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Solid Waste Management in the Town of Maradi in Niger Republic  [PDF]
Hassidou Saidou, Soulé Aminou
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2015.64036
Abstract: As in many towns of African countries, the waste management, in particularly solid constitutes a major problem for the municipal authorities of Maradi. The aim of this study is to make a diagnosis of the present system of waste management in the town of Maradi. To achieve this goal, interviews with municipal authorities, cleaning up and health technicians have been made, as well as investigations among households. According to the health technicians of the town, the causes due to the problem of waste management in Maradi town are: collecting capatown insufficient, lack of effective sensitization of people, undeveloped and uncontrolled rubbish dumps, lack of gutter and its maintenance, and insufficient and unqualified human resources. As to the authorities, they denounce always the attitude and the behavior of citizens on the waste issue. The waste evacuation is done by municipal collecting or by depositing in wild rubbish dump. Some people eliminate their waste by burning or duping in the streets or in their houses. According to our investigations, 52% of population evacuates their waste daily. The satisfaction rate of municipal collecting is for 32%. The analysis showed that the present system of waste management in Maradi town was failing. As to solutions, we proposed to equip the technical offices with appropriated material and financial means, reinforce the involved actor’s capacities and make in application the operatives regulations for the waste management.
Management of Urban Wastewater in the City of Maradi (Niger): The Case of Domestic Wastewater  [PDF]
Saidou Hassidou, Laminou Ary Mahaman Moustapha
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.33003
Abstract: Uncontrolled urbanization of African cities and the lack of municipal waste management services in these cities make landscapes become places of multiple and varied interactions between health and environment. In this sense, under strong urban growth in a context of sub-equipment sanitation, the city of Maradi doesn’t escape to this situation which results in the spread of pollution (release of unpleasant odors, and proliferation of mosquitoes) and many diseases posing multiple health problems. Our study focuses only on liquid waste especially domestic wastewater. To study the different domestic wastewater management options in the town of Maradi, a survey was conducted among 340 households in 17 districts. We note in most cases a crucial of waste management infrastructure (drainage and wastewater treatment) in the city. Thus, only the individual sanitation facilities are used. In the town of Maradi, in addition to the storm drains, there are, in old districts, ditches that discharge wastewater and unfortunately end up in rivers without treatment. Total domestic wastewater production is estimated at 86761.28 m3 per day. This water is mostly from laundry activities, bathing, dishes, and is discharged in large part through the streets, by more than 60% of households. Also, pit emptying is performed at 39.11% by the vehicle Peugeot tank. The quality of service rendered by an actor is very important to encourage households to join. Existing autonomous sanitation facilities are poorly designed and poorly maintained. Fecal sludge is dumped in a hole near saturated latrines; this work is mainly done by manual scavengers or dumped in fields or on nearby vacant land concessions.
Study of Cd2+, Al3+, and SO42− Ions Influence on Struvite Precipitation from Synthetic Water by Dissolved CO2 Degasification Technique  [PDF]
Hassidou Saidou, Atef Korchef, Sami Ben Moussa, Mohamed Ben Amor
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2015.53006
Abstract: The effect of cadmium, aluminum, and sulphate ions on struvite precipitation kinetics and morphology of solids obtained was investigated in this study. Thus, these ions were introduced as additives in solution where struvite precipitation was achieved. The main results obtained showed that the Cd2+ ions cause the probable co-formation, with struvite, of an amorphous phase observed from Cd2+ concentration of 10 mg/L; the addition of aluminum ions in the solution does not affect the nature of the crystalline phase, identified as struvite. However, these ions cause the formation of agglomerates of larger and larger as the concentration rises. Moreover, their increasing improved significantly the yield of phosphates removal; although the sulfate ions have no effect on the nature of the precipitated phase identified as struvite, independently of molar ratio studied, they affect the thermal decomposition of struvite. This latter is done in a single step by increasing the concentration of these ions for the SO42−/PO43− molar ratio of 8.
