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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 327095 matches for " S. Prakash "
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Hot Corrosion Behaviour of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia as Plasma Sprayed Coated Boiler Steel in Air and Salt at 900°C under Cyclic Condition  [PDF]
Dinesh Gond, D. Puri, S. Prakash
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.105035
Abstract: Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia (YSZ) coatings were deposited on a T-22 boiler steel. NiCrAlY was used as bond coat and YSZ as top coat. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on uncoated as well as plasma spray coated specimens in air as well as salt (75 wt.% Na2SO4 + 25 wt.% NaCl) at 900°C under cyclic conditions. The thermogravimetric technique was used to establish kinetics of corrosion. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM/EDAX) techniques were used to analyse the corrosion products. This YSZ overlay coatings enhance resistance to corrosion significantly which can be attributed to formation of zirconium oxides (ZrO2) and yttrium oxide (Y2O3). This coating was more effective in salt environment and there is an extra phase of ZrS.
Characterization of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings on AISI 316L SS and Titanium Substrate and their Corrosion Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid  [PDF]
Manoj Mittal, S. K. Nath, Satya Prakash
Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering (JMMCE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmmce.2011.1011079
Abstract: In order to increase the bone bioactivity of metallic implants, hydroxyapatite (HA: Ca10(PO4)2(OH)6) is often coated on their surface so that real bond with surrounding bone tissue can be formed. In present study, HA coatings were deposited on AISI 316L SS and titanium using shrouded plasma spray process. The coated specimens were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM/EDAX). The polarization studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were conducted to evaluate the corrosion resistance of bare and coated specimens. It was found that the hydroxyapatite coating provided excellent corrosion resistance. The resistance to corrosion was found independent on substrates
LIPID PEROXIDATION AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN SOUTH INDIAN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
Prakash S,Sudha S
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: An imbalance between reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant scavenging has been implicated in type 2 diabetes. Reports indicate that several complications of diabetes mellitus are associated with increased activity of free radicals and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased oxidative stress in south Indian subjects. Fasting blood samples were obtained from 50 diabetic patients (26 male and 24 female) and 50 (26 male and 24 female) healthy control subjects. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced glutathione (GSH) and Vitamin C levels were measured and the results were compared with those of controls. MDA levels were found to be significantly higher, SOD and GSH activities were found to be significantly lower in type 2 diabetic patients when compared with controls (P<0.05). There was a decrease in vitamin C level was observed in patients (P<0.05). In this study lower lipid peroxidation is inversely proportional to the antioxidant levels in type 2 diabetics. Therefore, the future studies need to focus on gathering large sample sizes to clarify the relationship between antioxidant depletion and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Alpha and Beta amylase activity of Fagopyrum esculentum (Buckwheat): A Medicinal Plant
S Prakash,S Deshwal
Janaki Medical College Journal of Medical Science , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jmcjms.v1i1.7887
Abstract: Background and Objectives : Fagopyrum esculentum, common buckwheat popularly known as mithe fapar is one of the staple food crops of the mountain region. Traditionally, it is used to treat constipation and bowel upsets. It is also used by diabetic in different parts of Nepal and India. Due to its high nutritive and medicinal value, medical scientist and researchers are interested in developing this as pharmaceutical plant. In this regard department of biochemistry, College of Applied Education and Health Sciences, C.C.S. University, Meerut, India is working to analyse the biochemical composition and benefits of this plant. So, as a part of a multidimensional project of analyzing various components and their impact on health and diseases, here we are reporting the amylase activity during germination of seed in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) plant. Methodology: Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds were taken and germinated in dark at room temperature from 0 hours to 192 hours. Biochemical analysis for total amylase, alpha and beta amylase activities was measured by the standard method designed by Bernfeld (1955). Results: The seeds of buckwheat showed high level of amylolytic activity during different stages of germination. At 0 hours, negligible amylase activity was found. The first amylase activity was found at 24 hours and increases up to 96 hours. After 96 hours the total amylase activity starts decreasing and becomes almost negligible at 192 hours. Alpha and Beta –Amylase activity is reported separately. Conclusion: The amylases from the buckwheat showed different level of enzymatic activity during seed germination. Alpha amylase contributed a larger account to total amylase activity. The activity starts increasing and becomes maximum at 96 hours and starts decreasing and becomes lowest at 192 hours suggesting that alpha amylase plays a important role in starch metabolism in developing as well as geminating seeds which can be used for the drug discovery and treatment of several diseases like diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, constipation, bowel upsets, obesity and others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jmcjms.v1i1.7887 Janaki Medical College Journal of Medical Sciences (2013) Vol. 1 (1):53-58
Application of artificial intelligence in load frequency control of interconnected power system
S Prakash, SK Sinha
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents the use of artificial intelligence to study the load frequency control of interconnected power system. In the proposed scheme, a control methodology is developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) for interconnected hydro-thermal power system. The control strategies guarantees that the steady state error of frequencies and inadvertent interchange of tie-lines power are maintained in a given tolerance limitations. The performances of the controllers are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. A comparison of Fuzzy controller and ANN controller based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANN based approach over Fuzzy one for different loading conditions (1% and 2% step load variations). The simulation results also tabulated as a comparative performance in view of settling time and peak over shoot.
Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal reheat power system using artificial intelligence and PI controllers
S Prakash, SK Sinha
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: This paper present analysis on dynamic performance of Load Frequency Control (LFC) of three area interconnected hydrothermal reheat power system by the use of Artificial Intelligent and PI Controller. In the proposed scheme, control methodology developed using conventional PI controller, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic controller (FLC) for three area interconnected hydro-thermal reheat power system. In this paper area-1 and area-2 consists of thermal reheat power plant whereas area-3 consists of hydro power plant. In this proposed scheme, the combination of most complicated system like hydro plant and thermal plant with reheat turbine are interconnected which increases the nonlinearity of the system. The performances of the controllers are simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package. A comparison of PI controller, Fuzzy controller and ANN controller based approaches shows the superiority of proposed ANN based approach over Fuzzy and PI for same conditions. To enhance the performance of PI, Fuzzy and neural controller sliding surface is included. The simulation results also tabulated as a comparative performance in view of settling time and peak over shoot.
Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Aspergillus niger and its efficacy against mosquito larvae
Soni N, Prakash S
Reports in Parasitology , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RIP.S29033
Abstract: thesis of gold nanoparticles by the fungus Aspergillus niger and its efficacy against mosquito larvae Original Research (2021) Total Article Views Authors: Soni N, Prakash S Published Date June 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 1 - 7 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RIP.S29033 Received: 09 December 2011 Accepted: 09 February 2012 Published: 11 June 2012 Namita Soni, Soam Prakash Environmental and Advanced Parasitology and Vector Control Biotechnology Laboratories, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, India Background: The fungus Aspergillus niger has been selected for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The authors report the role of fungi in the synthesis of AuNPs. Additionally, the larvicidal efficacy of these AuNPs was tested using the larvae of three mosquito species: Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Methods: The AuNPs were characterized through microplate reader analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The larvicidal efficacy was tested against all larval stages of A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus, and A. aegypti and calculated by probit analysis at six different log concentrations at the time points of 24, 48, and 72 hours. Results: The AuNPs synthesized by A. niger were found to be more effective against the C. quinquefasciatus larvae than the A. stephensi and A. aegypti larvae. All larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus showed 100% mortality after 48 hours of exposure to the AuNPs synthesized by A. niger. Conclusion: The results suggest that the use of AuNPs synthesized by fungus can be a more rapid and environmentally friendly approach for mosquito control than current approaches. This could potentially lead to a new vector control strategy.
