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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325300 matches for " S. Nemolato "
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Deparaffination time: a crucial point in histochemical detection of tissue copper
S Nemolato,S Serra,S Saccani,G Faa
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/1209
Abstract: The search for a sensitive histochemical method for revealing tissue copper has been the object of many workers in the past. In spite of multiple methods available, the occurrence in clinical practice of negative histochemical stains, even in cases with high copper levels demonstrated by quantitative methods is very high. This study was aimed at verifying the role of technical variations in the sensitivity of the Timm method and, in particular, the role of the dewaxing time of paraffin sections. To this end, 15 liver specimens, 10 from patients affected by Wilson’s disease and 5 newborn livers were fixed in 10% formalin, paraffin embedded and routinaly processed. Four 4-micron sections from each case were rinsed in xylene for 10, 20, 60 min, and for 24 hrs. All sections were stained with Timm’s method. In 13 out of the 15 liver biopsies utilized in this study, the sensitivity of Timm’s method in revealing copper deposits in liver cells appeared to be dependent on the dewaxing time. In two other cases, reactivity of copper granules to Timm solution did not change significantly with the different deparaffination times. The best results were obtained by rinsing sections in xylene for 24 hrs, the worst in sections treated with xylen for 10 minutes. In particular, in five cases of Wilson’s disease, Timm stain applied to sections following ten minutes of xylene were completely negative, while copper granules were clearly evidenced in the same section following an overnight bath in xylene. Our data show that an overnight bath of paraffin sections in xylene may completely change the sensitivity of Timm stain in revealing copper deposits in the liver, relaunching copper histochemistry in the diagnosis of copper-related liver diseases.
The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the minor salivary gland: a case report
G Lai,S Nemolato,S Lecca,G Parodo
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2008, DOI: 10.4081/1224
Abstract: A case of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) of the minor salivary glands of the oral cavity is reported. A 52- year-old woman presented with a growing mass at the base of the tongue. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumour. The histological picture was characterized by trabeculae or solid nests of proliferating cells with a clear cytoplasm, surrounded by a hyalinizing stroma. Tumour cells were immunoreactive for Cytokeratins 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 17 and 18. No reactivity was observed for cytokeratin 20, vimentin, S- 100 protein, smooth-muscle actin, muscle-specific actin, and calponin. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of HCCC of minor salivary glands of the oral cavity. The clinical presentation, the immunohistochemical pattern and the role of cytokeratins in the differential diagnosis of HCCC are discussed with a review of the literature.
Immunoreactivity of thymosin beta 4 in human foetal and adult genitourinary tract
S. Nemolato,T. Cabras,M.U. Fanari,F. Cau
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2010.e43
Abstract: Thymosins beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of the beta-thymosins family, a family of peptides playing essential roles in many cellular functions. Our recent studies suggested Tβ4 plays a key role in the development of human salivary glands and the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to analyse the presence of Tβ4 in the human adult and foetal genitourinary tract. Immunolocalization of Tβ4 was studied in autoptic samples of kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, testicle and prostate obtained from four human foetuses and four adults. Presence of the peptide was observed in cells of different origin: in surface epithelium, in gland epithelial cells and in the interstitial cells. Tβ4 was mainly found in adult and foetal bladder in the transitional epithelial cells; in the adult endometrium, glands and stromal cells were immunoreactive for the peptide; Tβ4 was mainly localized in the glands of foetal prostate while, in the adults a weak Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to the stroma. In adult and foetal kidney, Tβ4 reactivity was restricted to ducts and tubules with completely spared glomeruli; a weak positivity was observed in adult and foetal oocytes; immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the interstitial cells of foetal and adult testis. In this study, we confirm that Tβ4 could play a relevant role during human development, even in the genitourinary tract, and reveal that immunoreactivity for this peptide may change during postnatal and adult life.
Expression pattern of thymosin beta 4 in the adult human liver
S. Nemolato,P. Van Eyken,T. Cabras,F. Cau
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2011.e25
Abstract: Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of small peptides involved in polymerization of G-actin, and in many critical biological processes including apoptosis, cell migration, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. Previous studies in the newborn liver did not reveal any significant reactivity for Tβ4 during the intrauterine life. The aim of the present study was to investigate by immunohistochemistry Tβ4 expression in the adult normal liver. Thirty-five human liver samples, including 11 needle liver biopsies and 24 liver specimens obtained at autopsy, in which no pathological change was detected at the histological examination, were immunostained utilizing an anti-Tβ4 commercial antibody. Tβ4 was detected in the hepatocytes of all adult normal livers examined. A zonation of Tβ4 expression was evident in the vast majority of cases. Immunostaining was preferentially detected in zone 3, while a minor degree of reactivity was detected in periportal hepatocytes (zone 1). At higher power, Tβ4-reactive granules appeared mainly localized at the biliary pole of hepatocytes. In cases with a strong immunostaining, even perinuclear areas and the sinusoidal pole of hepatocytes appeared interested by immunoreactivity for Tβ4. The current work first evidences a strong diffuse expression of Tβ4 in the adult human liver, and adds hepatocytes to the list of human cells able to synthesize large amounts of Tβ4 in adulthood. Moreover, Tβ4 should be added to the liver proteins characterized by a zonate expression pattern, in a descending gradient from the terminal vein to the periportal areas of the liver acinus. Identifying the intimate role played by this peptide intracellularly and extracellularly, in physiology and in different liver diseases, is a major challenge for future research focusing on Tβ4.
