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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325685 matches for " S. Riley "
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Filling Length in Finitely Presentable Groups
S. Gersten,T. Riley
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: Filling length measures the length of the contracting closed loops in a null-homotopy. The filling length function of Gromov for a finitely presented group measures the filling length as a function of length of edge-loops in the Cayley 2-complex. We give a bound on the filling length function in terms of the log of an isoperimetric function multiplied by a (simultaneously realisable) isodiametric function.
Prevention of Sepsis in Children: A New Paradigm for Public Policy
Carley Riley,Derek S. Wheeler
Critical Care Research and Practice , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/437139
Abstract: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. While the management of critically ill patients with sepsis is certainly better now compared to 20 years ago, sepsis-associated mortality remains unacceptably high. Annual deaths from sepsis in both children and adults far surpass the number of deaths from acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, or cancer. Given the substantial toll that sepsis takes worldwide, prevention of sepsis remains a global priority. Multiple effective prevention strategies exist. Antibiotic prophylaxis, immunizations, and healthcare quality improvement initiatives are important means through which we may reduce the morbidity and mortality from sepsis around the world. Inclusion of these strategies in a coordinated and thoughtful campaign to reduce the global burden of sepsis is necessary for the improvement of pediatric health worldwide. 1. Introduction According to the National Center for Health Statistics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sepsis was the 10th leading cause of death in the United States overall in 2007 [1]. There are between 77 to 240 new cases of sepsis per 100,000 population each year [2, 3]. More importantly, several experts believe that the incidence of sepsis will continue to increase by approximately 1.5% every year, resulting in an additional 1 million cases per year by 2020 [2, 4, 5]. Several factors are believed to be responsible for this increase. The population is growing older, and patients are living longer, even in the face of diseases that were previously considered universally fatal. Hospitalized patients are becoming more dependent upon the use of invasive devices and technology, all of which are associated with increased risk of infection. In addition, the epidemiology of sepsis is changing as another consequence of the greater use of invasive devices and technology in hospitalized patients. Classically, these patients died from gram-negative sepsis. However, infections with gram-positive bacteria and Candida species are now becoming more prevalent. The number of cases of fungal sepsis, which is associated with markedly worse outcomes, has increased by more than 200 percent between 1979 and 2000 [2]. Clearly, fungal sepsis is becoming an increasingly important entity and deserves further attention. The story in children is fairly similar. There are between 20,000 and 42,000 cases of severe sepsis every year in the United States alone, half of which occur in children with underlying diseases like cancer and congenital heart disease [6, 7]. Again, similar to the
MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC SORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL SPECIMENS OF PINUS RADIATA - INFLUENCE OF WOOD TYPE AND MOISTURE CONTENT ON DIFFUSION RATE
Sargent,R; Riley,S; Sch?ttle,L;
Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-221X2010000200004
Abstract: sorption behaviour of radiata pine has been investigated by weighing small specimens continuously during isothermal step changes in relative humidity. the use of wood specimens shorter in the longitudinal direction than the average tracheid length of radiata pine ensures that all tracheids in a specimen are exposed, reducing the effect of wood structure on bound water transport. the small size also allows the specimens to be prepared from a single band of earlywood or latewood. using the dynamic sorption platform developed at scion, a number of sorption experiments were undertaken comparing dynamic sorption behaviour of individual bands of earlywood and latewood, which had been heat treated to mimic the chemical changes that occur during high temperature drying. diffusion coefficients and surface emission coefficients have been calculated from the sorption data, and are presented here. earlywood and latewood had different sorption behaviour, but no measurable changes in sorption behaviour were seen with the different heat treatments. diffusion coefficients were strongly dependent on moisture content.
MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC SORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF SMALL SPECIMENS OF PINUS RADIATA - INFLUENCE OF WOOD TYPE AND MOISTURE CONTENT ON DIFFUSION RATE
R Sargent,S Riley,L Sch?ttle
MADERAS : Ciencia y Tecnología , 2010,
Abstract: Sorption behaviour of radiata pine has been investigated by weighing small specimens continuously during isothermal step changes in relative humidity. The use of wood specimens shorter in the longitudinal direction than the average tracheid length of radiata pine ensures that all tracheids in a specimen are exposed, reducing the effect of wood structure on bound water transport. The small size also allows the specimens to be prepared from a single band of earlywood or latewood. Using the dynamic sorption platform developed at Scion, a number of sorption experiments were undertaken comparing dynamic sorption behaviour of individual bands of earlywood and latewood, which had been heat treated to mimic the chemical changes that occur during high temperature drying. Diffusion coefficients and surface emission coefficients have been calculated from the sorption data, and are presented here. Earlywood and latewood had different sorption behaviour, but no measurable changes in sorption behaviour were seen with the different heat treatments. Diffusion coefficients were strongly dependent on moisture content.
Toric Intraocular Lens Malposition Corrected by Lens Repositioning to Manifest Refractive Cylinder Axis in Patient with Irregular Astigmatism Due to Corneal Scar  [PDF]
Riley Sanders, Johnny Gayton
Open Journal of Ophthalmology (OJOph) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.52010
Abstract: A case is presented of a patient with an unexpected poor visual result and subsequent correction following cataract removal surgery via phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation using a toric intraocular lens implant (IOL). The initial operation resulted in an uncorrected vision of 20/100 (0.70 logMAR). Retrospective analysis of the patient’s corneal topography revealed irregular astigmatism secondary to remote trauma to the cornea. The cylinder axis on manifest refraction (MR) was significantly different from measured keratometry, so a second procedure was performed to align the cylinder axis of the IOL with the steep axis on MR. This repositioning procedure improved visual outcome to a final uncorrected vision of 20/25 (0.10 logMAR) and best corrected acuity of 20/20 (0.0 logMAR).
The Myth of the High-Efficiency External-Combustion Stirling Engine  [PDF]
Paul H. Riley
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.712068
Abstract: The reported discrepancy between theory and experiment for external combustion Stirling engines is explained by the addition of thermal resistance of the combustion gasses to the standard Carnot model. In these cases, the Stirling engine ideal efficiency is not as is normally reported equal to the Carnot cycle efficiency but is significantly lower. A new equation for ideal Stirling engine efficiency when the heat is obtained through external combustion without pre-heating the air, is presented and results for various fuels tabulated. The results show that petrol and diesel, internal combustion engines (Otto cycle) have a higher ideal efficiency than the Stirling engine. When comparing thermoacoustic engines heated by wood, efficiency should not be quoted as a percentage of the Carnot efficiency, but against a figure 48% lower than Carnot. The effect is not seen with electrically heated rigs, solar or nuclear fission heated engines.
A Spatial and Temporal Gradient of Fgf Differentially Regulates Distinct Stages of Neural Development in the Zebrafish Inner Ear
Shruti Vemaraju,Husniye Kantarci,Mahesh S. Padanad,Bruce B. Riley
PLOS Genetics , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003068
Abstract: Neuroblasts of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) initially form in the floor of the otic vesicle during a relatively brief developmental window. They soon delaminate and undergo a protracted phase of proliferation and migration (transit-amplification). Neuroblasts eventually differentiate and extend processes bi-directionally to synapse with hair cells in the inner ear and various targets in the hindbrain. Our studies in zebrafish have shown that Fgf signaling controls multiple phases of this complex developmental process. Moderate levels of Fgf in a gradient emanating from the nascent utricular macula specify SAG neuroblasts in laterally adjacent otic epithelium. At a later stage, differentiating SAG neurons express Fgf5, which serves two functions: First, as SAG neurons accumulate, increasing levels of Fgf exceed an upper threshold that terminates the initial phase of neuroblast specification. Second, elevated Fgf delays differentiation of transit-amplifying cells, balancing the rate of progenitor renewal with neuronal differentiation. Laser-ablation of mature SAG neurons abolishes feedback-inhibition and causes precocious neuronal differentiation. Similar effects are obtained by Fgf5-knockdown or global impairment of Fgf signaling, whereas Fgf misexpression has the opposite effect. Thus Fgf signaling renders SAG development self-regulating, ensuring steady production of an appropriate number of neurons as the larva grows.
