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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1843 matches for " SK Ernest "
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MEASLES IN ILORIN: AN EPIDEMIC IN THE MIDDLE OF ERADICATION PLANS
SK Ernest
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2004,
Abstract: Forty-one cases of measles were seen within 3 months period in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) as against a recent report from the same center, which reported 52 cases over a 12 months period. More of the patients in this series needed hospitalization. Males were more affected, 17.1% were infants while 12.2% were older than 10 years. Coliforms were isolated from 40% of the positive blood cultures. Pneumonia was the leading complication and sultamycillin was the commonly used antibiotics. The mean duration of hospital stay was 6.3 days (SD=2.9) and case fatality was 14.6%. This pattern in the middle belt region of Nigeria represents an epidemic. This occurring at a time when a global eradication is being planned and anticipated, calls for a re-appraisal of the dynamics and logistics of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) Key Words: Measles; Epidemics; Global Eradication. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5(2): 203 – 207.
Review Article: Recent Advances in Childhood Antimalaria Chemotherapy
SK Ernest, OA Mokuolu
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , 2005,
Abstract: As malaria continues to kill many people in our world and spreading into areas that were never known to have it before, it becomes necessary to make occasional reviews of what therapeutic measures are effective in areas of malaria endemicity. There is a global concern as to reducing malaria morbidity and mortality worldwide. Malaria eradication had been viewed as impossible with the mechanisms used against it and the world has settled for just a control. One of the critical areas of this control is effective case management. As it was the case with tuberculosis, leprosy and bacterial infections, there is a paradigm shift from the monotherapy that have been used for nearly three centuries (Quinine) and nearly 60 years after other drugs were discovered (Chloroquine, since early 1940s and subsequently others) with no remarkable drop in the global morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization (WHO) now advocates combination therapy, which are mainly Artemisinin–based. We in this article made an extensive review of the combination chemotherapeutic possibilities and advocacy for it to achieve increase survival, reduced disease burden through effective parasitaemic clearance with reduced chance of early recrudescence. A necessary overview has been made of the life cycle and clinical presentation of malaria which has not changed significantly over the years. Also, the combination chemotherapy including Artemisinin-based, Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine–based and the non-Artemisinin non-Sulphadoxine/Pyrimethamine-based chemotherapy have all been reviewed and concluded that their use will lead to effective case management and reduced mortality. We therefore advocate for a therapeutic paradigm shift to these combination therapy.
Correlates of emergency response interval and mortality from anemia in childhood
SK Ernest, NE Anunobi, A Adeniyi
West African Journal of Medicine , 2002,
Abstract: A retrospective study to determine the influence of blood transfusion emergency response interval on Mortality from childhood severe anemia was carried out. An admission record of all children with severe anemia over a 5-year period was reviewed. Those who either died before transfusion or got discharged against medical advice were excluded. A total of 5790 patients were admitted during the 5-year period. Ten percent (10%) had severe anemia. Malaria, the leading cause of anemia in this series was found in 80% of the patients. Twenty patients (3.3%) died before transfusion while 50 discharged from the hospital against medical advice. There was male preponderance. Ages 2-5 years were the peak age group for severe anemia. No patient had haematocrit less than 5% but 20 (4.2%) had heaematocrit above 20%. The hospital stay for majority (74.8%) of the patients was 72 hours. Based on the transfusion emergency response interval versus mortality curve, a mortality risk assessment scores were derived for use in clinical practice to determine the risk of dying from the disease. We recommend that national or hospital policy on blood transfusion be enunciated to ensure that all patients with severe anemia get transfused within 2 hours of diagnosis. Résumé Une etude rétrospective pour examiner l'influence de la reaction par intervalles de la transfusion du sang d'urgence sur la mortalité à travers l'anemie infantile grave, a été effectuée. Enregistrement d'admission de tous les enfants souffrant de l'anémie grave au cours d'une période de 5 ans a été passé en revue, à l'exception de ceux qui étaient morts soit avant la transfusion soit ceux qui étaient sorti de l'h pital san permission. Un nombre total de 5,790 malades ont été hospitalizes au cours de cette période de cinq ans. Dix pourcent (10%) avaient l'anémie grave. Le