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The Effects of T-2 Toxin on Preimplantion Embryos and Fetuses of Swiss Webster Mice
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2007,
Abstract: T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw) and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01) compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01), the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.
Methoxyacetic Acid Induced Apoptosis on the Forelimb Bud of Swiss Webster Mice
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Methoxyacetic acid (MAA) causes digit malformations of mice when it was given orally on gestation day 11. Previous observation showed that malformation was caused by cell death. The aims of the research were to determine the types of cell death, first time of cell death and their distribution pattern on forelimb bud of Swiss Webster (SW) mice. Ten mM/kg of body weight (bw) of MAA were administered by gavage to SW mice on gestation day 11. Forelimb bud of mouse embryos of gestation day 11 + 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 hours were processed with paraffin method and were made plantar section. Cell death at plantar section were colored with 4,6-diamino-2-phenylindole hydrochloride (DAPI) and hematoxylin. The result showed, that digit malformations initially by apoptosis mesenchymal cell at proximal of axial mesoderm in around of primary axial artery has done one hour after treatment. Apoptosis at the axial area, the site formation of digital ray III distributed to preaxial area where digits I and II are formed, and to the site formation of digits IV and V. The number of mesenchyme cell of digital rays II, III, and V was decrease by the increasing of gestation day, while digital ray was not formed and finally digits I, II, III, and V were missing. The reduction number of cell of digital ray IV were delayed time to be formed and its small size. Thereby it can be concluded, that MAA induced digit malformations of SW mice started by apoptosis which is occurrence has been increase in area of digital ray formation, so that digital ray can not be formed, but when formed it will not developed.
Critical Pertussis in a Young Infant Requiring Mechanical Ventilation
Heda Melinda Nataprawira,Dadang Hudaya Somasetia,Sri Sudarwati,Minerva Kadir,Nanan Sekarwana
Case Reports in Emergency Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/125043
Abstract: Pertussis may likely be misdiagnosed in its initial or catarrhal phase as a common respiratory infection. The earlier diagnosis of pertussis really depends on the capability of the medical professional especially in the first line public health services. The lack of awareness in diagnosis of severe pertussis as one of the causes of severe respiratory problems may likely misdiagnose pertussis as respiratory failure or even septic shock. In fact, pertussis may manifest as a critical pertussis which can be fatal due to the respiratory failure that require pediatric intensive care unit using mechanical ventilation. We reported a confirmed pertussis case of a 7-weeks-old female infant referred to our tertiary hospital with gasping leading to respiratory failure and septic shock requiring mechanical ventilation, aggressive fluid therapy, and antibiotics. Pertussis was diagnosed late during the course of illness when the patient was hospitalized. Improvement was noted after administering macrolide which gave a good response. Bordetella pertussis isolation from Bordet-Gengou media culture yielded positive result. 1. Introduction Pertussis can affect infant, children, and adolescence, but mostly children younger than 10 years [1]. In 2004, 35 percent cases occurred in the 10–14 year age group and only 18 percent cases in infants which reported an increase in infants group in 2005 [2]. Manifestation in infants is usually catastrophic. Severe pertussis leads to critical pertussis may manifest fatal for infants under three months of life because the symptoms may present themselves as other causes of illness such as sepsis, very severe pneumonia, and encephalopathy, which may result in respiratory and cardiovascular disturbances [3]. In reality, infection due to Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) can mimic other respiratory pathogens infection such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and Chlamydia pneumonia, so it is nearly impossible to distinguish them without microbiological confirmation [4]. This happens due to the nonspecific symptoms in early catarrhal phase and/or doctor’s unawareness of pertussis diagnosis. It was reported that all pertussis cases that were diagnosed in Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2008–2010 were first diagnosed as severe bacterial pneumonia [5]. A child with severe probable pertussis may require care in the intensive care unit when apnea, very severe pneumonia, or respiratory failure along with circulation disturbance occurs. In the United States, the morbidity
Degradation of Primate Habitat at Tesso Nilo Forest with Special Emphasis on Riau Pale-Thighed Surili (Presbytis siamensis cana)  [PDF]
Jatna Supriatna, Sri Mariati
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512112
Abstract: The habitat of Riau pale-thighed surili (Presbytis siamensis cana) located in Riau province of Sumatra island between Siak in the north and Indragiri rivers in the south, has been seriously degraded in the last a few decades. This swampy peat land forest has been degraded by frequent burning during the dry season. These problems originated because of poor governance on the forest management, and the construction of two access roads by the owners of logging concessions and wood pulp plantations. This forest block consists of Tesso Nilo National Park, Kerumutan protected area, Production Forest areas belong to two companies, and a small recreation Park. It also contains one of the most important mixed peat swamp forests. Here, we tracked changes in forest cover before and after road construction using GIS and remote sensing imagery. Deforestation rates have increased from 1.5% per year before road construction to 9.28% per year after road construction, which means that the area of forest has decreased by an annual average of 8156 ha in Tesso Nillo alone. The habitat of Riau pale-thighed surili decreased almost up to 60% in the last decade after companies started their converting forest for oil palm and acacia and roads were built crisscrossed. If the trend of deforestation continues, further decline of population of habitat of this species is unavoided. Researches should be carried out in more details to understand the status of population of this subspecies before this subspecies disappears in the wild.
