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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1576 matches for " SE Eskandari "
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Efficacy of Microwave and Infrared Radiation in the Treatment of the Skin Lesions Caused by Leishmania major in an Animal Model
SE Eskandari,A Azimzadeh,M Bahar,Z Safai Naraghi
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. major is an important public health problem in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of microwave and or infrared radiation in the treatment of lesion induced in BALB/c mice by L. major inoculation.Methods: The footpad lesion was induced in BALB/c mice by inoculation of L. major promastigotes subcutaneously. The lesion was treated with 600 watts power, 2.450 GHz frequency and/or infrared device with 150 watts and a wave length of 890 nanometres. The size of the lesion was recorded by footpad swelling measurement every 10 days. Results: The lesion growth was significantly hampered in treated mice compared with the untreated control group (P<0.05). Infrared radiation was more effective than microwave in inhibiting ulcer enlargement.Conclusion: Infrared radiation and microwave significantly hampered L. major lesion growth in BALB/c mice. This therapeutic effect was more in infrared radiation treated mice than microwave treated mice.
Flow Cytometric Analysis of Leishmania Reactive CD4+/CD8+ Lymphocyte Proliferation in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
M Nateghi Rostami,A Khamesipour,SE Eskandari,A Miramin Mohammadi
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Determination of the division history of T cells in vitro is helpful in the study of effector mechanisms against infections. Technique described here uses the intracellular fluorescent label carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to monitor the proliferation. Methods: In a cross sectional study, blood samples were collected from 7 volunteers with history of cutaneous leishmania-sis (CL) and one healthy control from endemic areas in Isfahan province who referred to the Center for Research and Training in Skin Diseases and Leprosy (CRTSDL), then CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes were isolated from peri-pheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using mAbs and magnetic nanoparticles. CFSE labeled CD4+ or CD8+ lympho-cytes cultured with autologous monocytes in the presence of PHA, SLA, live Leishmania major or as control with-out sti-mulation. Cells were harvested after 7 days and were analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Five consecutive divisions were monitored separately. Stimulation of CD4+ or CD8+ lymphocytes from CL sub-jects with SLA showed a significant difference in proliferation comparing with unstimulated cells (P< 0.05). The signifi-cant difference in the percentages of CD4+ cells stimulated with SLA was revealed at different divisions for each subject. In CD8+ lymphocyte, significant stronger stimulation of SLA was evident later in the proliferation process. The mean number of divisions in both CD4+/CD8+ lymphocytes stimulated with SLA was significantly greater than when stimulated with live L. major (P=0.007 / P=0.012, respectively) Conclusion: The percentage of divided cells might be calculated separately in each division. The cells remained active following CFSE staining and there is possibility of functional analysis simultaneously.
Simpson’s Method for Solution of Nonlinear Equation  [PDF]
Hamideh Eskandari
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/am.2017.87073
Abstract: The programs offered for solving nonlinear equations, usually the old method, such as alpha, chordal movement, Newton, etc. have been used. Among these methods may Newton’s method of them all be better and higher integration. In this paper, we propose the integration method for finding the roots of nonlinear equation we use. In this way, Newton’s method uses integration methods to obtain. In previous work, [1] and [2] presented numerical integration methods such as integration, trapezoidal and rectangular integration method that are used. The new method proposed here, uses Simpson’s integration. With this method, the approximation error is reduced. The calculated results show that this hypothesis is confirmed.
AEESPAN: Automata Based Energy Efficient Spanning Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks  [PDF]
Zahra ESKANDARI, Mohammad Hossien YAGHMAEE
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2009.14039
Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are developed densely. They have limit processing ca-pability and low power resources. Thus, energy is one of most important constraints in these networks. In some applications of sensor networks, sensor nodes sense data from the environment periodically and trans-mit these data to sink node. In order to decrease energy consumption and so, increase network’s lifetime, volume of transmitted data should be decreased. A solution, which is suggested, is aggregation. In aggrega-tion mechanisms, the nodes aggregate received data and send aggregated result instead of raw data to sink, so, the volume of the transmitted data is decreased. Aggregation algorithms should construct aggregation tree and transmit data to sink based on this tree. In this paper, we propose an automaton based algorithm to con-struct aggregation tree by using energy and distance parameters. Automaton is a decision-making machine that is able-to-learn. Since network’s topology is dynamic, algorithm should construct aggregation tree peri-odically. In order to aware nodes of topology and so, select optimal path, routing packets must be flooded in entire network that led to high energy consumption. By using automaton machine which is in interaction with environment, we solve this problem based on automat learning. By using this strategy, aggregation tree is reconstructed locally, that result in decreasing energy consumption. Simulation results show that the pro-posed algorithm has better performance in terms of energy efficiency which increase the network lifetime and support better coverage.
