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Extracellular Protease Activity of Enteropathogenic Escherechia coli on Mucin Substrate
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2007,
Abstract: Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) causes gastrointestinal infections in human. EPEC invasion was initiated by attachment and aggressive colonization on intestinal surface. Attachment of EPEC alter the intestine mucosal cells. Despite this, the pathogenic mechanism of EPEC infectior has not been fully understood. This research hypothesizes that extracellular proteolytic enzymes is necessary for EPEC colonization. The enzyme is secreted into gastrointestinal milieu and presumably destroy mucus layer cover the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to assay EPEC extracellular protease enzyme by using mucin substrate. The activity of EPEC extracellular proteolytic enzyme on 1% mucin substrate was investigated. Non-pathogenic E. coli was used as a negative control. Positive and tentative controls were Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella. Ten EPEC strains were assayed, seven of them were able to degrade mucin, and the highest activity was produced by K1.1 strain. Both positive and tentative controls also showed the ability to digest 0.20% mucin.
Phage FR38 Treatment on Sprague Dawley Rat Inferred from Blood Parameters and Organ Systems
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2012,
Abstract: The ability of phage FR38 to lysis indigenous Salmonella P38 from feces of diarrheal patient has been studied. However, effects of phage FR38 on organ system were not revealed as yet. This study was conducted to observe the effect of phage FR38 on blood chemistry, kidney functions, and liver functions. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were used as a model for this study that were divided into two groups; (i) control and (ii) treated group with phage FR38. For treated phage group, each rat was administered by 5 ml/kg bw of 1.59 107 pfu/ml of phage intragastric. The blood parameters were analysed on day 16. The results revealed that body and organs weight, erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte, total protein, creatinine, SGOT, and SGPT of phage treatment rats were not significantly different with the control rats on day 16 (P > 0.05). Therefore, this study showed was no effect of phage FR38 on body weight, blood chemistry, kidney and liver functions of the rat (P > 0.05).
Purification and Characterization of β-1,3-Glucanase from the Antagonistic Fungus Trichoderma reesei
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2009,
Abstract: Trichoderma enzymes that inhibit fungal cell walls have been suggested to play an important role in mycoparasitic action against fungal root rot pathogen Ganoderma philippii. This experiment was aimed to purify and characterize the β-1,3-glucanase of T. reesei. Extracellular β-1,3-glucanase was produced by growing mycoparasite T. reesei isolate T13 in colloidal chitin and sucrose as carbon sources. The enzyme was then purified to its homogeneity by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by gel filtration chromatography and chromatofocusing. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) 12% was used to confirm the purity of enzyme at each stage of preparation and to characterize purified protein. The results showed that T. reesei produced at least three extracellular β-1,3-glucanases. Estimation of molecular weight based on SDS-PAGE 12% have three isoform of β-1,3-glucanase were 90 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-I, 75 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-II, and 64 kDa for β-1,3-glucanase-III. Their optimum pH and temperature were 5 and 50 oC, respectively.
Preliminary Characterization of Protease Inhibitor from Bacteria Associated with Sponge from Panggang Island, Seribu Islands
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2006,
Abstract: Pathogenic bacteria produced protease that involved in molecular mechanism of foodborne disease. Produced protease involved in molecular mechanisms of foodborne diseases. The purpose of this research was to screen, identify and characterize the potential microorganisms associated with sponge as producer of protease inhibitor. Among 96 isolates examined, four isolates i.e 10A6, 6A3, 9A51, and 1A12 yielded protease inhibitors which were potential to inhibit protease substrates (40-90%). One of the most potential protease inhibitor producer, the bacteria isolate 6A3, was identified as Chromohalobacter sp. Chromohalobacter sp.6A3 produced protease inhibitor with optimum temperature and pH 30 oC and 5, respectively. The inhibitor activity was stable when incubated at 40 oC for ten minutes or at 30 oC for 8 hours.
The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2011,
Abstract: Growth of body size (body height and body weight) and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3%) but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%). They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.
Analysis of Rumen Microbial Population of Cattle Given Silage and Probiotics Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Microbiology Indonesia , 2009,
Abstract: Rumen ecology is an important observation in evaluating the effectivity of silage and probiotic additives relating to their roles in cattle productivity. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of silage and probiotics on ruminal ecosystems in vivo using a molecular approach. Terminal-restriction fragment-length-polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was used to detect changes of ecological communities based on 16S-ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (16S-rDNA). Two rumen canulated PO cattle were fed several diets i.e.; (R0) basal diet dry matter basis (Pennisetum purpureum 70% and commercial concentrate 30%), (R1) silage (basal diet fermented using Lactobacillus plantarum BTCC570), (R2) silage + probiotics (L. plantarium Str BTCC531), (R3) Basal diet + probiotics (L. plantarium Str BTCC531). Digesta samples were collected 3 h after feeding for pH and T-RFLP analysis. T-RFLP analysis was performed using the 16S-rDNA amplified from each sample. The lengths of the terminal restriction fragments were analysed after digestion with HhaI, HaeIII and MspI. Results showed the effectivenes of silage and probiotics, given together, on the index of Smith and Wilson evenness applied to T-RFLP ecology data (Evar) with 0.89±0.04 being the highest. The diversity of rumen microorganisms is influenced by individual differences of each animal. T-RFLP analysis has a potency to be used for comparisons of complex bacterial communities, especially to detect changes in community structure in response to different variables and to show rumen bacteria diversity in the rumen.