Monolayers Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Synthetic Artificial Mimic Molecules That Resemble the Following Tetraether Lipids on Silicon Wafers  [PDF]
Sri Vidawati, Ulrich Rothe
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2015.54015
Abstract: This study investigated the behavior and molecular organization of synthetic artificial mimic molecules that resemble the following tetraether lipids: di-O-hexadecyl-glycero-3-phosphatidyl-glycerol (DHGPG) and bis-4-dodecylphenyl-12-phosphate. These molecules were analyzed using Langmuir film balance, ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett films of DHGPG and bis-4-dodecylphenyl-12-phosphate were stable on the solid surface silicon wafers. The ellipsometry and AFM results showed that monolayers Langmuir-Blodgett films of DHGPG and bis-4-dodecylphenyl-12-phosphate were present, and the thickness of the observed films varied from 1.2 - 5.0 nm.
An Attitude and Character Instructional Development Based on Curriculum 2013 in Elementary School  [PDF]
Badeni Muhamad, Sri Saparahayuningsih
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.72025
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to identify the weaknesses of the instructional model of attitude and character in the 2013 elementary school curriculum and to develop a conceptual model of attitude and character instruction being able to instill the attitudes and characters contained in the content of social studies subject of elementary schools in the curriculum of 2013. The results of this study showed that 1) scientific learning approach was only able to develop scientific attitudes of students, while sorts of other attitudes were very less embedded into the students’ self. 2) The application of the integrated scientific instructional model was able to instill the values of attitudes and characters contained in the content of social studies to the student.
Activity of Oligoresveratrols from Stem Bark of Hopea mengarawan (Dipterocarpaceae) as Hydroxyl Radical Scavenger
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2006,
Abstract: Four oligoresveratrols ranging from dimer to tetramer, isolated from stem bark of Hopea mengarawan (Dipterocarpaceae) plants were tested for their activity as hydroxyl radical scavenger. The activity of these compounds was evaluated against the 2-deoxyribose degradation induced by the hydroxyl radical generated via a Fenton-type reaction. Result showed that balanocarpol, heimiol A, vaticanol G, and vaticanol B had IC50 3.83; 15.44; 2.01; and 4.71 μM, respectively. These results suggest that oligoresveratrols from stem bark of H. mengarawan maybe useful as potential sources of natural antioxidants.
Physical Interactions between Yeast Pichia guilliermondii and Post-Harvest Fruit Pathogen Penicillium expansum
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2008,
Abstract: Attachment of yeast cells or bacteria on fungal hyphae have been observed in various antagonisms between microorganisms. Physical interactions between yeast Pichia guilliermondii and postharvest fruit pathogen Penicillium expansum in culture were studied in detail using light and transmission electron microscope to give better understanding on their mode of antagonism. Both organisms were co-cultured for 24-hr on potato dextrose agar. Light microscopy observations on the co-culture showed that the yeast cells attached firmly on the fungal hyphae. This attachment was inhibited by several substances such as enzymes degrading protein (protease or trypsin), a respiration inhibitor (sodium azide), an acid (hydrochloric acid) or an alkali (sodium hydroxide). Although autoclaved hyphae did not affect the attachment, but boiled enzymes and autoclaved yeast cells totally abolished the attachment. These evidences suggested that the attachment might be an active process mediated by certain protein from live yeast cells. Transmission electron micrographs on the ultrastructure of the co-culture revealed that the hyphae showed abnormalities in their structure and organelles, and a degree of obvious damage. Physical interactions observed in this study could be contributed to the mechanism of antagonism between P. guilliermondii and P. expansum.
