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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327121 matches for " S. Wayne Moser "
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Development of a Gd Loaded Liquid Scintillator for Electron Anti-Neutrino Spectroscopy
Andreas G. Piepke,S. Wayne Moser,Vladimir M. Novikov
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/S0168-9002(99)00530-6
Abstract: We report on the development and deployment of 11.3 tons of 0.1% Gd loaded liquid scintillator used in the Palo Verde reactor neutrino oscillation experiment. We discuss the chemical composition, properties, and stability of the scintillator elaborating on the details of the scintillator preparation crucial for obtaining a good scintillator quality and stability.
Metaphernanalyse in der Psychologie: Methode, Theorie, Anwendungsfelder Metaphor Analysis in Psychology—Method, Theory, and Fields of Application Análisis de metáforas en psicología: Método, teoría y campos de aplicación
Karin S. Moser
Forum : Qualitative Social Research , 2000,
Abstract: Die Besch ftigung mit Metaphern ist ein klassisches Thema der Linguistik, das jedoch bisher in der Psychologie mit wenigen Ausnahmen keine Beachtung gefunden hat. In diesem Beitrag wird die Analyse von Metaphern, – so wie Metaphern in neueren Ans tzen der Kognitiven Linguistik verstanden werden – aus mehreren Gründen als qualitative Forschungsmethode für die Psychologie vorgeschlagen. Zum einen sind Metaphern sozial und kulturell definiert, gleichzeitig ist die Verwendung von Metaphern jedoch eine grundlegende kognitive Strategie und ein Beispiel für analoges Probleml sen. Metaphern sind kontextabh ngig, gleichzeitig repr sentieren Metaphern aber abstrakte Modelle der Wirklichkeit und entsprechen damit weitgehend dem Verst ndnis von mentalen Modellen und Schemata in der kognitiven Psychologie. Diese vielschichtigen Eigenschaften von Metaphern erm glichen die Untersuchung der Mikrointeraktionen von Kultur und Kognition in offenen und qualitativen Forschungsans tzen. Ebenso erm glicht die Analyse von Metaphern eine Verbindung von quantitativ-experimentellen und qualitativen Ans tzen in der Psychologie. Die hohe Plausibilit t von Metaphern in der allt glichen Erfahrung macht die Metaphernanalyse zudem zu einem geeigneten Medium für Interventionen in angewandten Forschungsfeldern wie beispielsweise der Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002212 The analysis of metaphors is a classical research theme in linguistics, but has received very little attention in psychological research so far. Metaphor analysis—as conceptualized in cognitive linguistics—is proposed here as a qualitative method for psychological research for several reasons. Metaphors are culturally and socially defined, yet they also represent a basic cognitive strategy of analogical problem solving. Metaphors are context-sensitive, yet at the same time they are abstract models of reality much in the same way as mental models and schemata in cognitive psychology. The multifaceted properties of metaphors allow for the study of micro-interactions between cognition and culture in open and qualitative research designs. They also enable the bridging of the gap between quantitative-experimental and qualitative approaches in psychology. Because metaphors are of high plausibility in everyday experience, metaphors are a valuable tool for interventions in applied fields of research such as organizational and work psychology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002212 El análisis de las metáforas es un tema de investigación clásico en lingüística, pero hasta ahora ha recibido muy poca atenció
Chance mechanisms affecting the burden of metastases
Wayne S Kendal
BMC Cancer , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-5-138
Abstract: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to estimate tumor burdens sustained by individuals with cancer, based upon empirically derived and validated models for the number and size distributions of metastases. Factors related to the intrinsic metastatic potential of tumors and their host microenvironments were kept constant, to more clearly demonstrate the contribution from chance.Under otherwise identical conditions, both the simulated numbers and the sizes of metastases were highly variable. Comparable individuals could sustain anywhere from no metastases to scores of metastases, and the sizes of the metastases ranged from microscopic to macroscopic. Despite the marked variability in the number and sizes of the metastases, their respective growth times were rather more narrowly distributed. In such situations multiple occult metastases could develop into fully overt lesions within a comparatively short time period.Chance can have a major effect on the burden of metastases. Random variability can be so great as to make individual assessments of tumor biology unreliable, yet constrained enough to lead to the apparently simultaneous appearance of multiple overt metastases.The burden of metastatic disease can be an important determinant in cancer management [1]. With many of the common epithelial cancers, successful resection of the primary tumor may be all that is required for cure, provided that there are no metastases. If the numbers of metastases are limited, it may be possible to resect them along with the primary tumor for curative intent [2-4]. Moreover, adjuvant therapy may cure individuals who might otherwise succumb, provided that the metastatic burden is small and their disease is responsive to therapy [5,6].In those individuals who have had their metastatic disease resected, the number of metastases removed tends to have an adverse correlation with survival [3,7-10]. In addition, the total volume of resected metastases may provide an even stronger prognostic
