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In the present paper the attention is focused on effect of arrangement of tube banks on acoustic resonance which occurred in the two-dimensional model of boiler. We have examined the characteristics of vortex shedding and acoustic resonance generated from in-line and staggered tube banks. At the small tube pitch ratio in in-line tube banks, acoustic resonance of third and fourth mode in the transverse direction occurred. As the tube pitch ratio in the flow direction decreased, the vortex shedding frequency became broad-band. The alternative vortex shed from in-line tube banks. The multiple resonance modes were generated within the broad-band vortex shedding frequency. And the acoustic resonances of lower-order modes occurred at the higher gap velocity. On the other hand, at the small tube pitch ratio in staggered tube banks, acoustic resonance did not occurred, although the vortex shed at the resonance frequency in tube banks. The pressure drop at staggered tube banks was larger than that of in-line tube banks. The symmetric vortices were observed inside staggered tube banks at the small tube pitch ratio.
In the present paper, the attention is focused on the effect of local porous material on aerodynamic sound radiated from two-dimensional airfoil. We measured the aerodynamic sound radiated from the airfoil with porous material, tripping wire and porous plate which are mounted locally on the surface of the airfoils near the leading edge. At the normal airfoil, discrete frequency noise is clearly observed at small attack angle. However, it is clear that its noise generated from the airfoil decreased with the local porous material on the surface of pressure side of the airfoil. The porous material is effective to reduce this noise compared with the others. And the sound absorbing coefficient and the air permeability were measured for test porous material. The sound absorbing coefficient increased at the high frequency band, and the air permeability became small for porous materials. As the attack angle increased, the discrete frequency noise was not generated from the normal airfoil. The broadband noises were almost same for all test airfoils.