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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2470 matches for " Saito "
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Rationality and Stability of Equilibrium in a Search-Theoretic Model of Money  [PDF]
Tetsuya Saito
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.23052
Abstract: In this short note, I examine the rationality of money-search equilibrium in a basic second-generation money search model, which is a perfectly divisible goods and indivisible money model. I then show that only an inflationary economy can generate a socially and individually rational stable equilibrium. On the basis of this finding, I demonstrate that there is no loss of generality in an analysis that assumes dictatorial buyers in an inflationary economy, since the properties of a dictatorial buyers model are identical to those of a general inflationary economy model. The result of this paper is especially useful for empirical applications since we are generally incapable of finding data showing bargaining power. This result also alerts us against employing the second-generation model to analyze a deflationary economy and commodity money.
The Function of Roots of Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis) Cultured by a Novel Form of Hydroponics and Soil Acidification  [PDF]
Kieko Saito, Masahiko Ikeda
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.35078
Abstract: A novel form of hydroponic culture was employed to explore the physiological function of roots of a tea plant (Camellia sinensis). The pH of the nutrient solution with an actively growing tea plant decreased during cultivation. Furthermore, no oxalic acid, tartaric acid, malic acid or citric acid, all possible factors in acidification, was detected in the nutrient solution of a growing plant. A proton pump inhibitor suppressed the acidification of the solution. Soil acidification might have been accelerated with a proton released from ammoniacal nitrogen preferentially for the growth, suggesting the specific mechanism of tea plant as a functional food.
Capacity Choice in a Mixed Duopoly: The Relative Performance Approach  [PDF]
Yasuhiko Nakamura, Masayuki Saito
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.32020

This paper studies capacity choice in a quantity-setting mixed duopoly with differentiated goods, when the objective function of the private firm is its relative profit. In this paper, we show that the differences between the output levels and capacity levels between both the public firm and the private firm strictly depend on both the degrees of product differentiation and of importance of the private firms relative performance. More precisely, we find that the public firm chooses over-capacity when both the degrees of importance of the private firms relative performance and of product differentiation are sufficiently high whereas it chooses under-capacity otherwise, and further the private firm chooses under-capacity when the degree of importance of its relative performance is high as compared the degree of product differentiation whereas it chooses over-capacity otherwise.

Capacity Choice in a Price-Setting Mixed Duopoly: The Relative Performance Approach  [PDF]
Yasuhiko Nakamura, Masayuki Saito
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.44031

This paper analyzes the capacity choice issue under a price-setting mixed duopoly with differentiated goods, when the objective function of the private firm is its relative profit. In this paper, we show that the public firm chooses over-capacity irrespective of the degree of product differentiation and the degree of importance of the relative performance of the private firm. In contrast, we find that the difference between the output and capacity levels of the private firm strictly depends on both the degree of product differentiation and the degree of importance of its relative performance. More precisely, the private firm chooses over-capacity when the degree of importance of its relative performance is high relative to the degree of product differentiation, whereas it chooses under-capacity otherwise.

