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OALib Journal期刊

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The Comparison of Mallampati Test in Supine and Sitting Position in Traditional Approach and During Phonation for Predicting of Difficult Laryngoscopy and Intubation
Z Hussain Khan,SH Eskandari,M Rahimi,J Makarem
Tehran University Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Inadequate ventilation, esophageal intubation and difficult intubation are the most common adverse respiratory outcomes in patient undergoing anesthesia .The aim of this study was to compare Mallampati test in supine and sitting positions in traditional approach and during phonation for predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. Methods: In this study performed in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, Mallampati test was performed on 661 patients who met the inclusion criteria for the study. The test was done in supine and sitting positions with and without phonation by a rater who was blind to Mallampati test. Subsequently, laryngoscopy view and difficult intubation were evaluated in the four aforesaid positions by Mallampati test for predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation. For each situations, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy were calculated.Results: Overall, 28 (4.2%) patients had difficult laryngoscopy and 9 (1.4%) patients had difficult intubation. The highest sensitivity for Mallampati test in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation was in supine and sitting positions without phonation, and the highest specificity was seen in sitting position with phonation. Negative predictive values were more than 95% in all different positions for Mallampati tests and the highest positive predictive value was seen in supine position with phonation.Conclusion: According to our findings, the highest correlation between Mallampati test and different positions in predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation was seen in supine position with phonation. Phonation improved Mallampati score in supine rather than sitting position.
AEESPAN: Automata Based Energy Efficient Spanning Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Zahra ESKANDARI, Mohammad Hossien YAGHMAEE
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.14039
Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are developed densely. They have limit processing ca-pability and low power resources. Thus, energy is one of most important constraints in these networks. In some applications of sensor networks, sensor nodes sense data from the environment periodically and trans-mit these data to sink node. In order to decrease energy consumption and so, increase network’s lifetime, volume of transmitted data should be decreased. A solution, which is suggested, is aggregation. In aggrega-tion mechanisms, the nodes aggregate received data and send aggregated result instead of raw data to sink, so, the volume of the transmitted data is decreased. Aggregation algorithms should construct aggregation tree and transmit data to sink based on this tree. In this paper, we propose an automaton based algorithm to con-struct aggregation tree by using energy and distance parameters. Automaton is a decision-making machine that is able-to-learn. Since network’s topology is dynamic, algorithm should construct aggregation tree peri-odically. In order to aware nodes of topology and so, select optimal path, routing packets must be flooded in entire network that led to high energy consumption. By using automaton machine which is in interaction with environment, we solve this problem based on automat learning. By using this strategy, aggregation tree is reconstructed locally, that result in decreasing energy consumption. Simulation results show that the pro-posed algorithm has better performance in terms of energy efficiency which increase the network lifetime and support better coverage.
Algebraic Cycles and Extensions of Mixed Hodge Structures Arising from the Fundamental Group of a Punctured Curve
Payman Eskandari
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Let $X$ be a smooth projective curve over $\mathbb{C}$, $\infty,p\in X(\mathbb{C})$, and $L_n$ be the mixed Hodge structure of functions on $\pi_1(X-\{\infty\},p)$ that can be expressed by iterated integrals of length at most $n$. In this paper we express the mixed Hodge extension $e^\infty_{n,p}$ arisen from the weight filtration on $\displaystyle{\frac{L_n}{L_{n-2}}}$ in terms of certain null-homologous algebraic cycles on $X^{2n-1}$. In the final section, we assume $X, p,\infty$ are over a subfield $k\subset\mathbb{C}$ and show that, one can associate to the extension $e^\infty_{n,p}$ a family of $k$-valued points on the Jacobian of $X$, parametrized by elements of $\text{CH}_{n-1}(X^{2n-1})$ defined over $k$. When $n=2$, the results are due to Darmon, Rotger and Sols. Our contribution is in generalizing the picture to $n\geq3$.
Simpson’s Method for Solution of Nonlinear Equation  [PDF]
Hamideh Eskandari
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.87073
Abstract: The programs offered for solving nonlinear equations, usually the old method, such as alpha, chordal movement, Newton, etc. have been used. Among these methods may Newton’s method of them all be better and higher integration. In this paper, we propose the integration method for finding the roots of nonlinear equation we use. In this way, Newton’s method uses integration methods to obtain. In previous work, [1] and [2] presented numerical integration methods such as integration, trapezoidal and rectangular integration method that are used. The new method proposed here, uses Simpson’s integration. With this method, the approximation error is reduced. The calculated results show that this hypothesis is confirmed.
The Conductivity of Indium Phosphide Irradiated by Fast Electrons  [PDF]
Sh. Sh. Rashidova
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.411183
Abstract:

In this work, studied electrical conductivity(s) and annealing of radiation defects in crystals of n-InP are irradiated by electrons energy of 6 MeV and doses of 1017 el/cm2 (centimeter) and 2 × 1017 el/cm2 (centimeter). It is shown that alongside point defects (in the form of complexes with impurity atoms in crystals of n-InP) also form the complex defects of the type of disordered areas, annealing of which proceeds at T > 300°C that binds accumulating radiation defects.

Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays) and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality
Hamdollah ESKANDARI,Ahmad GHANBARI
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2009,
Abstract: Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.
Germination and Seedling Properties of Different Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Conditions
Hamdollah ESKANDARI,Kamyar KAZEMI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: Salinity effects were evaluated on seed germination and seedling growth of four bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) including ‘Taro’, ‘Shoa’, ‘Chamran’ and ‘S-78-11’. The seeds were subjected to four levels of electrical conductivity (EC) 0.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 ds m-2. The measured factors consisted of germination percentage, speed of germination, shoot and root dry weight and shoot and root lengths. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications (NaCl levels as main plot and cultivars as sub-plots). By increasing NaCl concentration, seed germination delayed and decreased in all cultivars. The lowest germination percentage took place in ‘Shoa’ cultivar and the highest germination in ‘S-78-11’ cultivar. The largest shoot length was observed in the control (no salt) condition. Increasing NaCl concentrations adversely affected plumule and radicle dry weight in each cultivar; shoot dry weight fluctuated by varying NaCl concentrations. The lowest value found in ‘Shoa’ cultivar. Regarding the relationship between speed of germination and seed vigour, salt stress decreased seed vigour of wheat cultivars. ‘S-78-11’ was a superior cultivar under all salinity levels.
Effect of different Planting Pattern of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Bean (Vicia faba) on Grain Yield, Dry Matter Production and Weed Biomass
Hamdollah ESKANDARI,Ahmad GHANBARI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2010,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted in University of London, Kent, UK during the year 2003. The aim of experiment was to investigate the effects of planting pattern on performance of wheat and bean intercrops. A complete randomized block design with four replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included wheat sole crop (W), Bean sole crop (B), within row intercropping (M1), row intercropping (M2) and mix cropping (M3). The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one wheat replaced by three bean plants). The results showed that total dry matter achieved by intercrops was significantly higher than those achieved by either wheat or bean sole crop. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops, especially bean sole crop. Crops performance in terms dry weight, height and percentage of leaf, stem pod and ear was affected by cropping systems depending on crop species, where wheat showed more changes compared to bean . Grain yield, harvest index and thousand grain weights of wheat were decreased in intercropping while bean had reduction only in grain yield.
Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption
Hamdollah ESKANDARI,Kamyar KAZEMI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M), cow pea sole crop (C), within row intercropping (I1), row intercropping (I2) and mix cropping (I3). The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants). The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.
Environmental Resource Consumption in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Bean (Vicia faba) Intercropping: Comparison of Nutrient Uptake and Light Interception
Hamdollah ESKANDARI,Ahmad GHANBARI
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2010,
Abstract: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and bean (Vicia faba L.) sole crops and their mixture in three planting pattern (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate the amount of resource consumption in terms of PAR interception and nutrient uptake. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with four replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on environmental resources consumption, where intercropping systems had more nutrient uptake and light interception compared to sole crops, suggesting the complementarity effect of intercropping components in resources consumption. The ability of wheat and bean was different in intercropping systems in absorbing nutrients because of their differences in root morphology and cation exchange capacity.
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