Thymosin beta 4 expression in normal skin, colon mucosa and in tumor infiltrating mast cells
S. Nemolato,T. Cabras,M.U. Fanari,F. Cau
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2010, DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2010.e3
Abstract: Mast cells (MCs) are metachromatic cells that originate from multipotential hemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Two distinct populations of MCs have been characterized: mucosal MCs are tryptase-positive while mast cells in skin contain tryptase and chymase. We now show that a sub-population of MCs is highly immunoreactive for thymosin β4, as revealed by immunohistochemical analyses of normal skin, normal colon mucosa and salivary gland tumors. Four consecutive serial sections from each case were immunostained for thymosin β4 (Tβ4), chymase, tryptase and stained for toluidine blue. In skin biopsies, MCs showed a comparable immunoreactivity for Tβ4, chymase and tryptase. In normal colon mucosa the vast majority of mucosal MCs expressed a strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for tryptase and for Tβ4, in the absence of chymase reactivity. A robust expression of Tβ4 was detected in tumor-infiltrating and peritumoral mast cells in salivary gland tumors and breast ductal infiltrating carcinomas. Tumor-infiltrating MCs also showed a strong immunoreactivity for chymase and tryptase. In this paper, we first demonstrate that normal dermal and mucosal mast cells exhibit strong expression of thymosin β4, which could be considered a new marker for the identification of mast cells in skin biopsies as well as in human tumors. The possible relationship between the degree of Tβ4 expression in tumor-infiltrating mast cells and tumor behaviour warrants further consideration in future investigations.
Cytokeratin 20-positive hepatocellular carcinoma
D. Fanni,S. Nemolato,R. Ganga,G. Senes
European Journal of Histochemistry , 2009, DOI: 10.4081/ejh.2009.e32
Abstract: The differential diagnosis between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cholangiocarcinoma (CC) and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma (MCA) may be difficult when only based on morphology. For this purpose immunohistochemical analyses are often required, utilizing antibodies directed against CK8- 18, Hep-Par1, glypican 3, CK7, CK19, CK20. Here we report a case of a 65-year-old man who presented with a clinical picture of decompensated cirrhosis. Ultrasonography revealed two nodular areas in the right liver lobe. Liver needle biopsy revealed micro-macronodular cirrhosis associated with HCC with trabecular and pseudoglandular patterns. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were diffusely positive for CK8- 18 and also diffusely immunostained by glypican 3 and Hep- Par1. Interestingly, a diffuse and strong staining for CK20 was detected in the vast majority of tumor cells, particularly in the areas showing a pseudo-glandular pattern. No immunostaining for CK7 and CK19 was found in the tumor cells. The tumor behaved aggressively, with a rapid diffusion to the whole liver. The patient died from the disease few months after presentation. These findings underline that the interpretation of the expression of CK20 alone in the differential diagnosis among HCC, CC and MCA should be done with caution because a diffuse immunoreactivity for CK20 alone may not rule out the diagnosis of HCC.
Lymphoepithelioma-like hepatocellular carcinoma: A case report and a review of the literature
Sonia Nemolato, Daniela Fanni, Antonio Giuseppe Naccarato, Alberto Ravarino, Generoso Bevilacqua, Gavino Faa
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Lymphoepithelioma is a particular form of undifferentiated carcinoma, characterized by a prominent lymphoid stroma, originally described in the nasopharynx. Lymphoid stroma-rich carcinomas arising in other organs have been termed lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC). In the liver, primary LELCs are very rare, and the majority has been identified as cholangiocarcinomas. Here a rare case of lymphoepithelioma-like hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is described. A 47-year old woman presented with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography revealed a liver nodule, 2.2 cm in diameter, localized in the right lobe, adjacent to the gallbladder. Viral markers for hepatic B virus (HBV), hepatic C virus (HCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were negative. The nodule was hypoechogenic. The patient underwent surgery, with resection of the nodule. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma, characterized by a prominent lymphoid infiltrate. At immunocytochemistry, tumor cells were reactive for Hep Par1 and glypican 3. Immunophenotyping of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes evidenced the predominance of CD8+ cytotoxic suppressor T cells. The postoperative clinical outcome was favorable and the patient was recurrence-free 15 mo after resection. This case, to the best of our knowledge, is the first reported non EBV and non cirrhosis-associated lymphoepithelioma-like hepatocellular carcinoma. The association between the lack of EBV infection, the absence of cirrhosis, a “cytotoxic profile” of the inflammatory infiltrate and a good prognosis could identify a variant of lymphoepithelioma-like HCC with a favorable clinical outcome.