Influence of Oxygen to Argon Ratio on the Structural and Morphological Properties of Nb-Doped SrTiO3 Epitaxial Films Grown by Reactive Ion Beam Sputter Deposition  [PDF]
Gasidit Panomsuwan, Nagahiro Saito
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2013.21005
Abstract: Nb-doped SrTiO3 (STNO) films were grown on (001)-oriented LaAlO3 substrates by a reactive ion beam sputter deposition at various mixing ratios (OMRs) with a substrate temperature of 800oC. The STNO films exhibited good crystallinity with an epitaxial orientation as characterized by high-resolution X-ray diffraction, grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, and in-plane pole figure analysis. A decrease of out-of-plane and in-plane lattice constants was observed with an increase of OMR. The surface morphology of the STNO films showed a very dense fine-grain structure. The root-mean-square roughness was found to be increased as the OMR increased. Moreover, the elemental compositions of the STNO films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Involvement of Sphingolipids in Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Developing Brain
Mariko Saito,Mitsuo Saito
Brain Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci3020670
Abstract: Ethanol-induced neuronal death during a sensitive period of brain development is considered one of the significant causes of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In rodent models, ethanol triggers robust apoptotic neurodegeneration during a period of active synaptogenesis that occurs around the first two postnatal weeks, equivalent to the third trimester in human fetuses. The ethanol-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent, involving Bax and caspase-3 activation. Such apoptotic pathways are often mediated by sphingolipids, a class of bioactive lipids ubiquitously present in eukaryotic cellular membranes. While the central role of lipids in ethanol liver toxicity is well recognized, the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol neurotoxicity is less explored despite mounting evidence of their importance in neuronal apoptosis. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in animal models of FASD is mediated or regulated by cellular sphingolipids, including via the pro-apoptotic action of ceramide and through the neuroprotective action of GM1 ganglioside. Such sphingolipid involvement in ethanol neurotoxicity in the developing brain may provide unique targets for therapeutic applications against FASD. Here we summarize findings describing the involvement of sphingolipids in ethanol-induced apoptosis and discuss the possibility that the combined action of various sphingolipids in mitochondria may control neuronal cell fate.
MicroRNAs in cancers and neurodegenerative disorders
Yoshimasa Saito,Hidetsugu Saito
Frontiers in Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00194
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which function as endogenous silencers of various target genes. miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and playing important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation during mammalian development. Links between miRNAs and the initiation and progression of human diseases including cancer are becoming increasingly apparent. Recent studies have revealed that some miRNAs such as miR-9, miR-29 family, and miR-34 family are differentially expressed in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. These miRNAs are also reported to act as tumor suppressors during human carcinogenesis. In this review, we discuss about miRNAs which are important in the molecular pathogenesis of both cancer and neurodegeneration. Cancer and neurodegenerative disorder may be influenced by common miRNA pathways that regulate differentiation, proliferation, and death of cells.
Role of CTCF in the regulation of microRNA expression
Yoshimasa Saito,Hidetsugu Saito
Frontiers in Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00186
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. miRNAs are expressed in a tissue-specific manner and play important roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation and histone modification are essential for chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression including miRNAs. The CCCTC-binding factor, CTCF, is known to bind insulators and exhibits an enhancer-blocking and barrier function, and more recently, it also contributes to the three-dimensional organization of the genome. CTCF can also serve as a barrier against the spread of DNA methylation and histone repressive marks over promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have shown that CTCF is also involved in the regulation of miRNAs such as miR-125b1, miR-375, and the miR-290 cluster in cancer cells and stem cells. miR-125b1 is a candidate of tumor suppressor and is silenced in breast cancer cells. On the other hand, miR-375 may have oncogenic function and is overexpressed in breast cancer cells. CTCF is involved in the regulation of both miR-125b1 and miR-375, indicating that there are various patterns of CTCF-associated epigenetic regulation of miRNAs. CTCF may also play a key role in the pluripotency of cells through the regulation of miR-290 cluster. These observations suggest that CTCF-mediated regulation of miRNAs could be a novel approach for cancer therapy and regenerative medicine.
Indications and Outcomes for Pedicled Pectoralis Major Myocutaneous Flaps at a Primary Microvascular Head and Neck Reconstructive Center  [PDF]
Akira Saito, Hidehiko Minakawa, Noriko Saito, Tatsumi Nagahashi
Modern Plastic Surgery (MPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/mps.2012.24025
Abstract: The pectoralis major musculocutaneous (PMMC) flap has been a useful technique for head and neck reconstruction since its first description by Ariyan in 1979. However, techniques in microvascular surgery have since evolved and recently free tissue transfer has played an important role in head and neck reconstruction. Although we use free flaps as the first choice for head and neck reconstruction, similar to many other institutions, some patients at our hospital have undergone reconstruction with PMMC flaps. We retrospectively analyzed the indications and outcomes of this reconstructive technique from our experience with 12 patients. The medical records of all patients who underwent PMMC flaps at Hokkaido Cancer Center from 2001 to 2010 were reviewed. Data concerning diagnosis, main indication, site of reconstruction, previous treatment, and postoperative complications were analyzed. Of the 12 PMMC flap surgeries performed, 3 were carried out as primary reconstructive procedures, whereas 9 were done as “salvage” procedures. Flap-related complications were observed in 6 cases. Partial flap loss developed in 4 patients, although there were no cases of total flap loss. There were 3 recurrent fistulae following reconstruction with PMMC flaps. The preoperative goals of performing PMMC flap surgery were met in 83% of our cases. The authors conclude that while free flap transfer is usually the first choice for head and neck reconstruction, PMMC flaps can produce acceptable results in certain situations.
Oral manifestations of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A case report  [PDF]
Daisuke Saito Daisuke Saito, Tadaharu Kobayashi, Yohei Oda, Kanae Niimi, Hiroyuki Kano, Chikara Saito
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2013.31005

Acute leukemia is often associated with oral manifestations. We report an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) case with oral manifestations leading to the diagnosis. A 21-year-old female visited our hospital with complaints of gingival bleeding and swelling of the left lower wisdom tooth. The patient’s complete blood count revealed a marked increase in white blood cells and a decrease in red blood cells and an abnormal leukocyte differential, and APL was diagnosed on the basis of bone marrow samples in the internal medicine department. The patient was treated with all-trans-retinoic acid combined with chemotherapy and has maintained clinical and molecular complete remission at 12 months of follow-up. Dental professionals should be aware of clinical manifestations and complications associated with these malign-

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