paludisme, qui prend la tête dans la cause de l'anémie en cette série était note chez des maladies, vingt maladies soit (3,3%) étaient morts avant la transfusion tandis que 50 avaient quitté l'h pital sans la consultation médicale. On avait remarqué la preponderance de male. Le groupe de la classe 2 à 5 ans était l'age maximum pour l'attaque de l'anémie grave. Aucun malade avait l'hématocrit, moins de 5% mais 20 soit (4,2%) avaient l'hématocrit plus de 20%. La durée de l'hospitalisation pour le plus grand nombre des maladies 74,8% était 72 heures ou moins. Le mortalité (cas montel) s'accroit avec l'accrossement de la transfusion d'urgence reaction par intervalles en moins de 24 heures. A travers la transfusion d'urgence reaction par intervalle par rapport à la coube de la mortalité, des scores de la répartition des risques de morts (mortality risk assessment scores) étaient tires à l'usage de clientele cliniques pour determiner le risqué des morts à travers la maladie. Nous proposons que la politique nationale ou de l'h pital sur la transfusion du sang soit précise et Claire pour assurer que tous les maladies aver l'anémie grave recoivent la
Evaluation of Sodium Sulphacetamide drops in the Treatment of Ophthalmia Neonatorum
SK Ernest, O Mokuolu, A Adeniyi
Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics , 2001,
Abstract: Sodium sulphacetamide eye drops had been used successfully in the past in the treatment of ophthalmia neonatorium (ON) but its use has decreased remarkably in recent time. The efficacy of 10 percent sodium sulphacetamide eye drops in the treatment of ON was prospectively evaluated in 68 neonates seen in our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit over a period of six months. Excluded from the study were babies with suspected gonococcal ON, and those who required systemic antibiotics for the treatment of associated sepsis. The eye drops were instilled for one week if by 72 hours of use, clinical response was achieved, otherwise another ophthalmic agent was used. Seventy seven percent of the neonates had clinical cure. It is concluded that sodium sulphacetamide drops may be a useful first line eye drop in the treatment of ON. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics 2001;28:50. pp. 50-52
Mortality Pattern within Twenty-Four Hours of Emergency Paediatric Admission in a Resource-Poor Nation Health Facility
MAN Adeboye, A Ojuawo, SK Ernest, A Fadeyi, OT Salisu
West African Journal of Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Mortality among emergency paediatric admissions within the first 24 hours is high in resource- poor nations. Measures to reduce the childhood mortality rate can only be effectively planned and implemented when the causes and magnitude of this problem are well defined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the mortality pattern among emergency paediatric admissions within the first 24 hours in a health facility in Nigeria. METHODS: The clinical state and progress of post-neonatal patients who presented alive and were admitted into the emergency paediatric room of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria were monitored over a period of six months. The monitoring included records of diagnosis and outcome of management. RESULTS: A total of 606 children were admitted during the period of study out of which 51(8.4%) died. Twenty-nine (57%) of the deaths occurred within the first 24 hours of admission comprising 15 (51.7%) males and 14 (48.3%) females giving M:F ratio of about of 1:1. Majority of the deaths were among patients who reported late to the hospital. Loss of consciousness was a strong risk factor for mortality within 24 hours of admission. The highest mortality within the first 24 hours of admission was recorded among patients with malaria (89.0%) followed by protein energy malnutrition. CONCLUSION: Majority of deaths among emergency paediatric admission occur within the first 24 hours of admission and are associated with clinical conditions such as malaria and protein-energy malnutrition for which sustained intervention strategies must be developed.
Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Ghanaian Manufacturing Firms  [PDF]
Charles Ackah, Ernest Ernest Aryeetey, Oliver Morrissey
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.33037
Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of trade liberalization on firm productivity in Ghana. We examine Ghanaian trade policy from 1993 to 2002, a period during which trade liberalization deepened with intermittent protection in a number of ways across industries, to investigate the effects of trade policy reforms and firm productivity. We find a strong negative impact of nominal tariffs on firm productivity, controlling for observed and unobserved firm characteristics and industry heterogeneity, a result that is robust to various alterations of the base model, including treating tariffs as endogenous and employing different estimation techniques. These results indicate that firms that are overprotected have a lower level of Total Factor Productivity than firms that are exposed to import competition. The estimated coefficients on both tariffs and its squared term confirm that higher tariffs are particularly distortionary.
