Abstract:
The next-generation mobile network will support terminal mobility, personal mobility, and service provider portability, making global roaming seamless. A location-independent personal telecommunication number (PTN) scheme is conducive to implementing such a global mobile system. In this paper, firstly we propose multi tree database architecture consists of a number of database subsystems, each of which is a three-level t also proposes indexing schemes for each type of location databases and analyzes their efficiency and cost in terms of database access time and storage requirement. Tree structure and is connected to the others only through its root. Results have revealed that the proposed database architecture for location management can effectively support the anticipated high user density in the future mobile networks.

Abstract:
Background :The Cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1) gene, located on chromosome 15q, is involved in the metabolism of carcinogens mainly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as estrogen. It is considered as candidate gene for low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility. Hence the present study aims to discuss the role of CYP1A1 polymorphisms in breast cancer. Materials and Methods :A total of 250 breast cancer patients and the same number of healthy age-matched controls were analyzed for the polymorphism of CYP1A1FNx012 by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results :In the present study, association of CYP1A1FNx012 (Ile 462Val) polymorphism with breast cancer was studied. Only one breast cancer patient was observed to be homozygous for Val allele but none among controls. The frequency of heterozygous Ile/Val genotype was found to be increased significantly in breast cancer patients (68.1%) as compared to controls (51.0%). Higher frequency of heterozygotes for Val allele was observed among premenopausal breast cancer patients and patients with high BMI, positive for HER2/neu status and advanced stage of the disease in comparison to the corresponding groups. No significant association of CYP1A1FNx012 polymorphism was observed with occupation, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status of breast cancer patients. Conclusions :In conclusion, our results suggest a significant correlation between CYP1A1FNx012 expression and the occurrence of breast cancer.

Abstract:
Purpose : To evaluate the spectrum of activity of three β-lactamase inhibitors such as amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid and piperacillin/ tazobactam in comparison to cephalosporins against gram negative bacilli. Methods : Gram-negative bacilli isolated from the clinical specimens received in the laboratory were included in the study. Using the API system (bioMιrieux) during a one-year period, a total of 1,252 Enterobacteriaceae and 385 non-fermenters were evaluated. Results : The percentage resistance of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates was 82.92% to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid, 58.22% to ticarcillin/clavulanic acid and 22.44% to piperacillin/tazobactam respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed resistance of 96% to ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid and 61% to piperacillin/ tazobactam and Acinetobacter baumannii showed 49% resistance to ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid and 77% resistance to piperacillin/ tazobactam respectively. The isolates exhibited high resistance to all the generations of cephalosporins and the other groups of antibiotics except carbapenems. Conclusions : Piperacillin/tazobactam was found to be the most active combination of the three against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid against Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia .

Abstract:
Background: Estrogen receptor (ER) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor that mediates estrogen action in target tissue. Several common polymorphisms of the ERα gene have been reported to be associated with alterations in receptor expression in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was designed to compare 250 breast cancer patients with 250 age-matched healthy controls. The frequency distribution of PvuII polymorphism in the ERα gene was assessed by PCR-RFLP method. Results: The frequency of the PP genotype (35.3%) was increased significantly in breast cancer patients when compared to controls (19.8%), with a corresponding increase in P allele frequency (χ2 = 16.4; P = 0.0003). The OR for genotypes PP vs. Pp was 1.989 (95% CI: 1.2708 to 3.113). Premenopausal women with breast cancer had an elevated frequency of the PP genotype (22.8%) as compared to postmenopausal women (16.8%). The frequency of the PP genotype was increased in patients positive for ER and HER-2/neu as compared to those with receptor-negative status. The pp and p allele frequencies were increased in progesterone-receptor-negative status. When stage of the disease was considered, both Pp and pp genotype frequencies were elevated in patients with advanced stage breast cancer. The frequency of the P allele and PP genotype frequencies tended to increase with increase in body mass index, whereas the Pp genotype frequency was elevated only in obese patients. The reverse was observed in the case of pp genotype frequency. Conclusion: The study thus highlighted the influence of ERα PvuII polymorphism on the development and progression of breast cancer.

Abstract:
Digital Watermarking is a process of embedding information into a digital signal. The efficiency of the watermarking process depends on the protection of visually significant information. For that we embed the watermark transparently at the edges of digital image where deformation is less identifiable. To identify the edges we used Sobel edge detection algorithm since it is inexpensive in terms of computations and on the other hand, the gradient approximation which it produces is relatively crude, in particular for high frequency variations in the image.

