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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325355 matches for " S. Scholl "
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Magnetic Moments of Baryons with a Single Heavy Quark
S. Scholl,H. Weigel
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.01.132
Abstract: We calculate the magnetic moments of heavy baryons with a single heavy quark in the bound-state approach. In this approach the heavy baryons is considered as a heavy meson bound in the field of a light baryon. The light baryon field is represented as a soliton excitation of the light pseudoscalar and vector meson fields. For these calculations we adopt a model that is both chirally invariant and consistent with the heavy quark spin symmetry. We gauge the model action with respect to photon field in order to extract the electromagnetic current operator and obtain the magnetic moments by computing pertinent matrix elements of this operator between the bound state wavefunctions. We compare our predictions for the magnetic moments with results of alternative approaches for the description of heavy baryon properties.
Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?
Johannes Scholl
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/367898
Abstract: The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1) the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet. (2) Fat quality is much more important than fat quantity. (3) The best principle for a reduced calorie intake is not fat counting, but a high volume diet with low energy density, which means fibre rich vegetables and fruits. (4) And finally, satiation and palatability of a diet is very important: there is no success without the patient's compliance. Thus, the best approach to the dietary prevention of CVD is a Mediterranean style low-carb diet represented in the LOGI pyramid. Dietary guidelines for the prevention of CVD should to be revised accordingly.
Traditional Dietary Recommendations for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Do They Meet the Needs of Our Patients?
Johannes Scholl
Cholesterol , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/367898
Abstract: The characteristics of patients with CVD have changed: whereas smoking prevalence declines, obesity and metabolic syndrome are on the rise. Unfortunately, the traditional low-fat diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) still seems to be the “mainstream knowledge” despite contradicting evidence. But lowering LDL-cholesterol by the wrong diet even may be counterproductive, if sd-LDL is raised and HDL is lowered. New insights into the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and its influence on the effects of dietary changes have led to a better approach: (1) the higher a patient's insulin resistance, the more important is the glycemic load of the diet. (2) Fat quality is much more important than fat quantity. (3) The best principle for a reduced calorie intake is not fat counting, but a high volume diet with low energy density, which means fibre rich vegetables and fruits. (4) And finally, satiation and palatability of a diet is very important: there is no success without the patient's compliance. Thus, the best approach to the dietary prevention of CVD is a Mediterranean style low-carb diet represented in the LOGI pyramid. Dietary guidelines for the prevention of CVD should to be revised accordingly. 1. Introduction In nutritional medicine evidence is more difficult to obtain than in cardiovascular drug studies, where RCTs with hard end-points are the gold standard. Conclusions in nutritional medicine are frequently drawn from epidemiological studies, which are subject to many possible confounders. There are very few randomised studies with coronary heart disease (CHD) or total mortality as the endpoint, and those studies (like some trials in mental hospitals in the 1970s) do not meet our current ethical and scientific standards. Unlike laboratory animals, human beings cannot be fed over a long time; thus most nutritional intervention studies are short to medium term and focus on surrogate parameters. Controlled dietary intervention studies nevertheless can give important insights into the possibilities of dietary changes. If there are known pathophysiological mechanisms, a dose-response relation in the intervention, biological plausibility, and consistency with epidemiological studies, then effects of dietary changes can be considered as plausible. One big misconception should be avoided: hardly any food is “bad” or “good” for health per se. When people eat less of one kind of food, they will likely exchange it for a different one, because they usually eat “ad libitum”, meaning until they are satisfied. So it is always about exchanging one
Nuclear Genetic Diversity in Human Lice (Pediculus humanus) Reveals Continental Differences and High Inbreeding among Worldwide Populations
Marina S. Ascunce, Melissa A. Toups, Gebreyes Kassu, Jackie Fane, Katlyn Scholl, David L. Reed
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057619
Abstract: Understanding the evolution of parasites is important to both basic and applied evolutionary biology. Knowledge of the genetic structure of parasite populations is critical for our ability to predict how an infection can spread through a host population and for the design of effective control methods. However, very little is known about the genetic structure of most human parasites, including the human louse (Pediculus humanus). This species is composed of two ecotypes: the head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer), and the clothing (body) louse (Pediculus humanus humanus Linnaeus). Hundreds of millions of head louse infestations affect children every year, and this number is on the rise, in part because of increased resistance to insecticides. Clothing lice affect mostly homeless and refugee-camp populations and although they are less prevalent than head lice, the medical consequences are more severe because they vector deadly bacterial pathogens. In this study we present the first assessment of the genetic structure of human louse populations by analyzing the nuclear genetic variation at 15 newly developed microsatellite loci in 93 human lice from 11 sites in four world regions. Both ecotypes showed heterozygote deficits relative to Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and high inbreeding values, an expected pattern given their parasitic life history. Bayesian clustering analyses assigned lice to four distinct genetic clusters that were geographically structured. The low levels of gene flow among louse populations suggested that the evolution of insecticide resistance in lice would most likely be affected by local selection pressures, underscoring the importance of tailoring control strategies to population-specific genetic makeup and evolutionary history. Our panel of microsatellite markers provides powerful data to investigate not only ecological and evolutionary processes in lice, but also those in their human hosts because of the long-term coevolutionary association between lice and humans.
Long term outcome and quality of life after pelvic exenteration for recurrent endometrial and cervical cancers  [PDF]
Charlotte Ng?, Christelle Abboud, Paul Meria, Virginie Fourchotte, Pascale Mariani, Bernard Baranger, Xavier Sastre, Caroline Malhaire, Anne-Cécile Philippe, Suzy Scholl, Anne de la Rochefordière, Séverine Alran
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.35A1005
Abstract:

