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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 418068 matches for " S. V. Sharyn "
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Vector–valued functional calculus for a convolution algebra of distributions on cone
O. V. Lopushansky,S. V. Sharyn,A. V. Solomko
Matematychni Studii , 2011,
Abstract: For {the} Fourier image $widehat{D}'_Gamma$ of {the} algebra $D'_Gamma$ of the distributions with supports on {a}cone $Gamma$ the functional calculus for generators of$n$--parametric $(C_o)$--semigroups of operators is determined. {For this purpose, we consider construction of the dual pair} $langlewidehat{D}'_Gamma,,widehat{D}_Gamma angle$, {and provide some examples with respect to the formula of operator calculus.}
Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students?  [PDF]
Kristen Hunt, Sharyn Burns
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2017.76009
Abstract: Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. The high prevalence of hazardous alcohol consumption and mental health problems among university students along with the potential for the university as a setting for health promotion prompted this study. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. Online data were collected from a random sample of university undergraduate students (n = 2506) aged 18 - 24 years old. Outcomes were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, Social Connectedness Scale, Social Identity Scale and measures of paid employment and study (hours), and participation in sports and other clubs. The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). When all factors were considered: gender, living arrangements, being a domestic student, hours spent at work, participation in university and community sport, higher levels of psychological distress, higher levels of social connectedness, and lower levels of social identity were significant predictors of hazardous alcohol consumption. The finding highlights the need for the inclusion of integrated, multi-strategy health promotion interventions on campus. Further exploration of the associations between social connectedness and social identity as influences of health behaviors will better inform the development of targeted strategies for specific groups.
The many faces of Crohn’s Disease: Latest concepts in etiology  [PDF]
Jordana Campbell, Thomas J. Borody, Sharyn Leis
Open Journal of Internal Medicine (OJIM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojim.2012.22020
Abstract: The notion that Crohn’s Disease (CD) occurs as a result of an aberrant reaction to the commensal microbiota in genetically susceptible hosts is widely regarded by physicians and scientists as fact. Yet although it is undisputed that Crohn’s Disease is immune-mediated, an aberrant reaction to one’s own native flora is far from proven. The aim of the current review is to present a summary of the known infectious causes of Crohn’s Disease, whilst highlighting the limitations of using outdated methods to attempt to classify the disease as a single entity. We propose a re-classification of Crohn’s Disease, and suggest that the disease is best conceptualized as a syndrome, an “umbrella-like” term comprising a group of diseases with varying infective etiologies, which clinically, endoscopically and histologically are indistinguishable from CD.
Developing a Dynamic Microsimulation Model of the Australian Health System: A Means to Explore Impacts of Obesity over the Next 50 Years
Sharyn Lymer,Laurie Brown
Epidemiology Research International , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/132392
Abstract: Health of the ageing population has the potential to place considerable pressure on future government spending. Further, the impacts of the obesity epidemic have the potential to place additional pressure on government health budgets. In response to such fiscal concerns in Australia, a dynamic microsimulation model, APPSIM, has been developed at the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM). The health module was developed to allow consideration of health behaviours within the context of an ageing population and the resultant health profile of the population. Also included in the modelling is the associated use of health services and their costs. All health variables used were imputed onto the 2001 basefile derived from the 1 percent unit record file of the 2001 Australian census. Transition equations of these variables were estimated to allow projections over time. In this paper, the model has been used to look at the impacts of obesity on the Australian population health profile and associated health expenditure. In the scenario, removal of obesity from the population leads to a simulated population with a better health profile but showed only marginal changes in relative health expenditure. 1. Introduction It is well known that the Australian population is ageing and that across all age groups there is rising levels of obesity. In 1971, 8 percent of the Australian population was aged 65 years and over: by 2010, this had increased to almost 14 percent [1]. Official projections indicate that by 2050 some 23 percent of the Australian population will be aged 65 years and over [2]. An ageing population places increased pressure on government spending through increased demand for health care, aged care, and pensions. Health care spending has been steadily growing, from $Au 42 billion in 1996-1997 to $Au 103 billion in 2006-2007 [3]. Projections estimate continued rises in health expenditure from 3.7 percent of GDP in 2009/10 to 7.0 percent of GDP in 2046/47 [2]. Beyond the number or proportion of the aged population, the impacts on future health expenditure will be moderated by the health experience of the aged population. Possibilities of morbidity compression [4], expansion [5], dynamic equilibrium [6], or some cyclic effect between compression and expansion of morbidity [7] will impact the possible demand for health services. The relationship between health and longevity may be effected by the severity of disease not being as great due to slower progression of disease [8]. Further, issues such as new technology, medications, and changes
Sharyn Renshaw,Girija Krishnaswamy
Lex et Scientia , 2008,
Abstract: This paper will provide critical analysis of Australia’ knowledge strategy, conducted from the perspective that driving a national knowledge strategy is the predominant responsibility of government for reasons of impartiality. As such critique will be focused upon the actionsundertaken by the Australian government to position the nation as a Knowledge-based Economy (KBE) competitively within the global community. It will be argued that to qualify for the title of “knowledge nation” the country needs to perform well across a composite range of factors. Examination of composite strategies will be conducted within a model of Knowledge Development, categorising the government’s knowledge sourcing, abstraction, conversion, diffusion and refinement strategies. The paper will conclude with recommendations for improving Australia’s position within the global knowledge economy and consequently within the global information community.
