inflammation in CF patients.
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