A scale invariant clustering of genes on human chromosome 7
Wayne S Kendal
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-4-3
Abstract: Clustering of genes was confirmed by virtue of a variance of the number of genes per unit physical length that exceeded the respective mean. Further evidence for clustering came from a power function relationship between the variance and mean that possessed an exponent of 1.51. This power function implied that the spatial distribution of genes on chromosome 7 was scale invariant, and that the underlying statistical distribution had a Poisson-gamma (PG) form. A PG distribution for the spatial scattering of genes was validated by stringent comparisons of both the predicted variance to mean power function and its cumulative distribution function to data derived from chromosome 7.The PG distribution was consistent with at least two different biological models: In the microrearrangement model, the number of genes per unit length of chromosome represented the contribution of a random number of smaller chromosomal segments that had originated by random breakage and reconstruction of more primitive chromosomes. Each of these smaller segments would have necessarily contained (on average) a gamma distributed number of genes.In the gene cluster model, genes would be scattered randomly to begin with. Over evolutionary timescales, tandem duplication, mutation, insertion, deletion and rearrangement could act at these gene sites through a stochastic birth death and immigration process to yield a PG distribution.On the basis of the gene position data alone it was not possible to identify the biological model which best explained the observed clustering. However, the underlying PG statistical model implicated neutral evolutionary mechanisms as the basis for this clustering.Over twenty years ago Susumu Ohno postulated that gene duplication should play a major role in genomic evolution and that, consequent to eons of mutation, insertion and deletion, any surviving genes would be scattered throughout deserts of nontranscribed DNA [1]. Now, with the fruition of the Human Genome Project,
AMP-Activated Kinase Restricts Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection by Inhibiting Fatty Acid Synthesis
Theresa S. Moser,Daniel Schieffer,Sara Cherry
PLOS Pathogens , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002661
Abstract: The cell intrinsic innate immune responses provide a first line of defense against viral infection, and often function by targeting cellular pathways usurped by the virus during infection. In particular, many viruses manipulate cellular lipids to form complex structures required for viral replication, many of which are dependent on de novo fatty acid synthesis. We found that the energy regulator AMPK, which potently inhibits fatty acid synthesis, restricts infection of the Bunyavirus, Rift Valley Fever Virus (RVFV), an important re-emerging arthropod-borne human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or therapeutics. We show restriction of RVFV both by AMPK and its upstream activator LKB1, indicating an antiviral role for this signaling pathway. Furthermore, we found that AMPK is activated during RVFV infection, leading to the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the first rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Activating AMPK pharmacologically both restricted infection and reduced lipid levels. This restriction could be bypassed by treatment with the fatty acid palmitate, demonstrating that AMPK restricts RVFV infection through its inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis. Lastly, we found that this pathway plays a broad role in antiviral defense since additional viruses from disparate families were also restricted by AMPK and LKB1. Therefore, AMPK is an important component of the cell intrinsic immune response that restricts infection through a novel mechanism involving the inhibition of fatty acid metabolism.
DFP: Therapie der Alzheimer-Demenz: Status quo und Zukunftsperspektiven
Moser U,Kaser S,Winkler D
Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie , 2010,
Abstract: Die Alzheimer-Demenz ist die h ufigste neurodegenerative Erkrankung und nimmt mit ca. 50 % den gr ten Anteil unter den Demenzen ein. Derzeit sind weltweit mehr als 18 Mio. Menschen von dieser Erkrankung betroffen, und die Anzahl wird in den n chsten Jahren aufgrund der steigenden Lebenserwartung noch weiter wachsen. Das klinische Bild ist charakterisiert durch einen progressiven und irreversiblen Verlauf der demenziellen Symptomatik. Die zugrundeliegenden pathogenetischen Mechanismen sind eine massive zerebrale Akkumulation von Beta-Amyloid-Peptiden und intrazellul ren hyperphosphorylierten Tau-Proteinen, assoziiert mit einer weitreichenden Neurodegeneration. Bis dato stehen dem Kliniker lediglich symptomatische Therapieoptionen zur Verfügung. In den vergangenen 10 Jahren wurden mehrere gut vertr gliche Wirkstoffe zugelassen. In Zukunft werden Therapieverfahren, die auf die Pathophysiologie neurodegenerativer Prozesse abzielen, eine gro e Rolle spielen. Derzeit befinden sich zahlreiche Wirkstoffe mit unterschiedlichen neurochemischen Ansatzpunkten in verschiedenen Phasen der klinischen Entwicklung.