Association of Sexual Maturation and Body Size of Arfak Children
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences , 2012,
Abstract: Gonad maturation in pubertal girls and boys is accompanied with somatic growth spurt, changes in quantity and distribution of body fat (BF), development of secondary sex characters, and relevant physiological events. Menarche (first event of menstruation) and spermarche (first event of nocturnal sperm emission) are usually used as indicators of gonad maturation. We found that median age at menarche of Arfak girls in Manokwari, West Papua is 12.2 years, while median age at spermarche of boys is 13.6 years. A possible factor causing young age at menarche is due to adaptation to unstable environmental conditions because of high risk of mortality by malaria disease during childhood. The events of menarche and spermarche achieved one year after the peak body height (BH) velocity, and just before or at the same time with the time of maximum growth rate of body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and BF. The average BMI of Arfak girls was big at 21.9 kg/m2 at the time of their menarche. Bigger average BMI might be caused by prepubertal slowing down of BH growth compare to growth of BW whichis still increasing. Girls accumulate BF before puberty to be used as an energy reserve for the occurrence of menarche. At the time of development of secondary sexual characters girls use the fat reserve so it decline sharply after puberty. In boys, growth rate of BF was stopped at 11 years old, and then growing negatively presumably because boys use fat mass for the occurence of spemarche. BF growth rate reached the lowest point at the age 16 years old, and then increase linearly with age through adolescence until adulthood at age 23 years old.
PEMURNIAN DAN KARAKTERISASI INHIBITOR PROTEASE DARI Chromohalobacter sp. 6A3, BAKTERI YANG BERASOSIASI DENGAN SPONS Xetospongia testudinaria [Purification and Characterization of Protease Inhibitor from Chromohalobacter sp. 6A3, Bacteria-associated with Sponge Xetospongia testudinaria]
Tati Nurhayati1)*,Maggy T. Suhartono2),Lilis Nuraida2),Sri Budiarti Poerwanto3)
Jurnal Teknologi dan Industri Pangan , 2010,
Abstract: Various sponges has been reported to produce protease inhibitor which could inhibit protease activity of pathogenic bacteria. The previous research showed that bacteria-associated with sponge could produce bioactive compound similar to their host, including protease inhibitor. The purposes of this research were to purify protease inhibitor from Chromohalobacter sp. 6A3 and to study the characteristics of the protease inhibitor. The result showed that the protein can be extracted by 30 % (v/v) acetone, purified by gel filtration (Sephadex G-75) and finally, purified by anion exchanger (Sephadex A-50). The molecular weight of the purified protease inhibitor after gel filtration was estimated as 21,31 kDa and 17,05 kDa, but anion exchanger gave protein with estimated molecular weight of 21,31 kDa The optimum temperature and pH were 30 oC and 5 respectively. The protease inhibitor could resist heating at 30 oC for 10 minutes. Incubation of the inhibitor at 30 oC, pH 5, still retained its activity until 3 hours. The purified enzyme inhibitor was also still active after incubated at pH from 5 to 6 for 1 hour. The most susceptible substrate (enzyme) for the inhibitor was protease from P. aeruginosa. The protease inhibitor was inhibited by metal ions except Na+ 1mM. Activity of the inhibitor increased twofold by SDS 5 mM. IC 50 of the protease inhibitor was 3.48 nM. The protease inhibitor inhibited the enzyme uncompetitively.
Appropriate Fermentation Process for Tapioca`s Wastewater in Indonesia
Mohammad Razif,Veronika Erna Budiarti,Sarwoko Mangkoedihardjo
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Tapioca`s wastewater containing BOD of about 3000 mg L-1 was treated by means of yeast fermentation in anarobic batch scale reactors. Various dosages of the yeast ranging from 10 to 30% of effective reactor volume and wastewater concentrations in the range of 50 to 100% were investigated for different fermentation periods ranging from 3 days to 21 days. Without nutrients amendment to the diluted wastewater of 50% concentration, the yeast suspension dosage of 10% was resulted in the maximum absolute BOD removal of 40% during 14 days period. At the same conditions, increasing the yeast dosage of 30% was shown to increase the maximum absolute BOD removal up to 70% for non-diluted wastewater.
Degradation of Primate Habitat at Tesso Nilo Forest with Special Emphasis on Riau Pale-Thighed Surili (Presbytis siamensis cana)  [PDF]
Jatna Supriatna, Sri Mariati
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.512112
Abstract: The habitat of Riau pale-thighed surili (Presbytis siamensis cana) located in Riau province of Sumatra island between Siak in the north and Indragiri rivers in the south, has been seriously degraded in the last a few decades. This swampy peat land forest has been degraded by frequent burning during the dry season. These problems originated because of poor governance on the forest management, and the construction of two access roads by the owners of logging concessions and wood pulp plantations. This forest block consists of Tesso Nilo National Park, Kerumutan protected area, Production Forest areas belong to two companies, and a small recreation Park. It also contains one of the most important mixed peat swamp forests. Here, we tracked changes in forest cover before and after road construction using GIS and remote sensing imagery. Deforestation rates have increased from 1.5% per year before road construction to 9.28% per year after road construction, which means that the area of forest has decreased by an annual average of 8156 ha in Tesso Nillo alone. The habitat of Riau pale-thighed surili decreased almost up to 60% in the last decade after companies started their converting forest for oil palm and acacia and roads were built crisscrossed. If the trend of deforestation continues, further decline of population of habitat of this species is unavoided. Researches should be carried out in more details to understand the status of population of this subspecies before this subspecies disappears in the wild.
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