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The Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Gliocladium Fungi on the Yield of Small Green Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Grown by Sustainable Agriculture  [PDF]
Mohammed Zahidul Islam, Sadanobu Katoh
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.811094
Abstract: The potential vulnerability of the conventional agricultural systems has been become increasingly alarmed for agricultural scientists, government officials, environmentalists, farmers (both urban and rural laymen). Agricultural soils are often subject to loss of carbon, toxicity and hazard of agrochemicals, nutrient run-off, excessive erosion, and consequently a decline in soil fertility. The purpose of this study is to present new perspectives and strategies for efficient and effective use of natural resources (wood and bamboo wastes, weeds, and fungi) to enhance sustainable systems of agriculture. A next generation agriculture by using wood and bamboo wastes with the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and gliocladium fungi (GF) was investigated to establish high productivity of small green pepper (SGP, Capsicum annuum). Wood and bamboo wastes as carbon sources, cut weeds as organic sources, and a minor amount of AMF, and GF were applied separately and conjointly in the four experimental plots to evaluate the effects of wood and bamboo wastes (high C:N ratio), weeds, and fungi on the production of SGP. The combination of carbon, organic, and fungal sources at T1 (wood wastes + bamboo wastes + cut weeds + AMF + GF) obtained high productivity of SGP. The yield was 400 times higher than control (untreated). Another notable significant result is that all the treatments contained a very small amount of nitrate compared to conventional practice. This study suggests that combination of carbon (wood, and bamboo wastes), organic (cut weeds), and fungal sources (AMF, and GF) has a potential to be innovative agricultural materials for the next generation sustainable agriculture.
Duodenal Carcinoma from a Duodenal Diverticulum Mimicking Pancreatic Carcinoma
Acta Medica Okayama , 2012,
Abstract: An 81-year-old man was found to have a pancreatic head tumor on abdominal computed tomography (CT) performed during a follow-up visit for sigmoid colon cancer. The tumor had a diameter of 35mm on the CT scan and was diagnosed as pancreatic head carcinoma T3N0M0. The patient was treated with pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. Histopathological examination showed that the tumor had grown within a hollow structure, was contiguous with a duodenal diverticulum, and had partially invaded the pancreas. Immunohistochemistry results were as follows:CK7 negative, CK20 positive, CD10 negative, CDX2 positive, MUC1 negative, MUC2 positive, MUC5AC negative, and MUC6 negative. The tumor was diagnosed as duodenal carcinoma from the duodenal diverticulum. Preoperative imaging showed that the tumor was located in the head of the pancreas and was compressing the common bile duct, thus making it appear like pancreatic cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of a case of duodenal carcinoma from a duodenal diverticulum mimicking pancreatic carcinoma.
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