Die Neurobiologie der Depression - im Fokus: Imaging Genetics
Pezawas L,Moser U,Kasper S
Journal für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie , 2007,
Abstract: "Imaging Genetics", eine innovative Forschungsstrategie, die Geneffekte mittels Neuroimaging-Methoden auf Hirnsystemebene darstellt, hat in den letzten Jahren wertvolle Beitr ge zum Verst ndnis der komplexen Auswirkungen heredit rer Faktoren psychiatrischer Erkrankungen geliefert. Am Beispiel der Depression wird dies im Licht der neurowissenschaftlichen Entwicklungen der vergangenen Jahre im Detail verdeutlicht und dem Kliniker in einfacher und verst ndlicher Weise vorgestellt. Weiters wird in die Hintergrundliteratur eines rezenten Depressionsmodells eingeführt, welches sich vom Gen bis zum neuronalen Regelkreis spannt und neuere Hypothesen zur tiologie der Depression ("Neuroplastizit tshypothese") erweitert.
Asymptotic Behavior of Bohmian Trajectories in Scattering Situations
S. Roemer,D. Duerr,T. Moser
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1088/0305-4470/38/39/009
Abstract: We study the asymptotic behavior of Bohmian trajectories in a scattering situation with short range potential and for wave functions with a scattering and a bound part. It is shown that the set of possible trajectories splits into trajectories whose long time behavior is governed by the scattering part of the wave function (scattering trajectories) and trajectories whose long time behavior is governed by the bound part of the wave function (bound trajectories). Furthermore the scattering trajectories behave like trajectories in classical mechanics in the long time limit. As an intermediate step we show that the asymptotic velocity v_{infty}:=lim_{t to infty}Q/t exists almost surely and is randomly distributed with the density |hat{Psi}^{out}|^2, where Psi^{out} is the outgoing asymptote of the scattering part of the wave function.
Computational Systems Biology in Cancer: Modeling Methods and Applications
Wayne Materi,David S. Wishart
Gene Regulation and Systems Biology , 2007,
Abstract: In recent years it has become clear that carcinogenesis is a complex process, both at the molecular and cellular levels. Understanding the origins, growth and spread of cancer, therefore requires an integrated or system-wide approach. Computational systems biology is an emerging sub-discipline in systems biology that utilizes the wealth of data from genomic, proteomic and metabolomic studies to build computer simulations of intra and intercellular processes. Several useful descriptive and predictive models of the origin, growth and spread of cancers have been developed in an effort to better understand the disease and potential therapeutic approaches. In this review we describe and assess the practical and theoretical underpinnings of commonly-used modeling approaches, including ordinary and partial differential equations, petri nets, cellular automata, agent based models and hybrid systems. A number of computer-based formalisms have been implemented to improve the accessibility of the various approaches to researchers whose primary interest lies outside of model development. We discuss several of these and describe how they have led to novel insights into tumor genesis, growth, apoptosis, vascularization and therapy.
Characterization of the Role of eIF4G in Stimulating Cap- and IRES-Dependent Translation in Aplysia Neurons
John Dyer, Wayne S. Sossin
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074085
Abstract: The rate-limiting step(s) of translation in the nervous system have not been clearly identified. We have been examining this question in the cell body of the Aplysia sensory neuron, where translational regulation is important for the regulation of synaptic strength. In the present study, we examined the role of the adaptor protein eIF4G. We cloned Aplysia eIF4G (Ap4G) and Ap4G contains all the standard metazoan eIF4G protein–protein interaction domains. Overexpressing Ap4G in Aplysia sensory neurons caused an increase in both cap-dependent and internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent translation using a previously characterized bicistronic fluorescent reporter. Unexpectedly, measurement of overall translation using the methionine analog, L-azidohomoalanine, revealed that overexpression of Ap4G did not lead to an increase in overall translation rates. Indeed, the effect of Ap4G on the bicistronic reporter depended on the presence of an upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the 5’ UTR encoded by the vector. We have previously shown that Mnk strongly decreased cap-dependent translation and this depended on a putative 4G binding domain. Here we extend these results showing that even in the absence of the uORF, overexpression of Mnk strongly decreases cap-dependent translation and this depends on the Mnk binding site in eIF4G. Similarly, an increase in cap-dependent translation seen with overexpression of elongation factor 2 kinase did not depend on the uORF. Overall, we show that eIF4G is rate limiting for translation of an mRNA encoding an uORF, but is not generally a rate-limiting step for translation.
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