Abstract:
Let be a partially ordered set and be a mapping. We prove a fixed point theorem for the map satisfying a contractive condition in orbits, when is -orbitally complete. Our result extends and generalizes the results of Samet et al. (2013) to partially ordered sets. Also, we generalize the results of Ran and Reurings (2004). 1. Introduction In 1922, Banach [1] established a very fundamental result in fixed point theory, namely, the Banach contraction principle. Large number of generalizations have been made on this principle (we refer to Berinde and Vetro [2], Chatterjea [3], ？iri？ [4], and Kannan [5, 6]). The Banach contraction principle forces the map to be continuous. In 1968, Kannan [5] established a fixed point theorem for a map which need not be continuous. Later in 1971, Reich [7] proved a fixed point theorem through which the Banach contraction principle and Kannan's fixed point theorem are generalized. Recently, Samet et al. [8] established new fixed point theorems in complete metric spaces that generalize the Banach contraction principle and Reich’s and Kannan’s fixed point theorems. Theorem 1 (see [8]). Let be a complete metric space, a lower semicontinuous function, and a given mapping. Suppose that, for any , there exists such that implies for all . Then, has a unique fixed point . Moreover, one has . Theorem 2 (see [8]). Let be a complete metric space, a lower semi-continuous function and a given mapping. Suppose that there exists a constant such that for all . Then, has a unique fixed point . Moreover, one has . Theorem 3 (see [8]). Let be a complete metric space, a lower semi-continuous function and a given mapping. Suppose that, there exist with such that for all , Then, has a unique fixed point . Moreover, one has . Establishing the existence of fixed points in partially ordered sets is of recent interest in fixed point theory. In 2004, Ran and Reurings [9] established the existence of fixed points for contraction maps in partially ordered sets. Definition 4. Let be a partially ordered set. A map is said to be non-decreasing if, for any with , one has . Theorem 5 (see [9]). Let be a partially ordered set and be a metric on such that is a complete metric space. Suppose that is a continuous map and there exists such that for each with . If there exists such that , then has a fixed point in . Definition 6. Let be a nonempty set and . Let . The orbit of is defined by . Definition 7. Let be a metric space and . is said to be T-orbitally complete if every Cauchy sequence in , , converges to a point in . Definition 8. Let be a metric space and .

Abstract:
Imatinib mesylate is the most opted drug used for treating ph+ve chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Theup-regulation of drug transporters (ABCB1-ABCG2) is one of specific causes of Imatinib resistance. Imatinib (IM)is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein pump, which is encoded by MDR1/ABCB1 gene. Our main objective is toinvestigate the influence of MDR1 gene polymorphisms in CML patients. A total of 262 CML and 252 controlsamples were analysed for MDR1 gene (G2677T) polymorphism using PCR- RFLP technique. Genotypedistribution revealed slight elevation of TT genotype frequency in CML patients (42.7%) compared to controls(38.5%). Patients in advanced phase had higher TT genotype frequency compared to patients in early phases.The frequency of heterozygous GT genotype was found to be increased in hematological poor responders(52.4%) compared to major responders (32.4%) and minor responders (30.0%). Interestingly, the frequencies ofGG and GT genotypes were increased in cytogenetic poor responders with corresponding increase in G allelefrequency (0.54) as compared to major responders (0.34). These results suggest that the 2677G allele withincreased efflux of IM might be responsible for poor response in CML patients.

Abstract:
This article discusses the impact of human pharmaceuticalcontamination of our water supply and focuses on the role that pharmacists canplay in minimizing the environmental impact.How do drugs get into our water?Drugs consumed by humans are eliminated (either unchanged oras metabolites) via flushing into the sewer or septic system. Consumers and healthcare professionals alsodiscard outdated and unused drugs down sinks and toilets into the sewer systemor into landfill (regular garbage).

Abstract:
Conventional AC/DC power converters that are connected to the line through full-wave rectifier draws a non-sinusoidal input current. These Harmonic currents flowing through the impedances in the electrical utility distribution system can cause several problems such as voltage distortion, heating, noises. These harmonics distort the local voltage waveform, potentially interfering with other electrical equipment connected to the same electrical service and reduce the capability of the line to provide energy. This fact and the presence of standards or recommendations have forced to use power factor correction in power supplies. Boost regulators have been with us for many years as a power factor correction rectifiers. The main problem in boost rectifier is, the output voltage is very sensitive to Duty ratio variations. So maintaining the output voltage with in the regulation is very complex. Boost regulators are draws power from utility at unity power factor when it is operated in continuous conduction mode.

Abstract:
Recently much work has been reported in literature regarding Text Independent speaker identification models. Sailaja et al (2010)[34] has developed a Text Independent speaker identification model assuming that the speech spectra of each individual speaker can be modeled by Mel frequency cepstral coefficient and Generalized Gaussian mixture model. The limitation of this model is the feature vectors (Mel frequency cepstral coefficients) are high in dimension and assumed to be independent. But feature represented by MFCC’s are dependent and chopping some of the MFCC’s will bring falsification in the model. Hence, in this paper a new and novel Text Independent speaker identification model is developed by integrating MFCC’s with Independent component analysis(ICA) for obtaining independency and to achieve low dimensionality in feature vector extraction. Assuming that the new feature vectors follows a Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model (GGMM), the model parameters are estimated by using EM algorithm. A Bayesian classifier is used to identify each speaker. The experimental result with 50 speaker’s data base reveals that the proposed procedure outperforms the existing methods.