Human Motor Neuron Progenitor Transplantation Leads to Endogenous Neuronal Sparing in 3 Models of Motor Neuron Loss
Tanya J. Wyatt,Sharyn L. Rossi,Monica M. Siegenthaler,Jennifer Frame,Rockelle Robles,Gabriel Nistor,Hans S. Keirstead
Stem Cells International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/207230
Abstract: Motor neuron loss is characteristic of many neurodegenerative disorders and results in rapid loss of muscle control, paralysis, and eventual death in severe cases. In order to investigate the neurotrophic effects of a motor neuron lineage graft, we transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived motor neuron progenitors (hMNPs) and examined their histopathological effect in three animal models of motor neuron loss. Specifically, we transplanted hMNPs into rodent models of SMA (Δ7SMN), ALS (SOD1 G93A), and spinal cord injury (SCI). The transplanted cells survived and differentiated in all models. In addition, we have also found that hMNPs secrete physiologically active growth factors in vivo, including NGF and NT-3, which significantly enhanced the number of spared endogenous neurons in all three animal models. The ability to maintain dying motor neurons by delivering motor neuron-specific neurotrophic support represents a powerful treatment strategy for diseases characterized by motor neuron loss. 1. Introduction Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate into any cell type, are amenable to genetic manipulation, and readily self-renew in vitro. Directed differentiation of hESCs into high purity populations of a defined cell type can be used to design effective treatments that are both cell and site specific. Stem cell-based transplantation is an inherently combinatorial therapeutic approach, in that it not only replaces dead or dying cells, but also provides a substrate for endogenous growth, bridges gaps where tissue is lost to injury or disease, and provides neurotrophic support for the endogenous environment. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and spinal cord injury (SCI) are all diseases of motor neuron loss that could potentially benefit from transplantation of hESC-derived cells. ALS is the most common form of motor neuron disease [1] and can be either sporadic or familial [2–5]. Approximately 5–10% of those diagnosed have a positive family history of the disease [1, 6]. Although the etiology of the sporadic form of ALS is largely unknown [5], the familial form has a strong genetic linkage to point mutations in either TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), FUS/TLS, or the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genes [7]. The average age of onset is between 40 and 60 years, and the disease is generally fatal within 1–5 years of onset [1, 6]. SMA is also characterized by motor neuron loss and is the leading genetic cause of infantile death [8, 9]. The disease manifests by roughly 6 months of age in the most
The protocol of a randomized controlled trial for playgroup mothers: Reminder on Food, Relaxation, Exercise, and Support for Health (REFRESH) Program
Sarojini MDR Monteiro, Jonine Jancey, Peter Howat, Sharyn Burns, Carlie Jones, Satvinder S Dhaliwal, Alexandra McManus, Andrew P Hills, Annie S Anderson
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-648
Abstract: The current study is a randomized controlled trial lifestyle (nutrition and physical activity) intervention for mothers with children aged between 0 to 5 years attending playgroups in Perth, Western Australia. Nine-hundred participants will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 450) and control (n = 450) groups. The study is based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) and the Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and the Precede-Proceed Framework incorporating goal setting, motivational interviewing, social support and self-efficacy. The six month intervention will include multiple strategies and resources to ensure the engagement and retention of participants. The main strategy is home based and will include a specially designed booklet with dietary and physical activity information, a muscle strength and flexibility exercise chart, a nutrition label reading shopping list and menu planner. The home based strategy will be supported by face-to-face dietary and physical activity workshops in the playgroup setting, posted and emailed bi-monthly newsletters, and monthly Short Message Service (SMS) reminders via mobile phones. Participants in the control group receive no intervention materials. Outcome measures will be assessed using data that will be collected at baseline, six months and 12 months from participants in the control and intervention groups.This trial will add to the evidence base on the recruitment, retention and the impact of community based dietary and physical activity interventions for mothers with young children.Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000735257Overweight and obesity are important public health concerns. The percentage of Australian women of childbearing age that are overweight or obese has significantly increased over the past decade. In 2007, 44% of Australian women aged between 25 and 34 years were overweight or obese compared to only 26% in 1995 [1].Childbearing aged women are an important target
