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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 219864 matches for " Sadie C. Slater "
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An In Vitro Model of the Glomerular Capillary Wall Using Electrospun Collagen Nanofibres in a Bioartificial Composite Basement Membrane
Sadie C. Slater, Vince Beachley, Thomas Hayes, Daming Zhang, Gavin I. Welsh, Moin A. Saleem, Peter W. Mathieson, Xuejun Wen, Bo Su, Simon C. Satchell
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020802
Abstract: The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC) and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.
Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure
Sadie B. Barr,Jonathan C. Wright
Food & Nutrition Research , 2010, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v54i0.5144
Abstract: Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%), carbohydrate (40–50%), and fat (33–39%) composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12) and men (n=5) studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy). Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.
Goodbye to a Good Friend: An Exploration of the Re-Homing of Cats and Dogs in the U.S.  [PDF]
Emily Weiss, Shannon Gramann, C. Victor Spain, Margaret Slater
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2015.54046
Abstract: When dogs and cats are not retained in a home, they are re-homed to somewhere, and while there is a collection of research around relinquishment to shelters, little is known about the general re-homing picture. A cross sectional random digit dial survey was conducted with an aim to learn more about who is re-homing, where they are re-homing and why they are re-homing owned dogs and cats in the US. We found the prevalence of re-homing in five years at 6% making for an estimated 6.12 million household re-homing pets every five years. Pets were most likely to be re-homed by being given to a friend or family member (37%) closely followed by being taken to a shelter. Those who re-homed due to a reason related to the pet as opposed to reasons such as family issues were more likely to re-home to a shelter. For respondents who rented, housing reasons were the number one reason for re-homing, and for respondents of lower income, they were significantly more likely to re-home due to cost and housing issues as opposed to pet related issues. We conclude that some reasons for re-homing are not easily modified and humane re-homing is the best option, but that there are many areas in which intervention and prevention programs may increase retention.
Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Are Characterized by Loss of Noxa Expression that Can be Recovered by the Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib  [PDF]
E. P. Slater, J. Waldmann, C. López, E. Matth?i, V. Fendrich, D. K. Bartsch
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.410A004
Abstract:

Prognosis in well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas varies considerably and therapeutic targets for metastatic disease are urgently needed. cDNA microarray studies in our laboratory revealed a significantly lower expression level of the Noxa-gene in human pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) as compared to normal islet cells. To determine the validity of the downregulation of Noxa in PNENs, benign and malignant tumors from both sporadic and MEN1 patients were selected for expression analysis. To further verify the findings, neuroendocrine BON1 and QGP cell lines were tested for Noxa expression and its recovery by treatment with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. The expression of Noxa was significantly downregulated in 20 PNENs (p = 0.0036). There was no significant difference between MEN1 and sporadic tumors. However, the malignant tumors showed a more significant decrease as compared to benign tumors (p = 0.0385) and the decrease in expression in tumors greater than 20 mm was very highly significant (p < 0.0001). Neither the BON1 nor QGP1 cell lines displayed expression of Noxa protein in the absence of the proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib. After stimulation with the drug for 16 h, the expression was induced in both cell lines that are correlated with an increase in the level of c-MYC expression, cleaved caspase 3 and cell death. The low expression level of Noxa in PNENs contributes to the inability of these tumor entities to undergo apoptosis. The recovery of Noxa expression following treatment with the

Brain selective transgene expression in zebrafish using an NRSE derived motif
Sadie A. Bergeron,Markus C. Hannan,Kandice Fero,Grace H. Li,Tohei Yokogawa,Harold A. Burgess
Frontiers in Neural Circuits , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2012.00110
Abstract: Transgenic technologies enable the manipulation and observation of circuits controlling behavior by permitting expression of genetically encoded reporter genes in neurons. Frequently though, neuronal expression is accompanied by transgene expression in non-neuronal tissues, which may preclude key experimental manipulations, including assessment of the contribution of neurons to behavior by ablation. To better restrict transgene expression to the nervous system in zebrafish larvae, we have used DNA sequences derived from the neuron-restrictive silencing element (NRSE). We find that one such sequence, REx2, when used in conjunction with several basal promoters, robustly suppresses transgene expression in non-neuronal tissues. Both in transient transgenic experiments and in stable enhancer trap lines, suppression is achieved without compromising expression within the nervous system. Furthermore, in REx2 enhancer trap lines non-neuronal expression can be de-repressed by knocking down expression of the NRSE binding protein RE1-silencing transcription factor (Rest). In one line, we show that the resulting pattern of reporter gene expression coincides with that of the adjacent endogenous gene, hapln3. We demonstrate that three common basal promoters are susceptible to the effects of the REx2 element, suggesting that this method may be useful for confining expression from many other promoters to the nervous system. This technique enables neural specific targeting of reporter genes and thus will facilitate the use of transgenic methods to manipulate circuit function in freely behaving larvae.