Assessment of Domestic Wastewater Management Practices in the Communal District I of Maradi City, Niger Republic  [PDF]
Ousmane Laminou Manzo, Hassidou Saidou, Salamatou Abdourahamane Illiassou, Saoudé Tidjani Idrissa
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2015.38006
Abstract: Wastewater treatment is a problem with much acuity in the city of Maradi in general, and particularly in the Communal District I of Maradi. It is for this reason that the present study was conducted which deals with wastewater sanitation. The main objective of this study conducted through a survey is to investigate in the domestic wastewater sanitation in the Communal District I of Maradi city. Specifically, the study aims to estimate the amount of wastewater produced by households and to analyze the sanitation system at household and at district levels. The wastewater management practices in this district were assessed through a descriptive cross sectional study in which a total of 129 households were selected by sample distribution technique in the district neighborhoods and studied using interviewer and administered questionnaires at communal and household levels. The results of the study showed that the amount of domestic wastewater generated is quite large, about 32.27 m3 per person per day, and this comes from several sources including showers, laundry, dishwashing and income generating activities. The results also revealed that the unhealthy state of the Communal District I of Maradi is related to the absence of a wastewater treatment system, the methods and practices used in its management, and the population is also largely responsible for this unhealthy state and not willing to participate to a sanitation project.
Impact of Climatic Parameters on the Performance of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Module in Niamey  [PDF]
Abdou Latif Bonkaney, Saidou Madougou, Rabani Adamou
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2017.812025
Abstract: The sensitivity of mono-crystalline solar PV module towards dust accumulation, ambient temperature, relative humidity, and cloud cover is investigated from May to August 2015 for Niamey’s environment. Two solar modules with the same characteristics have been used to carry out the impacts of the dust on the solar PV module. One of the modules is being cleaned every morning and the second one was used for monitoring the effect of dust accumulation onto the surface of the unclean module for May and June. The ambient temperature around the solar PV module was recorded at the same time with the output voltage and the output current to assess the impacts of ambient temperature on the PV conversion efficiency. In addition to these field test measurements, the solar radiation data measured in National Center of Solar Energy (CNES) of Niamey were also used. Also the relative humidity for the study area data obtained NASA power agro-climatology website was used. Results show that the dust accumulation has the greatest impact on the performance of the PV module followed by temperature, relative humidity and cloud cover. Exposing the module in 23 days has reduced the energy output by 15.29%. The power output and the conversion efficiency of the PV module have dropped by 2.6% and 0.49% respectively. The relative humidity also has reduced the energy output by 4.3 Wh/m2/day.
Health challenges in Africa and the way forward
Joses Kirigia, Saidou Barry
International Archives of Medicine , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1755-7682-1-27
Abstract: Out of 58.03 million people who died globally in 2005, 10.9 million (18.8%) were from the WHO African Region [1]. Majority of deaths (64%) that occurred in the Region resulted from HIV/AIDS (19%), lower respiratory infections (10%), malaria (8%), diarrhoeal diseases (7%), cerebrovascular disease (4%), ischaemic heart disease (3%), tuberculosis (3%), measles (3%), low birth weight (2%), birth asphyxia and birth trauma (2%) and maternal conditions (2%). Even though effective public health interventions that could have prevented most of deaths exist, coverage is low due to weak and under-resourced health systems. Some of the weaknesses can be attributed to challenges related to leadership and governance; health workforce; medical products, vaccines and technologies; information; financing; and services delivery [2].Firstly, there are serious leadership and governance challenges that include weak public health leadership and management [3]; inadequate health-related legislations and their enforcement; limited community participation in planning, management and monitoring of health services; weak inter-sectoral action; horizontal and vertical inequities in health systems [4]; inefficiency in resource allocation and use [5]; and weak national health information and research systems [6].Secondly, extreme shortages of health workers exist in 57 countries of which 36 are in Africa [8]. The crisis has been exacerbated by inequities in workforce distribution and brain drain. Thus, the delivery of effective public health interventions to people in need is compromised particularly in remote rural areas.Thirdly, there is rampant corruption in medical products and technologies procurement systems, unreliable supply systems, unaffordable prices, irrational use, wide variance in quality and safety [2]. This has contributed to current situation where 50% the population in the Region lack of access to essential medicines [6].Fourthly, there is a dearth of information and communication
Tracking a Moving Objects Using Foreground Detector and Improved Morphological Filter  [PDF]
Diallo Mamadou Saidou
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104152
Mobile object detection is one of the most important steps in computer vision applications such as: medical analysis human-machine interface, robotics, traffic monitoring, and more. In this article, we apply the Gaussian mixing model which is established on the background subtraction. A smoothing method was used for the pre-processing step and a morphological filter was applied to remove unwanted pixels from the background in the other to solve the problem of background noise disturbance. We also demonstrated that filtering foreground segmentation twice with the same morphological structured element but with a different width was used to improve the accuracy of the result. The results show that the proposed method is effective in detecting and tracking moving vehicles, compared to filter segmentation in the foreground only once. Several methods and algorithms have been used to solve this problem. All the methods used before have been effective but also have limits. Some of these methods lose the object when the number of frames is wide while others lose it when it changes direction or rolls at a high speed. In addition, the algorithms proposed for the detection of colors in RGB also lose their objectives when the object changes the color. But the proposed combination in this paper maintains contact with the object without losing it even if it changes direction or speed or the number of frame increases.