Time-dependent gene expression pattern of Listeria monocytogenes J0161 in biofilms
Tirumalai PS, Prakash S
Advances in Genomics and Genetics , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AGG.S26335
Abstract: ependent gene expression pattern of Listeria monocytogenes J0161 in biofilms Original Research (1898) Total Article Views Authors: Tirumalai PS, Prakash S Published Date January 2012 Volume 2012:2 Pages 1 - 18 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AGG.S26335 Received: 19 September 2011 Accepted: 06 December 2011 Published: 31 January 2012 Prem Saran Tirumalai, Soam Prakash Environmental and Advanced Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, India Background: Listeria monocytogenes J0161, a food-borne pathogen, forms biofilm on contact surfaces, which makes the bacterium highly resistant. Biofilm formation in vivo confers resistance to antimicrobial agents, and in vitro not only increases resistance but also increases the risk of transmission of the pathogen. Biofilm formation is a complex dynamic process. The mechanism of biofilm formation is not as yet well understood. Understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm formation will be of significance in removal of biofilms, thereby reducing the risk of transmission. Methods: L. monocytogenes cultures were grown to form biofilms on glass slides. At time intervals of 4, 12, and 24 hours, the cells were pelleted and the RNA extracted. The extracted RNA was analyzed using microarray technique and statistical tools. Results: The microarray data showed that gene expression was specifically upregulated at each time interval. About 159, 40, and 184 genes were upregulated at 4, 12, and 24 hours, respectively. An ascending and descending pattern of gene upregulation was identified. Conclusion: We report specific genes for biofilm growth of L. monocytogenes that were upregulated at particular time intervals. The role of specific genes in the formation of biofilms by L. monocytogenes J0161 can be studied using these data.
Lymphocyte Migration Inhibition Response in Trichuris Muris Infected and Vaccinated Mice
S Gaherwal,MM Prakash
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Immunological response of host and parasite play a key role in developing vaccina-tion and immunization. The present study deals with the immune response and effecter mechanism, which was confirmed by migration inhibition factor (MIF). Methods: The present work was conducted in Parasitological Lab of Postgraduate Department of Zool-ogy, Government Holkar Science College, Indore (M.P.) during 2006-2007. For MIF assay, lymphocytes were separated from heparinized blood of experimental and control mice. Aliquots of cell suspension were placed in four wells cut in a preparation of agarose in a Petri dish. Two wells were filled with soluble test antigen, while rest two wells were filled with medium (control wells). Petri dish was incubated overnight at 37 °C in a humidified environment at 5% CO2 in air. Cells migrated under the agarose in a circle were fixed and stained. Diameters of the migration areas were measured with ocular micrometer.Result: MIF reaction was maximum (44.2%) in the group IVEgESAg5 and minimum (10.8%) in the group IVASoAg1. The maximum MIF reaction was shown by eggs ES antigen and least by adult worm somatic antigen. The interesting observation was that migration inhibition increases as dose increased or we could say the reaction was dose dependentConclusion: Increased value of MIF response in vaccinated mice suggested the involvement of lymphocytes in cell-mediated immunity. This study also proves that excretory-secretory (ES) anti-gen of eggs from Trichuris muris was more effective in imparting immunity in mice.
Time-dependent gene expression pattern of Listeria monocytogenes J0161 in biofilms
Tirumalai PS,Prakash S
Advances in Genomics and Genetics , 2012,
Abstract: Prem Saran Tirumalai, Soam PrakashEnvironmental and Advanced Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, IndiaBackground: Listeria monocytogenes J0161, a food-borne pathogen, forms biofilm on contact surfaces, which makes the bacterium highly resistant. Biofilm formation in vivo confers resistance to antimicrobial agents, and in vitro not only increases resistance but also increases the risk of transmission of the pathogen. Biofilm formation is a complex dynamic process. The mechanism of biofilm formation is not as yet well understood. Understanding the molecular mechanism of biofilm formation will be of significance in removal of biofilms, thereby reducing the risk of transmission.Methods: L. monocytogenes cultures were grown to form biofilms on glass slides. At time intervals of 4, 12, and 24 hours, the cells were pelleted and the RNA extracted. The extracted RNA was analyzed using microarray technique and statistical tools.Results: The microarray data showed that gene expression was specifically upregulated at each time interval. About 159, 40, and 184 genes were upregulated at 4, 12, and 24 hours, respectively. An ascending and descending pattern of gene upregulation was identified.Conclusion: We report specific genes for biofilm growth of L. monocytogenes that were upregulated at particular time intervals. The role of specific genes in the formation of biofilms by L. monocytogenes J0161 can be studied using these data.Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, microarray, biofilms, gene expression
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