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Genetic Divergence Studies in Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L.
D. Shivani, Ch.Sreelakshmi and C.V.Sameer Kumar
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was carried out to study the genetic divergence among 75 germplasm lines of safflower. Analysis ofvariance revealed significant variation among the genotypes for all the characters studied. Among the genotypes, GMU 3327,GMU 3279, GMU 3325 and GMU 3313 were found to be promising on the basis of per se performance for seed yield. Seedyield exhibited maximum contribution towards genetic divergence followed by number of capitula per plant, number of seedsper capitulum, oil content, days to 50% flowering and days to maturity. The genotypes were grouped into 8 clusters out ofwhich cluster II is having maximum of 23 genotypes followed by cluster I with 20 genotypes. Maximum inter cluster distancewas observed between clusters VII and VIII followed by clusters VI and VIII, clusters IV and VIII and clusters I and VIII .
The Effect of Drought Stress on Population Density and Damage of Safflower Fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi ), Aphid (Uroleucon carthami ) and Leafhopper Empoasca decipiens
B. Hatami,J. Khajehali,M. R. Sabzalian
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2008,
Abstract: Safflower having oil with high unsaturated fatty acids is a very valuable plant. However the sensitivity of safflower to some pests as safflower fly (Acanthiophilus helianthi), particularly in drought stress conditions has limited its production. In order to evaluate the effect of drought stress on population density and damage of important safflower pests, especially safflower fly, an experiment was conducted in the field using 5 irrigation treatments including 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 mm evaporation from class A pan in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The local safflower variety used in this study was Isfahan land variety, Kooseh. In each irrigation regime, the half of one plot was locally sprayed by Chlorpyrifos in 2ml per liter of water to be compared with non-sprayed part. During 8 weeks of sampling, population of aphids, Uroleucon carthami, leafhopper, Empoasca decipiens and safflower fly, A. helianthi and also percentage of damaged heads by safflower fly were measured. The results showed that in non-sprayed conditions, the highest safflower fly (2.38 flies per net) and aphid population (165.57 aphids per plant) was observed at 130 mm evaporation regime. Drought stress also decreased (30.23 %) safflower seed yield. Severe drought stress together with non-spaying may increase safflower pests population particularly safflower fly and reduce seed yield. However low level of drought stress (70 mm evaporation from class A pan) may decrease relative number of insects and save irrigation water. Drought stress also decrease the population of leafhopper. In this study, 70 mm evaporation regime was the optimum irrigation treatment regarding lower aphid and fly damage (15.86% damaged heads in non-sprayed condition) and higher safflower seed yield (1687.5 kg/ha in sprayed condition).
Salt Stress Induced Modulations in Growth, Compatible Solutes and Antioxidant Enzymes Response in Two Cultivars of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. Cultivar TSF1 and Cultivar SM) Differing in Salt Tolerance  [PDF]
T. Vijayalakshmi, A. S. Vijayakumar, K. Kiranmai, A. Nareshkumar, Chinta Sudhakar
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.713168
Abstract: Safflower is an important, traditional, multipurpose oil crop. This was to investigate the effect of different salinity levels on morphological, physiological, biochemical and antioxidant response of two safflower cultivars (Carthamus tinctorius L. cultivar TSF1 and cultivar SM) differing in salt tolerance. Salinity stress (0.0%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% of NaCl) was induced to safflower plants after 19 days of vegetative growth. After 12 days of stress impositions, plants were harvested and analysed for various parameters. The results revealed that cultivar TSF1 showed maximum growth, dry weight, cell membrane stability and more water content in both root and leaf tissues at higher salinity levels than cultivar SM. Salt stress resulted an accumulation of more soluble sugars, amino acids, proline and glycine betaine at high salinity level confers the tolerance potential of cultivar TSF1 over cultivar SM. Salt stress induces more increase in the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase and catalase in tolerant cultivar than sensitive one. The results indicate that each cultivar adopt specific strategy at distinct salinity level for resistance against salinity. The possible conclusion is that improved tolerance in cultivar TSF1 to salinity may be accomplished by better management of growth, physiological attributes and antioxidative defence mechanisms.
Integrated Nutrient Management of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under Rainfed Conditions  [PDF]
Obaid Afzal, Muhammad Asif, Mukhtar Ahmed, Fahad Karim Awan, Muhammad Aqeel Aslam, Ammara Zahoor, Muhammad Bilal, Farid Asif Shaheen, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar, Nazeer Ahmed
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2017.89148
Abstract: Optimistic and sustainable supply of soil available nutrients to crop plants enhances productivity. Integrated nutrient management (INM) approach can improve soil fertility on long term basis. The present study was conducted to determine effects of INM on quantitative and qualitative characters of two Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars “Thori-78 and Leed-00”. Five treatments using different composition of poultry litter, farm yard manure, nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers with recommended dose as a control measure were replicated thrice in randomized complete design. The results of field trial depicted maximum plant height (174.6 cm), number of heads plant-1 (42.67), number of seeds head-1 (59.0), thousand seed weight (42.26 g), biological yield (3089 Kg·ha-1) and seed yield (455.2 Kg·ha-1) recorded from combined application of FYM @ 2 t·ha-
Ocorrência de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Sacc. em Carthamus tinctorius L. no estado do Paraná
Carneiro, Solange Monteiro de Toledo Pizza Gomes;Silva, Michele Regina Lopes da;Romano, Euclides Bueno;Borsato, Leandro Camargo;Marianowski, Tatiana;Gomes, José Carlos;
Summa Phytopathologica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-54052012000200011
Abstract: the safflower (carthamus tinctorius) is a crop of medicinal and industrial importance and is now considered a plant of great potential to biodiesel production. the objective of this study was to verify the causal agent of the spots observed in safflower plants in the iapar experimental field in londrina-pr. isolations were made from leaf lesions of symptomatic plants and pathogenicity test of the isolates in healthy plants of safflower. the inoculated plants showed symptoms of anthracnose on leaves, stems and the flower bud , and death of seedlings. the observation and analysis of reproductive structures of the fungus in media culture and in host tissue, as well as taxon-specific pcr allowed the identification of the fungus as belonging to colletotrichum gloeosporioides specie. this was the first report of anthracnose caused by c. gloeosporioides in safflower in parana state.