Different Thymosin Beta 4 Immunoreactivity in Foetal and Adult Gastrointestinal Tract
Sonia Nemolato,Tiziana Cabras,Flaviana Cau,Mattia Umberto Fanari,Daniela Fanni,Barbara Manconi,Irene Messana,Massimo Castagnola,Gavino Faa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009111
Abstract: Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) is a member of beta-thymosins, a family of peptides that play essential roles in many cellular functions. A recent study from our group suggested a role for Tβ4 in the development of human salivary glands. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Tβ4 in the human gut during development, and in the adult.
Cellular Trafficking of Thymosin Beta-4 in HEPG2 Cells Following Serum Starvation
Giuseppina Pichiri, Pierpaolo Coni, Sonia Nemolato, Tiziana Cabras, Mattia Umberto Fanari, Alice Sanna, Eliana Di Felice, Irene Messana, Massimo Castagnola, Gavino Faa
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067999
Abstract: Thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is an ubiquitous multi-functional regenerative peptide, related to many critical biological processes, with a dynamic and flexible conformation which may influence its functions and its subcellular distribution. For these reasons, the intracellular localization and trafficking of Tβ4 is still not completely defined and is still under investigation in in vivo as well as in vitro studies. In the current study we used HepG2 cells, a human hepatoma cell line; cells growing in normal conditions with fetal bovine serum expressed high levels of Tβ4, restricted to the cytoplasm until 72 h. At 84 h, a diffuse Tβ4 cytoplasmic immunostaining shifted to a focal perinuclear and nuclear reactivity. In the absence of serum, nuclear reactivity was localized in small granules, evenly dispersed throughout the entire nuclear envelop, and was observed as earlier as at 48 h. Cytoplasmic immunostaining for Tβ4 in HepG2 cells under starvation appeared significantly lower at 48 h and decreased progressively at 72 and at 84 h. At these time points, the decrease in cytoplasmic staining was associated with a progressive increase in nuclear reactivity, suggesting a possible translocation of the peptide from the cytoplasm to the nuclear membrane. The normal immunocytochemical pattern was restored when culture cells submitted to starvation for 84 h received a new complete medium for 48 h. Mass spectrometry analysis, performed on the nuclear and cytosolic fractions of HepG2 growing with and without serum, showed that Tβ4 was detectable only in the cytosolic and not in the intranuclear fraction. These data suggest that Tβ4 is able to translocate from different cytoplasmic domains to the nuclear membrane and back, based on different stress conditions within the cell. The punctuate pattern of nuclear Tβ4 immunostaining associated with Tβ4 absence in the nucleoplasm suggest that this peptide might be localized in the nuclear pores, where it could regulate the pore permeability.
Thymosin β4 and β10 Levels in Pre-Term Newborn Oral Cavity and Foetal Salivary Glands Evidence a Switch of Secretion during Foetal Development
Sonia Nemolato, Irene Messana, Tiziana Cabras, Barbara Manconi, Rosanna Inzitari, Chiara Fanali, Giovanni Vento, Chiara Tirone, Costantino Romagnoli, Alessandro Riva, Daniela Fanni, Eliana Di Felice, Gavino Faa, Massimo Castagnola
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005109
Abstract: Background Thymosin β4, its sulfoxide, and thymosin β10 were detected in whole saliva of human pre-term newborns by reversed-phase high performance chromatography coupled to electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. Methodology/Principal Findings Despite high inter-individual variability, concentration of β-thymosins increases with an inversely proportional trend to postmenstrual age (PMA: gestational age plus chronological age after birth) reaching a value more than twenty times higher than in adult whole saliva at 190 days (27 weeks) of PMA (thymosin β4 concentration: more than 2.0 μmol/L versus 0.1 μmol/L). On the other hand, the ratio between thymosin β4 and thymosin β10 exhibits a constant value of about 4 along all the range of PMA (190–550 days of PMA) examined. In order to investigate thymosin β4 origin and to better establish the trend of its production as a function of gestational age (GA), immunohistochemical analysis of major and minor salivary glands of different pre-term fetuses were carried out, starting from 84 days (12 weeks) of gestational age. Reactive granules were seen in all glands with a maximum of expression around 140–150 days of GA, even though with high inter- and intra-individual variability. In infants and adults reactive granules in acinar cells were not observed, but just a diffuse cytoplasmatic staining in ductal cells. Significance This study outlines for the first time that salivary glands during foetal life express and secrete peptides such as β-thymosins probably involved in the development of the oral cavity and its annexes. The secretion increases from about 12 weeks till to about 21 weeks of GA, subsequently it decreases, almost disappearing in the period of expected date of delivery, when the gland switches towards the secretion of adult specific salivary peptides. The switch observed may be an example of further secretion switches involving other exocrine and endocrine glands during foetal development.
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