The Tri-Trophic Interactions Hypothesis: Interactive Effects of Host Plant Quality, Diet Breadth and Natural Enemies on Herbivores
Kailen A. Mooney, Riley T. Pratt, Michael S. Singer
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034403
Abstract: Several influential hypotheses in plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions consider the interactive effects of plant quality, herbivore diet breadth, and predation on herbivore performance. Yet individually and collectively, these hypotheses fail to address the simultaneous influence of all three factors. Here we review existing hypotheses, and propose the tri-trophic interactions (TTI) hypothesis to consolidate and integrate their predictions. The TTI hypothesis predicts that dietary specialist herbivores (as compared to generalists) should escape predators and be competitively dominant due to faster growth rates, and that such differences should be greater on low quality (as compared to high quality) host plants. To provide a preliminary test of these predictions, we conducted an empirical study comparing the effects of plant (Baccharis salicifolia) quality and predators between a specialist (Uroleucon macolai) and a generalist (Aphis gossypii) aphid herbivore. Consistent with predictions, these three factors interactively determine herbivore performance in ways not addressed by existing hypotheses. Compared to the specialist, the generalist was less fecund, competitively inferior, and more sensitive to low plant quality. Correspondingly, predator effects were contingent upon plant quality only for the generalist. Contrary to predictions, predator effects were weaker for the generalist and on low-quality plants, likely due to density-dependent benefits provided to the generalist by mutualist ants. Because the TTI hypothesis predicts the superior performance of specialists, mutualist ants may be critical to A. gossypii persistence under competition from U. macolai. In summary, the integrative nature of the TTI hypothesis offers novel insight into the determinants of plant-herbivore and herbivore-predator interactions and the coexistence of specialist and generalist herbivores.
Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study
Harald J. Hamre,Anja Glockmann,Michael Fischer,David S. Riley
Drug Target Insights , 2007,
Abstract: Objective: Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections.Methods: A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged 1 month, treated by anthroposophic physicians for acute otitis and respiratory infections. Physicians’ prescription data and patient reports of adverse events were analyzed. Main outcome measures were use of AMED and ADR to AMED.Results: Two patients had confirmed ADR to AMED: 1) swelling and redness at the injection site after subcutaneous injections of Prunus spinosa 5%, 2) sleeplessness after intake of Pneumodoron 2 liquid. These ADR lasted one and two days respectively; both subsided after dose reduction; none were unexpected; none were serious. The frequency of confirmed ADR to AMED was 0.61% (2/327) of all different AMED used, 0.28% (2/715) of patients, and 0.004% (3/73,443) of applications.Conclusion: In this prospective study, anthroposophic medications used by primary care patients with acute respiratory or ear infections were well tolerated.Abbreviations: A-: anthroposophy; ADR: adverse drug reactions; AE: adverse events; AM: anthroposophic medicine; AMED: AM medication; C-: conventional; ENE-patients: eligible, not enrolled patients; IIPCOS: International Primary Care Outcomes Study
HALOS AND HORNS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL STUDENTS: A CONSISTENCY-BASED APPROACH
Margaret MACDOUGALL,Simon C. RILEY,Helen S. CAMERON,Brian MCKINSTRY
Journal of Applied Quantitative Methods , 2008,
Abstract: The authors introduce a consistency-based approach to detecting examiner bias. On comparing intra-class correlation coefficients on transformed data for supervisor continuous performance and report marks (ICC1*) with those for supervisor continuous performance and second marker report marks (ICC2*), a highly significant difference was obtained for both the entire cohort (ICC1* = .72, ICC2* = .30, F = 2.47, p < .0005 (N = 1085)) and the subgroup with high supervisor ratings for continuous performance (ICC1* = .62, ICC2* = .24, F = 1.97, p < .0005 (n = 952)). A strong halo effect was detected and preliminary evidence was obtained for the presence of a strong horn effect for students with lower scores, thus providing a basis for future research.
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