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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325271 matches for " S; Vandemaele "
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Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of nodding syndrome in Mundri County, southern Sudan
JK Tumwine, K Vandemaele, S Chungong, M Richer, M Anker, Y Ayana, ML Opoka, DN Klaucke, A Quarello, PS Spencer
African Health Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Nodding syndrome (repetitive nodding and progressive generalized seizures) is assuming epidemic proportions in South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. Objective: To describe clinical and epidemiological features of nodding syndrome in southern Sudan based on preliminary investigations conducted in 2001 and 2002. Method: Household surveys, clinical, electrophysiological (EEG) assessments, informant interviews and case-control studies were conducted in the town of Lui and the village of Amadi in southern Sudan. Results: Nodding syndrome is characterized by involuntary repetitive nodding of the head, progressing to generalized seizures; mental and physical deterioration. The EEGs were consistent with progressive epileptic encephalopathy. Prevalence of Nodding syndrome in Lui and Amadi was 2.3% and 6.7% respectively. All case control studies showed a positive association between cases and Onchocerca volvulus. A history of measles was negatively associated with being a case: 2/13 of cases and 11/19 of controls had had measles: odds ratio 0.13 (95% CI 0.02, 0.76). Environmental assessment did not reveal any naturally occurring or manmade neurotoxic factors to explain Nodding Syndrome, although fungal contamination of food could not be ruled out. Conclusion: Nodding Syndrome was strongly associated with Onchocerca volvulus. There was no evidence to suggest an environmental pollutant, chemical agent, or other toxic factor.
Improving influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa
Steffen,C; Debellut,F; Gessner,BD; Kasolo,FC; Yahaya,AA; Ayebazibwe,N; Bassong,O; Cardoso,Y; Kebede,S; Manoncourt,S; Vandemaele,KA; Mounts,AW;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862012000400014
Abstract: problem: little is known about the burden of influenza in sub-saharan africa. routine influenza surveillance is key to getting a better understanding of the impact of acute respiratory infections on sub-saharan african populations. approach: a project known as strengthening influenza sentinel surveillance in africa (sisa) was launched in angola, cameroon, ghana, nigeria, rwanda, senegal, sierra leone and zambia to help improve influenza sentinel surveillance, including both epidemiological and virological data collection, and to develop routine national, regional and international reporting mechanisms. these countries received technical support through remote supervision and onsite visits. consultants worked closely with health ministries, the world health organization, national influenza laboratories and other stakeholders involved in influenza surveillance local setting: influenza surveillance systems in the target countries were in different stages of development when sisa was launched. senegal, for instance, had conducted virological surveillance for years, whereas sierra leone had no surveillance activity at all. relevant changes: working documents such as national surveillance protocols and procedures were developed or updated and training for sentinel site staff and data managers was organized. lessons learnt: targeted support to countries can help them strengthen national influenza surveillance, but long-term sustainability can only be achieved with external funding and strong national government leadership.
Human Left Ventral Premotor Cortex Mediates Matching of Hand Posture to Object Use
Guy Vingerhoets, Jo Nys, Pieterjan Honoré, Elisabeth Vandekerckhove, Pieter Vandemaele
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070480
Abstract: Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP) has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5) is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC). Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object – hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS), the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA) 44). We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.
Risk Factors for Severe Outcomes following 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Infection: A Global Pooled Analysis
Maria D. Van Kerkhove,Katelijn A. H. Vandemaele,Vivek Shinde,Giovanna Jaramillo-Gutierrez,Artemis Koukounari,Christl A. Donnelly,Luis O. Carlino,Rhonda Owen,Beverly Paterson,Louise Pelletier,Julie Vachon,Claudia Gonzalez,Yu Hongjie,Feng Zijian,Shuk Kwan Chuang,Albert Au,Silke Buda,Gerard Krause,Walter Haas,Isabelle Bonmarin,Kiyosu Taniguichi,Kensuke Nakajima,Tokuaki Shobayashi,Yoshihiro Takayama,Tomi Sunagawa,Jean Michel Heraud,Arnaud Orelle,Ethel Palacios,Marianne A. B. van der Sande,C. C. H. Lieke Wielders,Darren Hunt,Jeffrey Cutter,Vernon J. Lee,Juno Thomas,Patricia Santa-Olalla,Maria J. Sierra-Moros,Wanna Hanshaoworakul,Kumnuan Ungchusak,Richard Pebody,Seema Jain,Anthony W. Mounts ,on behalf of the WHO Working Group for Risk Factors for Severe H1N1pdm Infection
PLOS Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001053
