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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 418242 matches for " S. V. Karuppiah "
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Distal locking in femoral intramedullary nailing system: Is one cross screw sufficient?  [PDF]
S. V. Karuppiah, A. J. Johnstone
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.510073
Abstract: Introduction: The indications for intramedullary nail fixation of fractures of the femoral shaft have been greatly expanded by techniques of interlocking nailing. However, distal locking screw fixation remains the most technically demanding and problematic portion of the procedure and maybe responsible for as much as one-half of the exposure of the surgeon’s hands to radiation during the procedure. Objective: This biomechanical study was undertaken to compare the stability of using one distal locking cross screw versus two cross screws in femoral fractures fixed with intramedullary nailing (IMN) system. Materials: A composite model made from a stainless steel IMN (12 mm × 1 mm) was connected to a load cell (Instron machine). Axial forces upto 2 kN (3 times body weight) was applied or until a maximum displacement of 1 mm was reached. The distal locking end of the intramedullary nail was secured with stainless steel cylinders of different dimensions 50 mm × 5 mm, 75 mm × 5 mm and 100 mm × 3 mm to represent the proximal femoral diaphysis, diaphyseo-metaphyseal junction and distal femoral metaphyseal respectively. The distal locking end of the intramedullary nail was attached to the cylinder with a dedicated single or two rods (5 mm diameter), made from stainless steel, to represent the distal locking cross screw. Results: In the 50 mm cylinder, the mean stiffness (±standard deviation) of the system using either single or two screws were similar i.e. 3298 ± 144 N/mm. But in the 75 mm and 100 mm cylinders, the mean stiffness of the fracture model with two distal locking cross screws fixation was 2.059 ± 96 N/mm and 0.816 ± 122 N/mm and with single distal locking cross screw fixation were 0.643 ± 142 N/mm and 0.289 ± 88 N/mm respectively. Conclusion: Single distal locking cross screw fixation provide poorer fracture stability compared to two distal locking cross screws when used to fix distal femoral metaphyseal fractures.
How cross screw length influences the stiffness of intramedullary nail systems  [PDF]
S. V. Karuppiah, A. J. Johnstone, D. E. T. Shepherd
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.31005
Abstract: Fractures of long bones are commonly treated with intramedullary (IM) nails and they have been shown to have a very high success rate. Recently we have concerns with the use of the newer IM nailing systems, that uses longer cross screws, which have been developed with variation in implant designs. We believe that the newer implants provide less fracture stability, due to decreased stiffness of the IM nailing system. The aim of this study was to biomechanically determine the influence of the length of cross screw on the stiffness of the IM nailing system, using a composite model. Our test results confirmed our suspicion that the newer IM nailing system using longer cross screw-length is less stiff than traditional nailing systems using shorter cross screw length, during axial loading.
Skin Necrosis Associated with Thromboprophylaxis after Total Knee Replacement
S. V. Karuppiah,A. J. Johnstone
Case Reports in Orthopedics , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/139218
Abstract: Thromboprophylaxis are routinely given to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients after total hip and knee replacement surgeries. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (fractioned heparin) is effective in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The predicable effect of LMWH has popularized it for routine clinical use. Although LMWH has lesser complication rate, compared to unfractioned heparin (UFH), sporadic clinical complication has been reported. We report a rare case of skin necrosis secondary to use of LMWH tinzaparin used for routine thromboprophylaxis after total knee replacement. 1. Introduction Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was developed in the late 1970s after the elucidation of heparin’s structure and the identification of the pentasaccharide as being its minimal active fragment. LMWHs have proven to be well tolerated and effective in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The advantages of LMWHs include its predictable anticoagulant response, an improved bioavailability, and a longer half-life [1] which have replaced the traditional use of unfractioned heparin (UFH) to prevent VTE in patients undergoing total hip and knee replacement surgeries [2, 3]. Adverse effects of LMWHs are also quite uncommon making it advantageous compared to unfractioned heparin, probably because of the smaller size of the molecules, the greater homogeneity of the substance, and the exclusive porcine origin of the new compounds. Skin reactions, a recognised complication of heparin products, have been reported with the use of UFH. However, there are only a few reports of LMWH causing skin reactions. We report a rare case of skin necrosis secondary to the use of LMWH Tinzaparin. 2. Case Report A 67-year-old female patient, of BMI 30, suffering from severe osteoarthritis of her knee, underwent an elective total knee replacement surgery. She did not have any significant past medical history and had a normal blood profile prior to surgery. There were no intraoperative complications or immediate postoperative complications. As a routine postoperative care, she was administered prophylactic subcutaneous tinzaparin (low molecular weight heparin) 3,500?IU once a day on her abdomen. On postoperative day 14, she developed an area of erythema associated with pain at the sites of her LMWH injection (Figure 1). Blood investigation revealed a normal platelet count of 254 (normal range 143–332 × 109) with Haemoglobin of 12.5 (normal range 3.9–15 × 109) and WCC 10.5 (normal range 3.9–11.1 × 109). Figure 1: Skin necrosis on anterior abdominal wall