Histological and Functional Benefit Following Transplantation of Motor Neuron Progenitors to the Injured Rat Spinal Cord
Sharyn L. Rossi,Gabriel Nistor,Tanya Wyatt,Hong Zhen Yin,Aleksandra J. Poole,John H. Weiss,Matthew J. Gardener,Sipke Dijkstra,David F. Fischer,Hans S. Keirstead
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011852
Abstract: Motor neuron loss is characteristic of cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) and contributes to functional deficit.
Derivation of High Purity Neuronal Progenitors from Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Gabriel Nistor, Monica M. Siegenthaler, Stephane N. Poirier, Sharyn Rossi, Aleksandra J. Poole, Maura E. Charlton, John D. McNeish, Chris N. Airriess, Hans S. Keirstead
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020692
Abstract: The availability of human neuronal progenitors (hNPs) in high purity would greatly facilitate neuronal drug discovery and developmental studies, as well as cell replacement strategies for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington's disease. Here we describe for the first time a method for producing hNPs in large quantity and high purity from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in feeder-free conditions, without the use of exogenous noggin, sonic hedgehog or analogs, rendering the process clinically compliant. The resulting population displays characteristic neuronal-specific markers. When allowed to spontaneously differentiate into neuronal subtypes in vitro, cholinergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic, and medium spiny striatal neurons were observed. When transplanted into the injured spinal cord the hNPs survived, integrated into host tissue, and matured into a variety of neuronal subtypes. Our method of deriving neuronal progenitors from hESCs renders the process amenable to therapeutic and commercial use.
Anastral spindle assembly and γ-tubulin in Drosophila oocytes
Sharyn A Endow, Mark A Hallen
BMC Cell Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2121-12-1
Abstract: We show, for the first time, using a bright GFP fusion protein and live imaging, that the Drosophila maternally-expressed γTub37C is present at low levels in oocyte meiosis I spindles. Despite this, we find that formation of bipolar meiosis I spindles does not require functional γTub37C, extending previous findings by others. Fluorescence photobleaching assays show rapid recovery of γTub37C in the meiosis I spindle, similar to the cytoplasm, indicating weak binding by γTub37C to spindles, and fits of a new, potentially more accurate model for fluorescence recovery yield kinetic parameters consistent with transient, diffusional binding.The FRAP results, together with its mutant effects late in meiosis I, indicate that γTub37C may perform a role subsequent to metaphase I, rather than nucleating microtubules for meiosis I spindle formation. Weak binding to the meiosis I spindle could stabilize pre-existing microtubules or position γ-tubulin for function during meiosis II spindle assembly, which follows rapidly upon oocyte activation and completion of the meiosis I division.Anastral spindles assemble without centrosomes by a pathway that is still not fully understood. In particular, the mechanism by which microtubule nucleation occurs has not been well defined. Although chromatin has been shown to play an essential role [1], the involvement of the microtubule nucleator, γ-tubulin, is still an open question. γ-Tubulin localizes to centrosomes and other microtubule organizing centers in mitosis and is essential for nucleating microtubules in organisms as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, Xenopus, humans, and higher plants [2-5]. γ-Tubulin is also found on spindle microtubules, where it has been proposed to nucleate microtubules for spindle maintenance by functioning in a chromatin-mediated nucleation pathway that augments the dominant pathway of nucleation by centrosomes [6,7].γ-Tubulin is present in cells as a large ring complex, γTuRC, comprising 12-13 γ-tubulin molecules a
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