Abstract: Background Since the start of the 2009 influenza A pandemic (H1N1pdm), the World Health Organization and its member states have gathered information to characterize the clinical severity of H1N1pdm infection and to assist policy makers to determine risk groups for targeted control measures. Methods and Findings Data were collected on approximately 70,000 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized H1N1pdm patients, 9,700 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and 2,500 deaths reported between 1 April 2009 and 1 January 2010 from 19 countries or administrative regions—Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, the United States, and the United Kingdom—to characterize and compare the distribution of risk factors among H1N1pdm patients at three levels of severity: hospitalizations, ICU admissions, and deaths. The median age of patients increased with severity of disease. The highest per capita risk of hospitalization was among patients <5 y and 5–14 y (relative risk [RR] = 3.3 and 3.2, respectively, compared to the general population), whereas the highest risk of death per capita was in the age groups 50–64 y and ≥65 y (RR = 1.5 and 1.6, respectively, compared to the general population). Similarly, the ratio of H1N1pdm deaths to hospitalizations increased with age and was the highest in the ≥65-y-old age group, indicating that while infection rates have been observed to be very low in the oldest age group, risk of death in those over the age of 64 y who became infected was higher than in younger groups. The proportion of H1N1pdm patients with one or more reported chronic conditions increased with severity (median = 31.1%, 52.3%, and 61.8% of hospitalized, ICU-admitted, and fatal H1N1pdm cases, respectively). With the exception of the risk factors asthma, pregnancy, and obesity, the proportion of patients with each risk factor increased with severity level. For all levels of severity, pregnant women in their third trimester consistently accounted for the majority of the total of pregnant women. Our findings suggest that morbid obesity might be a risk factor for ICU admission and fatal outcome (RR = 36.3). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that risk factors for severe H1N1pdm infection are similar to those for seasonal influenza, with some notable differences, such as younger age groups and obesity, and reinforce the need to identify and protect groups at highest risk of severe outcomes. Please see later in the article for
Study of the Structural and Electrical Properties of Cr-Doped BiFeO3 Ceramic  [PDF]
S. S. Arafat, S. Ibrahim
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2017.810051
Abstract: Multiferroic BiFe1-xCrxO3 (x = 0.2 and 0.4) ceramics were synthesized in a single phase. The effects of Cr3+ substitution on the crystal structure, dielectric permittivity and leakage current were investigated. Preliminary X-ray structural studies revealed that the samples had a rhombohedral perovskite crystal structure. The dielectric constant ε' significantly increased while the dielectric loss tanδ was substantially decreased with the increase in Cr3+ substitution. The temperature effect on the dielectric properties exhibited an anomaly corresponding to magneto-electric coupling in the samples and was shifted to lower temperatures with the increase in Cr3+ substitution. The leakage current density also reduced in magnitude with the increase in the Cr3+ substitution.
Degree Splitting of Root Square Mean Graphs  [PDF]
S. S. Sandhya, S. Somasundaram, S. Anusa
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/am.2015.66086
Abstract: Let \"\" be an injective function. For a vertex labeling f, the induced edge labeling \"\" is defined by, \"\" or \"\"; then, the edge labels are distinct and are from \"\". Then f is called a root square mean labeling of G. In this paper, we prove root square mean labeling of some degree splitting graphs.
A Parameter Estimation Model of G-CSF: Mathematical Model of Cyclical Neutropenia  [PDF]
S. Balamuralitharan, S. Rajasekaran
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2012.21002
Abstract: We investigate the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) model and G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) treatment of CN (Cyclical Neutropenia). We collect grey collies and normal dog’s data from CN and analyze the G-CSF treatment. The model develops the dynamics of circulating blood cells before and after the G-CSF treatment. This is quite natural and useful for the collection of laboratory data for investigation. The proposed interventions are practical. This reduces the quantity of G-CSF required for potential maintenance. This model gives us good result in treatment. The changes would be practical and reduce the risk side as well as the cost of treatment in G-CSF.
Synthesis, Thermal Behaviour, XRD, and Luminescent Properties of Lighter Lanthanidethiodipropionate Hydrates Containing Aminogunidine as Neutral Ligand  [PDF]
S. Packiaraj, S. Govindarajan
Open Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (OJIC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojic.2014.43006
Aminoguanidine lanthanide thiodipropionate hydrates of composition [Ln(Agun)2(tdp)3·nH2O], Agun = Aminoguanidine, tdp = thiodipropionic acid, where Ln = La, Pr, Nd and Sm if n = 2, have been prepared and characterized by physic-chemical techniques.
Fuzzy Based Intelligent Monitoring of Critical Lines in the Restructured Power Market  [PDF]
S. Rajasekaran, S. Sathiyamoorthy
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79191
Abstract: Restructured electric market environment allows the power wheeling transactions between the power producers and customers to meet the growing load demand. This will lead to the possible of congestion in the transmission lines. The possible contingencies of power components further worsen the scenario. This paper describes the methodology for the identification of critical transmission line by computing the real power and reactive power performance indices. It also demonstrates the importance of fuzzy logic technique used to rank the transmission lines according to the severity and demonstrated on IEEE-30 bus system.
Error Correction Circuit for Single-Event Hardening of Delay Locked Loops  [PDF]
S. Balaji, S. Ramasamy
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.79210
Abstract: In scaled CMOS processes, the single-event effects generate missing output pulses in Delay-Locked Loop (DLL). Due to its effective sequence detection of the missing pulses in the proposed Error Correction Circuit (ECC) and its portability to be applied to any DLL type, the ECC mitigates the impact of single-event effects and completes its operation with less design complexity without any concern about losing the information. The ECC has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS process and measured the accuracy of mitigation on simulations at LETs up to 100 MeV-cm2/mg. The robustness and portability of the mitigation technique are validated through the results obtained by implementing proposed ECC in XilinxArtix 7 FPGA.
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