S. P. Karuppiah
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: The analytical method for the estimation of phytochemical active ingredients present in Garginia combogia extract, Green tea extract with calcium pantothenate for herbal formulations are evaluated for it’s Assay content and dissolution release. This herbal formulation with slim formula consists of several active ingredients such as Hydroxy Citric acid, catechins and calcium pantothenate. The HPLC method for the estimation of active content and the in-vitro dissolution release is developed for the study.
Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Tibio-Talar-Calcaneum Fusion with a Retrograde Nail: A Rare Case and Literature Review
Simon Craxford,Saravana V. Karuppiah,Stephen Milner
Case Reports in Orthopedics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/569586
Abstract: This study reports the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with a nonresolving haematoma 13 weeks following tibiotalar arthrodesis surgery on her right ankle using a retrograde nail. This was revealed by angiography to be a pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery. The patient subsequently underwent endovascular stenting of the pseudoaneurysm and has had a successful recovery. This case highlights the need for awareness of both the normal arterial supply to the leg and ankle as well as the potential for anatomical variations. Arterial variation may be as high as 6.7% based on published findings from cadaveric studies. As pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to avoid a missed or delayed diagnosis. We urge surgeons to keep in mind the potential for pseudoaneurysm when a patient presents with a nonresolving haematoma and arrange appropriate further investigations as needed. 1. Introduction A pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication following ankle surgery. Cases of pseudoaneurysm following ankle arthroscopy [1], application of Ilizarov external fixator [2], fracture [3], and sprain of the ankle [4] have all been previously reported. We present a case of pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery after tibio-talar-calcaneal arthrodesis using a retrograde nail. The patient was treated with endovascular stenting and had a full recovery. We also review the potential variations in the course of the anterior tibial artery. 2. Case Presentation An 87-year-old woman in good previous health with known rheumatoid arthritis presented to the orthopaedic outpatients department. She complained of long standing pain from her right ankle. She had previously successfully undergone an elective Right Subtalar Arthrodesis eight years ago, (as shown in Figure 1) however, she was now symptomatic from tibiotalar ankle arthritis. Figure 1: Preoperative radiograph demonstrating previous arthrodesis screws. A tibio-talar-calcaneal arthrodesis was performed with a retrograde nail through the heel and the old arthrodesis screws were removed. There were no noted intraoperative or immediate postoperative complications. As per standard departmental operating procedure, she was immobilised in plaster for 6 weeks. At followup six weeks after surgery, a haematoma was noted at the site of the proximal locking screw, but her wound was otherwise healing well. A followup at 13 weeks showed complete union of the arthrodesis. She, however, complained of a throbbing sensation on the leg. On examination pulsatile swelling measuring 6?cm by
Secure Routing Path Using Trust Values for Wireless Sensor Networks
S. Rajaram,A. Babu Karuppiah,K. Vinoth Kumar
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.5121/ijcis.2014.4203
Abstract: Traditional cryptography-based security mechanisms such as authentication and authorization are not effective against insider attacks like wormhole, sinkhole, selective forwarding attacks, etc., Trust based approaches have been widely used to counter insider attacks in wireless sensor networks. It provides a quantitative way to evaluate the trustworthiness of sensor nodes. An untrustworthy node can wreak considerable damage and adversely affect the quality and reliability of data. Therefore, analysing the trust level of a node is important. In this paper we focused about indirect trust mechanism, in which each node monitors the forwarding behavior of its neighbors in order to detect any node that behaves selfishly and does not forward the packets it receives. For this, we used a link state routing protocol based indirect trusts which forms the shortest route and finds the best trustworthy route among them by comparing the values of all the calculated route trusts as for each route present in the network. And finally, we compare our work with similar routing protocols and show its advantages over them.