Algebraic Cycles and Extensions of Mixed Hodge Structures Arising from the Fundamental Group of a Punctured Curve
Payman Eskandari
Mathematics , 2015,
Abstract: Let $X$ be a smooth projective curve over $\mathbb{C}$, $\infty,p\in X(\mathbb{C})$, and $L_n$ be the mixed Hodge structure of functions on $\pi_1(X-\{\infty\},p)$ that can be expressed by iterated integrals of length at most $n$. In this paper we express the mixed Hodge extension $e^\infty_{n,p}$ arisen from the weight filtration on $\displaystyle{\frac{L_n}{L_{n-2}}}$ in terms of certain null-homologous algebraic cycles on $X^{2n-1}$. In the final section, we assume $X, p,\infty$ are over a subfield $k\subset\mathbb{C}$ and show that, one can associate to the extension $e^\infty_{n,p}$ a family of $k$-valued points on the Jacobian of $X$, parametrized by elements of $\text{CH}_{n-1}(X^{2n-1})$ defined over $k$. When $n=2$, the results are due to Darmon, Rotger and Sols. Our contribution is in generalizing the picture to $n\geq3$.
Study of Biological Methods in Landfill Leachate Treatment  [PDF]
Parna Eskandari Payandeh, Naser Mehrdadi, Parisa Dadgar
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2017.79038
Abstract: Landfill leachate is mainly the result of precipitation of water into the layers of buried waste, and biochemical reactions of waste that has dangerous substances and pollutants that lead to the contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Therefore, it must be collected and treated properly. The investigation of various biological methods in leachate treatment, their advantages and disadvantages, and their effect on reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand) are the objectives of this study. Reviewed processes include anaerobic and aerobic sequencing batch reactor, up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket, moving-bed biofilm reactor, membrane bioreactor, and aerated lagoons, lead to reduction of biodegradability pollutants in different circumstances. The present study has indicated that the most and the least reduction of COD has been through aerated lagoon (95%) and moving-bed biofilm reactor (8%), respectively.
Intercropping of Maize (Zea mays) and Cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as Whole-Crop Forage: Effect of Different Planting Pattern on Total Dry Matter Production and Maize Forage Quality
Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca , 2009,
Abstract: Mixtures of cereals and legumes are used extensively for forage production. Maize (Zea mays) and cowpea (Vigna sinensis) monocultures as well as their mixture in three planting patterns (M1: alternate-row intercrop, M2: within-row intercrop, M3: mixed intercrop) were used to investigate on forage yield as well as the effect of intercropping on maize forage quality. The experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that intercropping systems had a significant effect on forage dry weight, where dry matter yield was increased by intercropping as compared with maize and cowpea sole crops. It was related with a higher consumption consumption of environmental resources, such as photosynthetically active radiation and soil moisture, by intercropping. Maize forage quality in terms of crude protein was improved by intercropping. It was because of more nitrogen availability for maize in intercropping compared with its sole crop.
Germination and Seedling Properties of Different Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Conditions
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: Salinity effects were evaluated on seed germination and seedling growth of four bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) including ‘Taro’, ‘Shoa’, ‘Chamran’ and ‘S-78-11’. The seeds were subjected to four levels of electrical conductivity (EC) 0.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 12.0 ds m-2. The measured factors consisted of germination percentage, speed of germination, shoot and root dry weight and shoot and root lengths. The experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications (NaCl levels as main plot and cultivars as sub-plots). By increasing NaCl concentration, seed germination delayed and decreased in all cultivars. The lowest germination percentage took place in ‘Shoa’ cultivar and the highest germination in ‘S-78-11’ cultivar. The largest shoot length was observed in the control (no salt) condition. Increasing NaCl concentrations adversely affected plumule and radicle dry weight in each cultivar; shoot dry weight fluctuated by varying NaCl concentrations. The lowest value found in ‘Shoa’ cultivar. Regarding the relationship between speed of germination and seed vigour, salt stress decreased seed vigour of wheat cultivars. ‘S-78-11’ was a superior cultivar under all salinity levels.
Effect of different Planting Pattern of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Bean (Vicia faba) on Grain Yield, Dry Matter Production and Weed Biomass
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2010,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted in University of London, Kent, UK during the year 2003. The aim of experiment was to investigate the effects of planting pattern on performance of wheat and bean intercrops. A complete randomized block design with four replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included wheat sole crop (W), Bean sole crop (B), within row intercropping (M1), row intercropping (M2) and mix cropping (M3). The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one wheat replaced by three bean plants). The results showed that total dry matter achieved by intercrops was significantly higher than those achieved by either wheat or bean sole crop. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops, especially bean sole crop. Crops performance in terms dry weight, height and percentage of leaf, stem pod and ear was affected by cropping systems depending on crop species, where wheat showed more changes compared to bean . Grain yield, harvest index and thousand grain weights of wheat were decreased in intercropping while bean had reduction only in grain yield.
Weed Control in Maize-Cowpea Intercropping System Related to Environmental Resources Consumption
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2011,
Abstract: A field experiment was carried out in Ramhormoz, Iran during the 2008-2009 growing season to investigate the effects of different planting pattern of intercropping on environmental resource consumption and weed biomass. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications was employed to compare the treatments. Treatments included maize sole crop (M), cow pea sole crop (C), within row intercropping (I1), row intercropping (I2) and mix cropping (I3). The density of intercropping was according to replacement design (one maize replaced by three cow pea plants). The results showed that environmental resource consumption was significantly (P≤0.05) affected by cropping system, where PAR interception, moisture and nutrients uptake were higher in intercropping systems compared to sole crop systems. Regarding to weed control, intercrops were more effective than sole crops and it was related to lower availability of environmental resources for weeds in intercropping systems.
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