LoCoH: Nonparameteric Kernel Methods for Constructing Home Ranges and Utilization Distributions
Wayne M. Getz, Scott Fortmann-Roe, Paul C. Cross, Andrew J. Lyons, Sadie J. Ryan, Christopher C. Wilmers
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000207
Abstract: Parametric kernel methods currently dominate the literature regarding the construction of animal home ranges (HRs) and utilization distributions (UDs). These methods frequently fail to capture the kinds of hard boundaries common to many natural systems. Recently a local convex hull (LoCoH) nonparametric kernel method, which generalizes the minimum convex polygon (MCP) method, was shown to be more appropriate than parametric kernel methods for constructing HRs and UDs, because of its ability to identify hard boundaries (e.g., rivers, cliff edges) and convergence to the true distribution as sample size increases. Here we extend the LoCoH in two ways: “fixed sphere-of-influence,” or r-LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a fixed radius r of each reference point), and an “adaptive sphere-of-influence,” or a-LoCoH (kernels constructed from all points within a radius a such that the distances of all points within the radius to the reference point sum to a value less than or equal to a), and compare them to the original “fixed-number-of-points,” or k-LoCoH (all kernels constructed from k-1 nearest neighbors of root points). We also compare these nonparametric LoCoH to parametric kernel methods using manufactured data and data collected from GPS collars on African buffalo in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Our results demonstrate that LoCoH methods are superior to parametric kernel methods in estimating areas used by animals, excluding unused areas (holes) and, generally, in constructing UDs and HRs arising from the movement of animals influenced by hard boundaries and irregular structures (e.g., rocky outcrops). We also demonstrate that a-LoCoH is generally superior to k- and r-LoCoH (with software for all three methods available at http://locoh.cnr.berkeley.edu).
SENSOR SYSTEM FOR DETECTION OF HARMFUL ENVIRONMENTS FOR PIPE ORGANS (SENSORGAN)
C.J. Bergsten,M. Odlyha,S. Jakiela,J. Slater
E-Preservation Science , 2010,
Abstract: The European heritage of the organ is preser ved innumerous historical instruments. A major threat to thisheritage are har mful indoor environments. Organicacids, also in combination with condensation phenomena,create pipe cor rosion causing serious damage to thepipes. Harmful humidity conditions can create cracks inthe wooden par ts of the organ, making the instrumentunplayable.The EC funded SENSORGAN project (contract 022695)objectives were to make available new instrumentationfor monitoring and detection of harmful environmentsfor or gans through development of sensors for real timemeasurement. The system contains three different sensorsto detect: (i) levels of organic acids harmful toorgan pipes, (ii) envir onments damaging to woodenparts of organs, (iii) possible dew for mation insideorgan pipes.The sensors were designed in order to be placed in theorgan without disturbing playing or affecting the sound.The sensors were applied in the historical organ in theMinor Basilica of St. Andrew the Apostle, Olkusz, Poland.Data collected from the sensors was analysed and conclusionswere drawn for publications and mitigation strategies.
Effectiveness of an Applied Microbiology Course Specifically Designed for Chemical Engineering Majors
Gregory B. Hecht,Patricia Mosto,C. Stewart Slater
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education , 2003, DOI: 10.1128/jmbe.v4i1.69
Abstract: In recent years, the disciplines of microbiology and chemical engineering have developed an increasing convergence. To meet the needs of their future employers, today’s chemical engineering students must receive some background in microbiology. This report describes the development and content of “Biological Systems and Applications,” a novel course specifically designed to provide basic biology and applied microbiology knowledge, skills, and experience to sophomore chemical engineering majors. Data collected from entrance and exit surveys of the students demonstrated that the course is successful. The importance of the “project-base” learning technique and of interdisciplinary faculty-student and faculty-faculty collaborations are proposed as elements essential to the success of this particular course.
