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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 471008 matches for " S. P. Taylor "
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What Is Innovation? A Study of the Definitions, Academic Models and Applicability of Innovation to an Example of Social Housing in England  [PDF]
S. P. Taylor
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.511010
Abstract:
Throughout history innovation has been conceived, defined, interpreted and understood in different ways but what is it? This study looks at innovation starting with a brief history of innovation. It then looks at a sample of the multiple definitions that there are of innovation throughout the literature and from these develops a composite definition. From this composite definition, key components such as the creative process and academic models of creativity are looked at. The research then looks at the applicability of innovation through highlighting two studies carried out in England of innovation being applied within a social housing organisation. Through the application by a two dimensional typology of social innovation they had identified innovation being applied to new services and improvements to existing services. The research concludes that innovation can be identified with the creation of a new product or service or an improvement of an existing product or service.
Effect of Carboxyamidotriazole Orotate, a Modulator of Calcium-Dependent Signaling Pathways, on Advanced Solid Tumors  [PDF]
Matthew H. Taylor, Alan Sandler, Walter J. Urba, Antonio M. P. Omuro, Greg S. Gorman, Rashida A. Karmali
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.64035
Abstract:

Pre-clinical studies suggest carboxyamidotriazole orotate (CTO) demonstrates anti-tumor activity through modulation of multiple tyrosine kinase signaling pathways and interactions with the tumor microenvironment. We determined the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetic profile, maximum tolerated dose, and recommended Phase II dose of CTO monotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors. In this first-in-human Phase I clinical trial, eligible patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled to receive a once-daily dose of CTO following a standard 3 + 3 Phase I design (starting at 50 mg/m2/day) with dose escalations of 30% - 100%. Dose limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined in the first cycle of treatment. Measurable disease and response were defined by RECIST version 1.1. Forty-four patients were evaluable for safety. CTO-related grade 3 toxicities included diarrhea (2.5%), fatigue (5.0%), lymphopenia (2.5%) and transient creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (2.5%). There were no grade 4 or 5 toxicities. Steady state plasma levels of CAI (CTO metabolite) were achieved by day 12 with a half life estimate of 55 hr. Although no objective response rates were observed, nine patients with rapidly progressive and treatment-refractory tumors achieved stable disease (SD) durable for up to 14 months. The maximum tolerated dose for CTO alone was 427 mg/m2/day. The dose-limiting toxicity was grade 3 fatigue. CTO is orally bioavailable, safe, well tolerated and produces disease stabilization in a broad range of heavily treated refractory tumors. Combination trials of CTO with other antineoplastic agents are ongoing.

A Generalized Allosteric Mechanism for cis-Regulated Cyclic Nucleotide Binding Domains
Alexandr P. Kornev,Susan S. Taylor ,Lynn F. Ten Eyck
PLOS Computational Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000056
Abstract: Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) regulate multiple intracellular processes and are thus of a great general interest for molecular and structural biologists. To study the allosteric mechanism of different cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains, we compared cAMP-bound and cAMP-free structures (PKA, Epac, and two ionic channels) using a new bioinformatics method: local spatial pattern alignment. Our analysis highlights four major conserved structural motifs: 1) the phosphate binding cassette (PBC), which binds the cAMP ribose-phosphate, 2) the “hinge,” a flexible helix, which contacts the PBC, 3) the β2,3 loop, which provides precise positioning of an invariant arginine from the PBC, and 4) a conserved structural element consisting of an N-terminal helix, an eight residue loop and the A-helix (N3A-motif). The PBC and the hinge were included in the previously reported allosteric model, whereas the definition of the β2,3 loop and the N3A-motif as conserved elements is novel. The N3A-motif is found in all cis-regulated CNB domains, and we present a model for an allosteric mechanism in these domains. Catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) represents a trans-regulated CNB domain family: it does not contain the N3A-motif, and its long range allosteric interactions are substantially different from the cis-regulated CNB domains.
Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene and Oxidized Dibenzothiophene Ring Systems
Diego P. Morales,Alexander S. Taylor,Steven C. Farmer
Molecules , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/molecules15031265
Abstract: Lithium, used in conjunction with sodium metal, produces a high yield of biphenyl when reacted with dibenzothiophene, dibenzothiophene sulfoxide or dibenzothiophene sulfone.
Dielectric Relaxation of La-Doped Zirconia Caused by Annealing Ambient
Zhao C,Werner M,Taylor S,Chalker P
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2011,
Abstract: La-doped zirconia films, deposited by ALD at 300°C, were found to be amorphous with dielectric constants (k-values) up to 19. A tetragonal or cubic phase was induced by post-deposition annealing (PDA) at 900°C in both nitrogen and air. Higher k-values (~32) were measured following PDA in air, but not after PDA in nitrogen. However, a significant dielectric relaxation was observed in the air-annealed film, and this is attributed to the formation of nano-crystallites. The relaxation behavior was modeled using the Curie–von Schweidler (CS) and Havriliak–Negami (HN) relationships. The k-value of the as-deposited films clearly shows a mixed CS and HN dependence on frequency. The CS dependence vanished after annealing in air, while the HN dependence disappeared after annealing in nitrogen.
