Abstract:
In this paper we define the semi*-border, semi*-frontier and semi*-exterior of a subset of a topological space and study some of their properties.

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to introduce and study g#p#-continuous maps. Basic characterizations and several properties concerning them are obtained. Further, g#p#-irresolute map is also defined. Some of the properties are investigated. 1991 AMS Classification: 54A05, 54D10. Keywords: g#- closed set, g#p#-closed set, g#p#-continuous maps and g#p#-irresolute maps.

Abstract:
We introduce the different notions of a new class of continuous functions called generalized semi Lambda (gs ) continuous function in topological spaces. Its properties and characterization are also discussed. 1. Introduction In 1986, Maki [1] continued the work of Levine and Dunham on generalized closed sets and closure operators by introducing the notion of -sets in topological spaces. A -set is a set which is equal to its kernel (= saturated set), that is, to the intersection of all open supersets of . Arenas et al. [2] introduced and investigated the notion of -closed sets and -open sets by involving -sets. In 2008？Caldas et al. [3] introduced generalized closed sets ( g, -g, g ) and their properties. They also studied the concept of closed maps. In 2007, Caldas et al. [4] introduced the concept of irresolute maps. In this paper, we establish a new class of maps called gs continuous function and study its properties and characteristics. Throughout this paper, ( ), ( ), and ( ) (or simply , and will always denote topological spaces on which no separation axioms are assumed unless explicitly stated. , , , , gs , and gs denote the interior of , closure of , lambda interior of , lambda closure of , gs Lambda closure of and gs Lambda interior of , respectively. 2. Preliminary Definitions Definition 1. A subset of a space ( ) is called (1)a semiopen set [5] if , (2)a preopen set [6] if ,(3)a regular open set [6] if . The complement sets of semi open (resp., preopen and regular open) are called semi closed sets (resp., preclosed and regular closed). The semiclosure (resp., preclosure) of a subset of denoted by sCl( ), (pCl( )) is the intersection of all semi closed sets (pre closed sets) containing . A topological space ( ) is said to be (1)a generalized closed [7] if Cl( ) , whenever and is open in ( ),(2)a closed [8] if Cl( ) , whenever and is g-open in ( , ), (3)semigeneralized closed (denoted by sg-closed) [9] if sCl( , whenever and is semi open in ( ), (4)generalized semiclosed (denoted by gs-closed) [9] if sCl( , whenever and is open in ( ), (5)a subset of a space ( ) is called -closed [2] if , where is a -set and is a closed set, (6)a subset of ( ) is said to be a g closed set [3] if Cl( whenever , where is open in ( ), (7)a subset of ( ) is said to be a -g closed set [3] if whenever , where is open in ( ), (8)a subset of ( ) is said to be a g closed set [3] if whenever , where is open in ( ), (9)a subset of ( ) is said to be a gs closed set [10] if whenever , where is semi open in . The complement of the above closed sets are called its respective

The present study was taken up with a view to ascertain the possibility
of introduction of alcohol resistant bacteria in vitro through the
aseptically raised watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings in the backdrop of isolating such
organisms from micropropagated watermelon stocks. Watermelon cv. Arka
Manik seedlings grown in vitro from
surface-sterilized seeds with the intact seed coat on MS medium appeared
visibly clean largely, but upon subjecting them to tissue-indexing, the
segments from the collar or root tissue showed bacterial colony growth on Nutrient
Agar (NA) from 72% of such healthy seedlings and the cotyledon and hypocotyl
tissue of 44% seedlings. The pooled colony growth from NA upon challenge with
90% alcohol yielded 10 distinct colony types, identified as B. pumilus (4×), B. subtilis (4×), B. cereus (1×) or B. safensis (1×) based on
partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The shoot-tip tissue from the healthy
index-negative seedlings cultured on watermelon proliferation medium partly
turned index-positive within 2 - 4 sub-culture cycles while being apparently
clean. On the other hand, those from the previously index-positive cultures
tended to show obvious bacterial growth during subsequent in vitro culturing. The observations
suggested the possibility of introduction of spore-forming