Introduction: Pelvic exenteration can cure recurrent gynecological malignancies. However, treatment morbidity is over 50% in radiated pelves. We evaluated the outcome, the morbidity and the quality of life after exenteration. Methods: Patients who underwent an exenteration for recurrent cervical or endometrial cancer in our institution between 1999 and 2011 were retrieved. Survival rates were calculated according to Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the logrank test. The EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CX24 questionnaires were sent to patients alive in January 2012. Results: We identified 25 patients: 17 (68%) had cervical cancer and 8 (32%) endometrial cancer. 92% of them had received radiotherapy previously. All patients had a central pelvic recurrence, within a median time of 30 months [4 - 384] from initial treatment. Early complications requiring a re-laparotomy occurred in 9 patients (36%). Late complications included 2 (8%) fistulas, 2 (8%) occlusion and 1 (4%)

ureteral stenosis. Complete resection was obtained in 92% of patients. Disease Free and Overall survival rates were better in cervical rather than in endometrial cancer (median DFS in months 17 [2 - 145] vs 9.5 [3 - 21], p = 0.064, median OS in months 20 [2 - 145] vs 13 [4 - 42], p = 0.019). 69% of patients answered the quality of life questionnaires. Mean global quality of life score was 45 on a scale of 0 - 100, none of the patients had a sexual activity. Conclusions: Morbidity of exenteration remains high and quality of life is altered. Endometrial cancer is associated with a poorer prognosis. In those patients, exenteration should be put in balance with best supportive care.

Sustainable economic growth and exhaustible resources: A model and estimation for the US
Almuth Scholl,Willi Semmler
Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society , 2002, DOI: 10.1080/1026022021000000248
Abstract: This paper studies current models on sustainable economic growth with resource constraints and explores to what extent resource constraints can be overcome by substitution and technological change. We also study the problem of intergenerational equity and the different criteria that have been suggested in the literature. The central part of this paper is the presentation of stylized facts on exhaustible resources and an estimation of a basic model with resource constraints for US time series data. The estimated years left until depletion and the empirical trends of the ratios of capital stock and consumption to resources seem to indicate that there might be a threat to sustainable growth in the future. In our estimation, we obtain parameter values, which help to interpret the extent to which growth with exhaustible resources is sustainable.
A General Solution Framework for Component-Commonality Problems
Nils Boysen,Armnin Scholl
BuR : Business Research , 2009,
Abstract: Component commonality - the use of the same version of a component across multiple products - is being increasingly considered as a promising way to offer high external variety while retaining low internal variety in operations. However, increasing commonality has both positive and negative cost effects, so that optimization approaches are required to identify an optimal commonality level. As components influence to a greater or lesser extent nearly every process step along the supply chain, it is not surprising that a multitude of diverging commonality problems is being investigated in literature, each of which are developing a specific algorithm designed for the respective commonality problem being considered. The paper on hand aims at a general framework which is flexible and efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of commonality problems. Such a procedure based on a two-stage graph approach is presented and tested. Finally, flexibility of the procedure is shown by customizing the framework to account for different types of commonality problems.
On some l-adic representations of Gal(Qbar/Q) attached to noncongruence subgroups
A. J. Scholl
Mathematics , 2004, DOI: 10.1112/S002460930601856X
Abstract: The l-adic parabolic cohomology groups attached to noncongruence subgroups of SL_2(Z) are finite-dimensional representations of Gal(Qbar/F) for some number field F. We exhibit examples (with F=Q) giving rise to Galois representations whose images are open subgroups of the full group of symplectic similitudes (of arbitrary dimension). The determination of the image of the Galois group relies on Katz's classification theorem for reductive subalgebras of gl(N) containing a principal nilpotent element; the paper also contains a short conceptual proof of this theorem, suggested by I. Gronowski.
Integral elements of K-theory and products of modular curves II
A. J. Scholl
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We discuss the relationship between different notions of "integrality" in motivic cohomology/K-theory which arise in the Beilinson and Bloch-Kato conjectures, and prove their equivalence in some cases for products of curves (used in the authors' previous paper in this series), as well as obtaining a general result, first proved by Jannsen (unpublished), which reduces their equivalence to standard conjectures in arithmetic algebraic geometry.
Hypersurfaces and the Weil conjectures
A. J. Scholl
Mathematics , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/imrn/rnq098
Abstract: We give a proof that the Riemann hypothesis for hypersurfaces over finite fields implies the result for all smooth proper varieties, by a deformation argument which does not use the theory of Lefschetz pencils or the l-adic Fourier transform.
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