Seasonal variations between sampling and classical mean turbulent heat flux estimates in the eastern North Atlantic
S. A. Josey,E. C. Kent,P. K. Taylor
Annales Geophysicae (ANGEO) , 2003,
Abstract: The two commonly used statistical measures of the air-sea heat flux, the sampling and classical means, have been compared using hourly reports over a 7-year-period from a weather ship stationed in the NE Atlantic. The sampling mean is the average over all flux estimates in a given period, where individual flux estimates are determined from ship reports of meteorological variables using the well-known bulk formulae. The classical mean is the flux derived by substituting period-averaged values for each of the meteorological variables into the bulk formula (where the averaging period employed is the same as that over which the fluxes are to be determined). Monthly sampling and classical means are calculated for the latent and sensible heat fluxes. The monthly classical mean latent heat flux is found to overestimate the sampling mean by an amount which increases from 1–2 W m–2 in summer to 7 W m–2 in winter, on average, over the 7-year-period. In a given winter month, the excess may be as great as 15 W m–2, which represents about 10% of the latent heat flux. For the sensible heat flux, any seasonal variation between the two means is of the order of 1 W m–2 and is not significant compared to the interannual variation. The discrepancy between the two means for the latent heat flux is shown to arise primarily from a negative correlation between the wind speed and sea-air humidity difference, the effects of which are implicitly included in the sampling method but not in the classical. The influence of the dominant weather conditions on the sign and magnitude of this correlation are explored, and the large negative values that it takes in winter are found to depend on the typical track of the mid-latitude depressions with respect to the position sampled. In conclusion, it is suggested that sampling means should be employed where possible in future climatological studies.
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) as a protective factor for risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
R. P. Bowler,J. Hokanson,M. Taylor,S. Levy
European Respiratory Review , 2006,
Abstract: Tobacco smoke contains a high concentration of oxidants and is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is the major antioxidant enzyme in the extracellular space of the lung and is part of the lung defense against these oxidants. We hypothesized that EC-SOD is a risk factor for COPD. We found that EC-SOD plasma levels were significantly higher (p<0.001) in 337 patients with COPD (147±7 ng·ml–1) versus 343 controls (96±9 ng·ml–1) and that lower FEV1s were associated with lower EC-SOD levels. To identify whether the EC-SOD gene was associated with COPD, we resequenced a subset of 188 subjects and identified 33 novel SNPs. Two of these SNPs (rs8192287 and rs8192288) were associated with a reduced odds of having COPD (OR 0.05 and 0.34; P<0.05). Haplotype analysis using a total of 5 EC-SOD SNPs (Table 1) further identified a protective haplotype (TTCGC) that was found in 11.4% of controls, but only 2.1% of subjects with COPD (P<0.001). These data indicate that EC-SOD genotype may partially predict whether smokers are resistant to the effects smoking.
Migration of Interplanetary Dust
S. I. Ipatov,J. C. Mather,P. A. Taylor
Physics , 2003, DOI: 10.1196/annals.1311.005
Abstract: We numerically investigate the migration of dust particles with initial orbits close to those of the numbered asteroids, observed trans-Neptunian objects, and Comet Encke. The fraction of silicate asteroidal particles that collided with the Earth during their lifetime varied from 1.1% for 100 micron particles to 0.008% for 1 micron particles. Almost all asteroidal particles with diameter d>4 microns collided with the Sun. The peaks in the migrating asteroidal dust particles' semi-major axis distribution at the n:(n+1) resonances with Earth and Venus and the gaps associated with the 1:1 resonances with these planets are more pronounced for larger particles. The probability of collisions of cometary particles with the Earth is smaller than for asteroidal particles, and this difference is greater for larger particles.
Atmospheric Response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP (Japan) Accident Reviled by Satellite and Ground observations
D. Ouzounov,S. Pulinets,K. Hattori,M. Kafatos,P. Taylor
Physics , 2011,
Abstract: Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the Outgoing Long-wavelength Radiation (OLR, 10-13 microns) from NOAA/AVHRR. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation (14 W/m2) at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of OLR started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We hypothesize that this increase in OLR was a result of the radioactive leaks released in atmosphere from the FDNPP. This energy triggers ionization of the air near the ground and lead to release of latent heat energy due to change of air humidity and temperature. Our early results demonstrate the potential of the latest development in atmospheric sciences and space-borne observations for monitoring nuclear accidents.
Semiclassical Quantization by Pade Approximant to Periodic Orbit Sums
J. Main,P. A. Dando,Dz. Belkic,H. S. Taylor
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1209/epl/i1999-00473-7
Abstract: Periodic orbit quantization requires an analytic continuation of non-convergent semiclassical trace formulae. We propose a method for semiclassical quantization based upon the Pade approximant to the periodic orbit sums. The Pade approximant allows the re-summation of the typically exponentially divergent periodic orbit terms. The technique does not depend on the existence of a symbolic dynamics and can be applied to both bound and open systems. Numerical results are presented for two different systems with chaotic and regular classical dynamics, viz. the three-disk scattering system and the circle billiard.
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