Leaf Area Prediction Model for Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
Necdet Camas,Ali Kemal Ayan,Enver Esendal
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In the present study, it was aimed to develop a leaf area prediction model for safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications in the 2004 growing season in the Middle Black Sea Region conditions of Turkey. Three safflower cultivars (5-154, Din er and Yenice) were grown at five locations (Bafra, Ladik, Suluova, Gumuohacikoy and Osmancik). Totally, 9604 leaves for five different times were measured in the experiment. Leaf width, length and leaf area were measured. The actual leaf area of the plant was measured by PLACOM Digital Planimeter and Multiple regression analysis with Excel 7.0 was performed. The leaf area model developed was LA= (3.88) - (3.14 x W) + (0.76 x W2) + (0.73 x W x L) + [0.009 (W x L2)] - [0.004 (W2 x L2)]. LA is leaf area, L is leaf length, W is leaf width. R2 value (0.95) and standard errors were found to be significant at the p<0.001 level.
Seed protein variability in safflower
Obreht Dragana R.,Vapa Ljiljana B.,Ki? Sándor A.,Takács Mária-Hajos
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Prirodne Nauke , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/zmspn0201029o
Abstract: Total seed proteins in two safflower species (Carthamus tinctorius L. and C. lanatus L) have been separated by the SDS-PAGE method. Their molecular masses ranged from 120 to 20 kDa. All C. tinctorius genotypes under study exhibited identical electrophoretic patterns which differed from the pattern exhibited by the wild species C. lanatus in the number and position of protein bands. Differences in protein profiles occurred in regions around 60 kDa, from 43 to 36 kDa and around 30 kDa. Statistically significant differences in seed protein content were found among safflower genotypes from different countries as well as among genotypes from the same country but from different sites. The highest seed protein content was found in a genotype originating from the USA.
Genetic analysis of F2 and transgressive segregants for seed yield in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
D.Shivani, Ch. Sreelakshmi and C.V. Sameer Kumar
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2011,
Abstract: The wide range of F2 variability for seed yield, number of capitula per plant and number of seeds per capitulum in 24 crosses ofline x tester set indicated potential of the crosses to throw large number of variable segregants. Maximum number of positivetransgressive segregants was found in TSF-1 x SFS 9920, TSF-1 x SSF 658, TSF-2 x ASD-07-10, Sagarmutyalu x SFS 9920andManjira x SSF 698 crosses. F1 per se performance, relative heterosis, D2 and GCA effects of parents were found to be goodindicators for predicting the phenotypic variance and genetic advance for seed yield in F2. Average GCA effects of parents hadmoderate degree of influence on the mean of 10% top yielding plants in F2.
Heterosis and inbreeding depression for yield and yield components in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
D.Shivani, Ch. Sreelakshmi and C.V. Sameer Kumar
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding , 2010,
Abstract: The results of the experiment on the magnitude of heterosis and inbreeding depression in 38 genotypes (15 F1s, their 15 F2s and 8 parents) foryield and its attributes revealed highly significant variations for all the genotypes and for all the characters studied. Two hybrids for earlinessand four hybrids for short stature exhibited significant negative standard heterosis, while four hybrids for number of capitula per plant, sevenhybrids for number of seeds per capitulum, five hybrids for test weight and three hybrids for seed yield exhibited significant positive standardheterosis. There was positive inbreeding depression in F2 generation for all the characters in majority of the hybrids. There was non significantheterosis and inbreeding depression for oil content in F1 and F2 generations respectively.
Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Safflower Lines Based on Tolerance and Sensitivity Indices to Water Stress
Kh. Abolhasani,G. Saeidi
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2006,
Abstract: This experiment was conducted to evaluate drought tolerance of selected lines from local populations of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology in 2002. In this study, the 12 selected safflower lines from different local populations along with two exotic cultivars and a local population were evaluated at two different irrigation regimes, using a randomized complete block design with three replications. The first and second irrigation regimes were based upon the depletion of 50% and 85% of soil moisture content, respectively. The results showed that there were significant differences (p<0.01) among the genotypes for seed yield in both irrigation regimes. Also, the interaction between genotypes and irrigation regimes was significant (p<0.05). Based upon the genotype by environmental interaction analysis (method of Sneller and Dombek), the genotype H27 had the highest tolerance to drought stress, and its seed yield in the first and second irrigation regimes was 3353 and 3072 kg/ha, respectively. The growing variety in Isfahan province (Koseh population) was the most sensitive genotype to the drought stress and had a seed yield of 3525 and 2394 kg/ha in the above irrigation regimes, respectively. The assessment of different water stress indices (SSI, STI, TOL, GMP and MP) revealed that STI seems to be the most suitable index for recognizing the more tolerant genotypes to drought conditions and based on this index, E2428 was the most tolerant genotype, and the exotic cultivar of Ac-Sunset (from Canada) was the most sensitive one. The seed yield for genotype E2428 was 4174 and 3458 kg/ha, and for the genotype Ac-Sunset was 2004 and 1438 kg/ha in the first and second irrigation regimes, respectively.
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