Perilaku Wirausaha Industri Keramik Berskala Kecil untuk Meningkatkan Daya Saing Produk di Malang
Sri Hadiati
Jurnal Manajemen dan Kewirausahaan , 2008,
Abstract: The purposes of the study was to find out the explanation of ceramic entrepreneurs’ respond to the environment factors affecting competitiveness of small scale ceramic industries (SSCIs). The environment factors are internal and external then form a strategy. The research was carried out in Malang using a survey and case study. Data were collected using questionnaire and in-depth interview from 107 SSCIs that was chosen randomly chosen from 180 registered SSCIs. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with AMOS software was used to analyze data. The research results showed that environment factors were both directly and indirectly affecting SSCI’s competitiveness through strategy. In order to increase competitiveness then SSCIs need to empower the existing producers’ association in some aspects such as provision of raw material, pricing the products, and marketing. Training, education, and research need to be developed and improved by local government and higher education institutions. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari penjelasan tentang perilaku wirausaha keramik terhadap faktor-faktor lingkungan yang mempengaruhi daya saing industri keramik berskala kecil di Malang. Secara spesifik penelitian ini bertujuan mempelajari pengaruh faktor internal dan eksternal terhadap strategi dan daya saing serta pengaruh strategi terhadap daya saing industri keramik berskala kecil di Malang. Faktor-faktor lingkungan tersebut dapat dikelompokkan kedalam faktor internal dan eksternal perusahaan. Penelitian diambil dari 107 industri keramik berskala kecil yang dipilih secara acak sederhana dari 180 unit usaha yang ada di Malang. Data dikumpulkan menggunakan kuesioner dan wawancara mendalam. Variabel dalam penelitian dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu, faktor lingkungan internal dan eksternal dari usaha kecil, strategi dan daya saing industri keramik berskala kecil. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) dari paket software statistik AMOS. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa faktor-faktor lingkungan tersebut mempengaruhi baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung terhadap strategi daya saing diindustri keramik berskala kecil. Untuk meningkatkan daya saing industri keramik berskala kecil dibutuhkan usaha dari asosiasi produsen atau industri tersebut dalam beberapa aspek seperti ketetapan bahan baku, menetapkan harga produk, dan pemasaran. Pelatihan, pendidikan, dan riset perlu untuk dikembangkan dan ditingkatkan oleh pemerintah lokal dan institusi pendidikan lebih tinggi. Kata kunci: Industri keramik bers
Populasi Bakteri Rhizobium di Tanah pada beberapa Tanaman dari Pulau Buton, Kabupaten Muna, Propinsi Sulawesi Tenggara
Sri Purwaningsih
Jurnal Tanah Tropika , 2009,
Abstract: The research was conducted in order to know population of Rhizobium bacteria in the soil at several plant from Buton island, Muna regency, Southeast Sulawesi. The purpose of the study was to get the population data and pure cultures of Rhizobium bacteria. Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from 13 sample from rhizosphere of fruit plant, 14 sample soil from rhizosphere of yield plant, 5 sample soil from rhizosphere of horticulture plant, and 8 samples soil was from forest plant. Isolation was conducted in standard medium of Yeast Extract Mannitol Agar (YEMA), the inoculation at (27-280C), and the population was counted by plate count methods. The growth characteristic of strain was observed by using YEMA medium mixed respectively with Brom Thymol Blue and Congo Red as an indicators. The population of Rhizobium bacteria was in the range of 7-115 × 105 CFU g-1 soil, and the highest population was found from the sample soil from rhizosphere with Ipomea batatas plant. Forty nine gave of pure culture, thirty five isolates can be grouped as fast growing, while fourteen can be grouped as slow growing.
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