Performance of Nanofiltration (NF) and Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis (LPRO) Membranes in the Removal of Fluorine and Salinity from Brackish Drinking Water  [PDF]
Courfia K. Diawara, Saidou N. Diop, Mouhamadou A. Diallo, Michel Farcy, André Deratani
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2011.312101
Abstract: Certain areas in Senegal have a serious problem of high fluoride and salinity in underground water because of soil properties. This water currently used for drink has a bad taste on consumption and caused diseases like dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. A membrane filtration plant constructed by Pall Corporation was improved through nanofiltration (NF) and Low Pressure Reverse Osmosis (LPRO). Both NF and LPRO membranes were shown applicable for salinity and fluoride ions removal from brackish and high fluorinated drinking water in a remote community. The NF membrane has given a fluorine retention rate varying between 63.3% and 71% while the LPRO membrane allow to reach 97 to 98.9% for fluorine rejection. Highest salinity rejection rates expressed through conductivity measurements are around 46% and 97% for respectively NF and LPRO.
Evaluation of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Wastes Produced by Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) Fed Azolla-Diets in Earthen Ponds  [PDF]
Youssouf Abou, Aliou Saidou, Daouda Mama, Emile D. Fiogbé, Jean-Claude Micha
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.36060
Abstract: Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) wastes produced by Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. fed Azolla, an aquatic atmospheric nitrogen fixing fern, was evaluated for 90 days in pond experiment. Six isonitrogenous (29.2% crude protein) and isoenergetic (16.9 Kj·g–1) diets A0, A10, A20, A30, A40 and A50, containing 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of Azolla meal (AM) respectively, as partial fishmeal (FM) substitutes, was provided to experimental fish. The Azolla-free diet A0 served as a control. Fish specific growth rate (SGR) was higher with the control diet, the lower values being obtained in A50-fed fish (P < 0.05). Crude protein and P content in experimental fish showed similar values. Evaluation of the nutrient wasted show identical values (84.8% - 87.8% of supplied) for total P (TP); while total N (TN) discharged into ponds by fish increased significantly when AM level greater than 30% in diets (P < 0.05), amounting 63.9% - 74.2% of that supplied. From these findings, the fern Azolla could be used in diet to sustain Nile tilapia growth and as “environmentally-friendly” ingredient to limit P loss, while providing N to the field, beneficially in tropical marshland pond where this nutrient is already limiting.
Physicochemical and Bacteriological Qualities of Groundwater from Some Localities in the Adamawa Region of Cameroon
Ahmed Ali,Bouba Adji Mohamadou,Clement Saidou
Research Journal of Soil and Water Management , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/rjswm.2010.85.90
Abstract: The present research was carried out to assess the chemical and microbiological safety of groundwater from eight sampling points in the Adamawa region of Cameroon. Some physicochemical parameters (turbidity, conductivity, alkalinity, total dissolved solids and pH) were determined using standard methods. Minerals and heavy metals were analyzed using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer while pathogens and waterborne bacteria were screened according to reference methods. Results showed that most physicochemical parameters (pH, salinity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate and phosphate) were acceptable with regard to existing norms. However, some samples exhibited values above these norms. Turbidity and suspended matter were higher than recommended for drinking water in most samples. Fortunately, no heavy metal was detected in water from the eight localities. With regard to bacteriological safety, only one sample (Mbe) was not contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms. Those collected in Belel appeared to be contaminated by such pathogens as clostridia, Fecal coliforms, Fecal streptococci, salmonella and shigella and Staphylococcus aureus. Neither pseudomonas, nor vibrio was detected. At the whole, the study revealed that groundwater from covered wells, generally considered as safe and potable, needs to be treated prior consumption and use.
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