The study was undertaken to assess whether seedling age played any role in governing the vulnerability of tomato to the bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, based on the preliminary observations that the extent of mortality during seedling-stage screening was relatively less in older seedlings. Employing the virulent strain ‘NH-Av01’ isolated from tomato, 2-, 3-, 4- or 5-week-old seedlings of susceptible ‘Arka Vikas’ raised in organic cocopeat in 98 cavity protrays were inoculated with the pathogen through root-injury inoculation approach. Disease symptoms appeared earlier and with more severity in 2-week-old seedlings followed by 3-, 4- and 5-week-old saplings recording 74%, 68%, 63% and 49% mortality, respectively, after four weeks of inoculation suggesting that older the seedlings, less the susceptibility to the pathogen. The growth characteristics of seedlings (shoot height, shoot and root weights) showed a significant increase with seedling age (0.21, 0.54, 1.14 and 2.09 g gross weight/seedling at 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks, respectively) indicating healthier saplings with delay in inoculation time. In subsequent trials, seedlings of 3, 4, 5 or 6 weeks were transplanted to field-sick soil in protrays or in pots with monitoring for 1 - 4 months which indicated a significant reduction in disease incidence and severity with increase in seedling age. The observations suggested that seedling age should be considered as a major factor influencing the susceptibility of tomato seedlings to R. solanacearum with the chances of variations in the extent of disease incidence or inconsistent results during seedling-stage screening and the possibility of escapes with older seedlings. Two-week seedlings formed the best when the aim is to induce maximum disease incidence, while transplanting at 5 - 6 weeks stage appeared the best when the objective is minimal disease incidence or formulating disease management strategies.

The study was taken up with the
objective of testing whether the endophytic organisms isolated from crops that
are normally non-hosts to the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum possessed pathogen-antagonistic activity and
to evaluate the selected isolates for the alleviation of wilt disease in the
target tomato crop through horizontal movement of promising organisms. Sixteen
endophytic bacteria (EB) isolated from the micropropagated cultures of grape,
watermelon and papaya were tested for potential antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum tomato isolate “NH-01”
through agar-well diffusion assay. Enterobacter
cloacae from papaya (EB-11) displayed the maximum antagonistic effect
followed by Bacillus subtilis (EB-06)
and B. flexus (EB-07) from watermelon
and B. pumilus (EB-02) from grape.
Testing the above organisms for crop protection through seed fortification of
susceptible tomato cv. Arka Vikas at sowing in R. solanacearum inoculated (Ral+)organic cocopeat showed EB-02 and EB-11
promising (33% and 32% survival, respectively, four weeks after sowing against
15% in Ral+ control). A second trial
showed 37%, 28%, 21% and 55% seedling survival 6 weeks after sowing for EB-02,
EB-06, EB-07 and EB-11 respectively, compared to 2.5% in non-treated control.
Assessing the four endophytes for crop protection in

Abstract:
Endophytic bacteria colonizing the shoot-tips of banana cv. Grand Naine were isolated and tested for the antagonistic activity against the Panama wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc). Pre-isolation, the suckers were given extensive disinfection treatments and the homogenate from the excised shoot-tip portion was plated on nutrient agar (NA) and trypticase soy agar (TSA). This yielded altogether 47 isolates: 26 on NA and 21 on TSA, respectively, from the 10 suckers collected during August to February. The number of bacterial isolates obtained per sucker varied from one to 15 based on colony characteristics registering up to 10 distinct species per shoot-tip based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The 47 isolates belonged to 19 genera and 25 species under the phylogenetic classes of Actinobacteria, α- and γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Actinobacteria constituted the predominant phylum (55% isolates) with the constituent genera of Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, Curtobacterium, Kocuria, Kytococcus, Micrococcus, Naumanella, Rothia and Tessaracoccus spp. and an unidentified isolate belonging to the family Frankiaceae. Proteobacteria constituted the second major phylum (Brevundimonas, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia and Sphingomonas spp.) followed by Firmicutes (Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp.). Antagonistic activity of the endophytes against Foc was tested through agar plate assays (pit and spot applications on fungal lawn) employing potato dextrose agar and NA. Endophytic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (isolate GNS.13.2a) which was associated with a single sucker showed significant growth