A Comparison of Classifiers in Performing Speaker Accent Recognition Using MFCCs  [PDF]
Zichen Ma, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.44025
Abstract:

An algorithm involving Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) is provided to perform signal feature extraction for the task of speaker accent recognition. Then different classifiers are compared based on the MFCC feature. For each signal, the mean vector of MFCC matrix is used as an input vector for pattern recognition. A sample of 330 signals, containing 165 US voice and 165 non-US voice, is analyzed. By comparison, k-nearest neighbors yield the highest average test accuracy, after using a cross-validation of size 500, and least time being used in the computation.

Probit Normal Correlated Topic Model  [PDF]
Xingchen Yu, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2014.411083
Abstract: The logistic normal distribution has recently been adapted via the transformation of multivariate Gaussian variables to model the topical distribution of documents in the presence of correlations among topics. In this paper, we propose a probit normal alternative approach to modelling correlated topical structures. Our use of the probit model in the context of topic discovery is novel, as many authors have so far concentrated solely of the logistic model partly due to the formidable inefficiency of the multinomial probit model even in the case of very small topical spaces. We herein circumvent the inefficiency of multinomial probit estimation by using an adaptation of the diagonal orthant multinomial probit in the topic models context, resulting in the ability of our topic modeling scheme to handle corpuses with a large number of latent topics. An additional and very important benefit of our method lies in the fact that unlike with the logistic normal model whose non-conjugacy leads to the need for sophisticated sampling schemes, our approach exploits the natural conjugacy inherent in the auxiliary formulation of the probit model to achieve greater simplicity. The application of our proposed scheme to a well-known Associated Press corpus not only helps discover a large number of meaningful topics but also reveals the capturing of compellingly intuitive correlations among certain topics. Besides, our proposed approach lends itself to even further scalability thanks to various existing high performance algorithms and architectures capable of handling millions of documents.
Random Subspace Learning Approach to High-Dimensional Outliers Detection  [PDF]
Bohan Liu, Ernest Fokoué
Open Journal of Statistics (OJS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojs.2015.56063
Abstract:

We introduce and develop a novel approach to outlier detection based on adaptation of random subspace learning. Our proposed method handles both high-dimension low-sample size and traditional low-dimensional high-sample size datasets. Essentially, we avoid the computational bottleneck of techniques like Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) by computing the needed determinants and associated measures in much lower dimensional subspaces. Both theoretical and computational development of our approach reveal that it is computationally more efficient than the regularized methods in high-dimensional low-sample size, and often competes favorably with existing methods as far as the percentage of correct outlier detection are concerned.

Comparative Thermometery in Paediatric Age Group: Is the Non-Touch Infrared Thermometer (NTIT) Reading Comparable to Regular Mercury-in-Glass Thermometer (MIGT) Reading?  [PDF]
Yetunde Olasinde, Moninuola Ernest, Gbenga Popoola, Kolade Ernest
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2018.84031
Abstract: Background: Accurate temperature measurement is a critical step in evaluating health or disease especially in children and immmunocompromised subjects; inaccurate measurement may lead to improper diagnosis, wrong treatment or inappropriate intervention. Several methods of temperature measurements exist and comparing these gives room for choosing a near ideal method in terms of speed, safety and accuracy. The study aimed to compare the forehead non touch infra-red thermometer with the axilllary mercury-in-glass method of temperature measurement in the Paediatric age-group. Methods: Study was given ethical approval as part of a larger study. Four hundred and thirty seven children aged 1 to 24 months were studied at the well-baby/immunizationclinic of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 6-months period. Both non-touch infrared and theregular mercury-in-glass thermometers were used to take the body temperatures. Data were analysed with SPSS version 21. Pearson correlation was used to determine the relationship between the two methods of temperature measurements, while Bland-Altman method was used to test for level of agreement between them. Results: The
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