Modelling Co-Infection with Malaria and Lymphatic Filariasis
Hannah C. Slater,Manoj Gambhir ?,Paul E. Parham ?,Edwin Michael ?
PLOS Computational Biology , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003096
Abstract: Malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) continue to cause a considerable public health burden globally and are co-endemic in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. These infections are transmitted by the same mosquito species which raises important questions about optimal vector control strategies in co-endemic regions, as well as the effect of the presence of each infection on endemicity of the other; there is currently little consensus on the latter. The need for comprehensive modelling studies to address such questions is therefore significant, yet very few have been undertaken to date despite the recognised explanatory power of reliable dynamic mathematical models. Here, we develop a malaria-LF co-infection modelling framework that accounts for two key interactions between these infections, namely the increase in vector mortality as LF mosquito prevalence increases and the antagonistic Th1/Th2 immune response that occurs in co-infected hosts. We consider the crucial interplay between these interactions on the resulting endemic prevalence when introducing each infection in regions where the other is already endemic (e.g. due to regional environmental change), and the associated timescale for such changes, as well as effects on the basic reproduction number R0 of each disease. We also highlight potential perverse effects of vector controls on human infection prevalence in co-endemic regions, noting that understanding such effects is critical in designing optimal integrated control programmes. Hence, as well as highlighting where better data are required to more reliably address such questions, we provide an important framework that will form the basis of future scenario analysis tools used to plan and inform policy decisions on intervention measures in different transmission settings.
Multidrug Resistant Epididymitis Progressing to Testicular Infarct and Orchiectomy
Nicholas J. Farber,Rick C. Slater,Jodi K. Maranchie
Case Reports in Urology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/645787
Abstract: Global testicular infarction is a rare sequela of infectious epididymitis, with few reports in the urologic literature since the introduction of fluoroquinolones in the late 1980s. Ischemia occurs secondary to inflammation and edema of the spermatic cord with compression of arterial flow. We report a case of multidrug resistant epididymitis following prostate biopsy that progressed to global testicular infarction requiring orchiectomy. This case highlights the fact that epididymitis does not always follow an indolent pathway to resolution. Progression of pain should prompt early imaging and intervention. It further highlights the potential urologic consequences of the rising prevalence of multidrug resistant bowel flora in the United States, which will increasingly influence the management of presumed uncomplicated epididymitis, whether being primary or postprocedural. 1. Introduction Bacterial epididymitis is one of the most common causes of scrotal pain in the United States [1]. Acute epididymitis typically presents with symptoms of epididymal swelling, induration, and exquisite tenderness to palpation and may also be accompanied by fever, chills, or dysuria [1]. History and physical examination alone are diagnostic but can be confirmed with positive urine culture and urinalysis findings of positive leukocyte esterase, presence of white blood cells, or by scrotal ultrasound. The most common pathogens responsible for epididymo-orchitis vary with patient age [1]. Men younger than 35 are more commonly infected with sexually acquired organisms, including C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae. Men over 35 typically demonstrate infection with enteric Gram-negative rods. Recent instrumentation with cystoscopy or transrectal ultrasound- (TRUS-) guided prostate biopsy also increases the likelihood of infection with Gram-negative rods [2]. Recently, multiple studies have shown an increasing prevalence of infection with fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of E. coli following TRUS-guided prostate biopsy, which can lead to potentially devastating complications due to ineffective treatment of epididymitis [3, 4]. Untreated epididymitis may progress to involve the testis, spermatic cord, or prostate. One of the most catastrophic complications is testicular infarction, which is thought to occur due to inflammation and edema resulting in compression of the testicular vein, artery, and lymphatics [5, 6]. 2. Case Presentation A 58-year-old male with a past medical history of diabetes mellitus presented with PSA of 7.8 and normal digital rectal examination. After counseling,
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