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Quinoline Alkaloids in Suspension Cultures of Cinchona ledgeriana Treated with Various Substances
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2010,
Abstract: Cinchona alkaloids are in extensive uses, not only for drugs but also for soft drink industries. They are harvested from the bark of trees Cinchona spp. after certain ages and therefore are available over a limited time. Cell culture is an alternative way to continuously produce such secondary metabolites in a much shorter time. Various substances were added in the normal growth media to promote quinoline alkaloids production by cell cultures of Cinchona ledgeriana. At the sixth week of culture, quinine and cinchonine contents were suppressed by paclobutrazol (PBZ), abscisic acid (ABA), or even by precursor tryptophan, while cinchonidine content was enhanced by 0.2 mg/l tryptophan to 43 fold of that produced by untreated cells (2.8% dry weight). At the seventh week of culture, the production of quinine and quinidine started to grow whereas the production of cinchonine and cinchonidine tended to decrease. An addition of 5 mg/l PBZ to culture media yielded the highest level of total quinine/quinidine after seven weeks, e.g. quinine 11 times more abundant and quinidine 23 fold higher compared to the untreated cells. Particularly the level of quinine which is the most demanded for medical and industrial purposes still need to be improved to approach to or even higher than that of extracted from the conventional source.
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 2010,
Abstract: Three proteins were isolated from plant parts of Trichosanthes cucumerina L. var anguina (L.) Haines, they were TF2 from fruit, TS3 from seed and TR3 from root with molecular masses (Mr) approximately 16 - 64 kDa on SDS-PAGE characterization. The proteins were extracted with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS), then they were precipitated using 80% saturated ammonium sulphate continued with the dialysis using cellophane. The dialysate was fractionated through gel filtration chromatography. The highest yield of protein was 1.109% from the seed (TS3), then 0.356% from the root (TR3), while the lowest was 0.014% from the fruit (TF2). The Lethal Concentration 50 (LC ) of proteins on brine shrimp lethality test was 50within range of 19 μg/ml - 25 μg/ml. The cytotoxicity test of the TR3 and TS3 proteins on cancer cell lines indicated that both of the proteins could inhibit proliferation of HeLa and K-562 cells with IC up to 45 μg/ml. It is recommended to conduct further researches on 50Trichosanthes plant as a herbal medicine to treat cancer.
Geostatistical Approach for Site Suitability Mapping of Degraded Mangrove Forest in the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia  [PDF]
Ali Suhardiman, Satoshi Tsuyuki, Muhammad Sumaryono, Yohanes Budi Sulistioadi
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.55040
Abstract: As part of operational guidance of mangrove forest rehabilitation in the Mahakam delta, Indonesia, site suitability mapping for 14 species of mangrove was modelled by combining 4 underlying factorsclay, sand, salinity and tidal inundation. Semivariogram analysis and a geographic information system (GIS) were used to apply a site-suitability model, while kriging interpolation generated surface layers, based on sample point data collection. The tidal inundation map was derived from a tide table and a digital elevation model from topographic maps. The final site-suitability maps were produced using spatial analysis technique, by overlaying all surface layers. We used a Gaussian model to adjust a semivariogram graph in order to help to understand the variation of sample data values, and create a natural surface layer of data distribution over the area of study. By examining the statistical value and the visual inspection of surface layers, we saw that the models were consistent with the expected data behavior; therefore, we assumed that interpolation has been carried out appropriately. Our site-suitability map showed that Avicennia species was the most suitable species and matched with 50% of the study area, followed by Nypa fruticans, which occupied about 42%. These results were actually consistent with the mangrove zoning pattern in the region prior to deforestation and conversion.


Effect of Carbohydrate Source on Growth and Performance of In Vitro Sago Palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) Plantlets
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2012,
Abstract: Sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.), grown mostly in the tropics, is one of the most productive carbohydrateproducing crops. However, it is still underutilized. Tissue culture of sago through somatic embryogenesis has been developed. The plantlets derived from somatic embryos, however, are usually weak with few leaves and roots and have low survival rates during acclimatization. Carbohydrate is commonly added into culture medium as an energy source and an osmotic agent. Research was conducted to determine a suitable carbohydrate for plantlets growth in order to produce vigorous plantlets of sago. The basal medium used was a modified MS medium with a half-strength of salts. Different types of carbohydrate (sucrose, maltose, glucose, and fructose) at various concentrations (30, 45, and 60 g/l) were added into the medium. A single 2 cm plantlet derived from somatic embryo was cultured on a culture tube. Each treatment consisted of 15 plantlets. The cultures were incubated in a culture room with light intensity at 20 μmol/m2/s and temperature at 26 oC. The results show that different types and concentrations of carbohydrate influenced the growth of sago plantlets significantly, but there was no interaction between the two factors. Sucrose was better than other types of carbohydrate, and the concentration of 30 g/l was better than concentrations of 45 or 60 g/l for the growth and vigor of sago plantlets. Medium with a sucrose level at 30 g/l gave the best performance of sago plantlets based on plantlet height, leaf number, biomass fresh weight, stem diameter, and rooting percentage.
Adaptation of Oil Palm Seedlings Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Mycorrhizal Endosymbiotic Bacteria Bacillus subtilis B10 towards Biotic Stress of Pathogen Ganoderma boninense Pat
Microbiology Indonesia , 2012, DOI: 10.5454/mi.6.4.3
Abstract: The effects of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria Bacillus subtilis B10 and composite of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores in green house experiment were examined in order to evaluate their effectiveness and compatibility with oil palm seedlings in the presence of a fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense, the most serious pathogen in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) in Indonesia. A three factors experiment were conducted, with mycorrhizal inoculation (M0 and M1), bacterial B. subtilis B10 inoculation (B0 and B1), and G. boninense inoculation (G0 and G1) as the first, second, and third factors, respectively. The results showed that disease severity index, plant height, root dry-weight, and phosphorus uptake were affected by co-inoculation of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria B. subtilis B10 and composite of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria B. subtilis B10 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi did not only reduce the percentage of basal stem rot incidence, but also significantly increased plant height and phosphorus uptake by oil palm seedlings. Our results suggest that in oil palm seedlings mycorrhizal endosymbiotic bacteria B. subtilis B10 worked synergistically with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in increasing plant adaptation toward biotic stress of pathogen G. boninese and could be promising biocontrol agents.
Selection of Carbon and Nitrogen Source for 8-Hydroxy 9, 12-Octadecadienoic Acid Production using Endophytic Fungi Curvularia lunata BioMCC FE-00283
Microbiology Indonesia , 2011, DOI: 10.5454/mi.5.4.6
Abstract: Hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) is one of hydroxy fatty acids that has anticancer activity. HODE was previously produced by chemical synthesis or bioconversion from linoleic acid. This is the first paper reported production of HODE by Curvularia lunata an endophytic fungi of Cibotium barometz. Various carbon and hydrogen sources have been tested for their effects on the production of HODE by C. lunata. Glucose, lactose, maltose, xylose, and sucrose were used as carbon sources, while yeast extract, monosodium glutamate, urea, and NH4Cl were used as nitrogen sources. Fermentation was done using 100 ml medium in 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask at 150 rpm, 28 oC for 10 days. HODE products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography using C18 coloumn and eluted by gradient system of acetonitril-water from 15% to 100%. Glucose and monosodium glutamate were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen source. The optimum concentration of glucose and monosodium glutamate for the production of HODE were 10 mg L-1 and 12 mg L-1 respectively.
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