Conceptual design of motorcycle’s lumbar support using motorcyclists’ anthropometric characteristics
Karmegam Karuppiah
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This study presents the design and development of a prototype of lumbar support for motorcyclists corresponding to their anthropometric dimensions. The total design process model was used for this purpose. The critical design dimensions for the lumbar support (height, width, adjustable range and thickness) were obtained from the anthropometric dimensions of motorcyclists (1032 samples). The initial testing (trial runs) of the prototype proved to be successful as it was capable of providing comfort to the motorcyclists’ lumbar region during their riding process. However, further evaluation needs to be done in order to evaluate the stability, solidity, durability and safety of the prototype.
The Effect of Angulated Radius Fractures in Forearm Rotation: A Computer Based Model  [PDF]
Saravana Vail Karuppiah, Saaqib Qureshi, Donal McNally
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2016.96024
Abstract: Background: Forearm fractures amongst children are quite a common presentation. The accuracy of correct alignment in forearm bones is important as it determines the degree of forearm rotation (pronation-supination). However in children due to the potential for continuous growth, a degree of angulation is acceptable. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of angulation of forearm fracture on forearm rotation using computer stimulation. Methods: Using a 3D computer modelling software (Wildfire Pro Engineer 4.0, Creo by PTC, Needham, MA), an accurate to scale model of the radius and ulna was replicated from a 7 year old forearm. A realistic representation of pronation/supination of the forearm was applied and a fracture at the junction of proximal one third and distal two third was created. A rotational simulation was created and ended when maximum pronation and supination was reached. Maximum pronation and supination was reached when either no more rotation could occur due to a misalignment of the radius and ulna or there was a collision of the bones. The simulation was repeated in increments of angulation of 2° up to 26°. The angulations that resulted in a combined range of motion (50° pronation and 80° supination) less than 130° were recorded as unacceptable and the others were as acceptable. Findings: The study showed that radius angulation fracture of >16° in the proximal third of the radius would result in an unacceptable reduction of pronation-supination to less than 130°. Conclusion: Patients with more >16° of radius angulation in a distal third shaft fracture of the radius may result in clinical reduction in forearm rotation.
Rice flat sedge a new weed host of Curvularia tuberculata
Indian Phytopathology , 2012,
Effect of soil probiotics in the shrimp culture
Karuppiah Sakkaravarthi,Karuppiah Sakkaravarthi,Kalimuthu Ramamoorthy,Ramamoorthy Lakshmanan
Animal Biology & Animal Husbandry , 2010,
Abstract: The role of probiotic bacteria in small culture is studied but commercial level is not that muchreported especially in giant tiger shrimp, P. monodon. Hence the beneficial effect of probiotics on thecommercial culture of Indian major candidate shrimp, P. monodon is studied in a grow out pond. Thefarm is located on the Northern bank of Uppanar estuary in Maravakadu. An effort was made to evaluatethe differences between regular and irregular application of soil probiotics in the P. monodon shrimpfarming. Subsequently the performance of using probiotics frequently and the total average yieldattained was 1900 Kg /0.5ha. With maximum growth increment of 34.70g, survival of 90.31%, achievedat the DOC 130. Level of ammonia found nil for the entire culture period in the regularly probiotics usedponds. Contrarily, in irregular treated ponds the total yield achieved only 1150 Kg /0.5 ha. With themaximum growth of 27.29 g, survival of 70.68% at the DOC 130 respectively. The level of ammoniafound 0.3 mg /L.
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